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A social movement only promotes social change, it never arises to prevent change. a. True b. False

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A social movement only promotes social change, it never arises to prevent change. a. True b. False

Find an answer to your question ✅ “A social movement only promotes social change, it never arises to prevent change. a. True b. False …” in 📘 Social Studies if you’re in doubt about the correctness of the answers or there’s no answer, then try to use the smart search and find answers to the similar questions.

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100 Motivational and Inspirational Quotes - Life and Success

100 Motivational and Inspirational Quotes – Life and Success – When they arise, setbacks can seem almost hostile in nature. It can be hard enough to organize our thoughts on a normal day and even harder to find So go ahead, let these inspirational quotes fill you with purpose and energy. Go beyond the limit you set for yourself and change the world if you have to.Redemptive social movements are usually religious in nature and only have a limited focus. It aims to radically change an individual's behavior This state implies that a complete individual transformation or a radical inner change is expected from the person. Perhaps the best example would be the…- social heterogeneity of society, the presence of opposing life guidelines and views; – differences in social status, income, culture, education, access to information The preference for one way or another way to prevent and resolve conflicts depends entirely on the conflicting participants.

A social movement only promotes social change, it never arises to… – This is a spontaneous social movement, or rather, self-movement, in order to emphasize how instinctive and beginningless it is, showing that it is a continuation of the movement of nature in man, the transition of the fatal forces of matter into a pre-conscious social form..When obstacles arise, you change your direction to reach your goal, you do not change your decision to get there. – Zig Ziglar. Staying positive does not mean that things will turn out okay.A regime change resulting from foreign military intervention would not be considered a success, for instance. A campaign was considered violent, meanwhile, if it involved bombings, kidnappings, the destruction of infrastructure – or any other physical harm to people or property.

A social movement only promotes social change, it never arises to...

Ways to resolve conflicts – interethnic, political – Report this Document. Description: Legal Change: Lessons From America's Social Movements. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Those who care most about the social movements covered in this volume will find it increasingly challenging to hold ground or win victories so long as the political and…There are only 100 international companies listed as Strategic Partners. Each partner receives an invitation if they have "alignment with forum values." These partners "shape the future through extensive contribution to developing and implementing Forum projects and championing public-private dialogue."Religions promote social change by guiding their followers to share or "live" their views. By encouraging the outward expression of religious Why most people tend to think of social change as a positive force, it is not always. What is occurring in the middle east, specifically the formation of ISIS…

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How to Put a Social Media Crisis management Plan in Place – In this video, you'll learn
about the world of crisis communications and
how social media plays a significant role
in the specialized area of communications
and marketing.
What is a crisis? Crisis have been defined as
events that either cause harm or the potential for harm to
an individual or organization. Whether the harm produces
physical, emotional, or environmental damage to
individuals and communities involved in the crisis or damage
to the corporate reputation or financial standing of an
organization, the range of harm is different in each
unique situation. Full understanding of a
crisis encompasses not only the actual event but also
the process or time leading from an event, including
the subsequent perceptions of the crisis by
various stakeholders. While most research
has been dedicated to focus on traditional
crises, social media crises are quite different due
to where they start. Texas A&M Professor
Tim Coombs, who is one of the leading
researchers and scholars in crisis communications,
classifies social media crises as acting somewhat
like zombies in nature compared to traditional crises. What Coombs means by this is
that a social media crisis is an incident or
triggering event that happens on social media or
on a particular platform, rapidly spreads from
person to person, spreads virally to become
a traditional news story. Advances in social media have
opened a world of opportunity for sharing information across
public and private sectors and disseminating necessary
information about a crisis among stakeholder groups. Emerging communication
platforms are transforming how crisis communicators reach
their audiences and partner with agencies in a
variety of situations. These transformations
and adoptions not only change how individuals and
organizations communicate during a crisis but also how
others perceive their actions and behaviors and the
overall reputation of brands or corporations
involved in the situation. New types of social media
crises arise every day. And the brands need to
be prepared for that. Here are some examples
of social media crises you might come across. Cyber attacks or the
hacking of social media accounts– this happens when an
account is compromised and is sharing either inappropriate
or spam content that is not reflective of the
brand voice and mission. Advocates calling for
boycotts on advertisers– when audience members are not
happy with how the organization is practicing, they
may use social media to voice their outrage and
cause others to follow them. Live video– video
is unpredictable and can show a situation
happening in real time, causing chaos and
emotion to spark. Fake news and rumors– information that is
not true can circulate online, which will distract
from the real information about the crisis being shared. Employees going rogue–
sometimes employees go off script and go against
social media policy behavior. This comes about when
employees perhaps do not agree with the
actions by their employer, or they feel no one
will catch them. These have to be
addressed and handled in a timely and
appropriate manner. Trendjacking during a
sensitive situation– trendjacking happens
when you take advantage of a situation that is
trending in order to get your commercial message out. Outrage based on something that
has been shared or posted– people view social media
platforms as first impressions. And if they see something
they do not like, they will voice these concerns
openly and loudly online. So what do you do if you're
experiencing a social media crisis? Do not panic. When a problem arises
on social media, you want to ask yourself
a few questions. First, is this a
real crisis or not? As Melissa Agnes discusses
in her book Crisis Ready, there are differences
between what an issue is and what a crisis is. If it is a crisis, you need to
own it and take responsibility for your actions. You need to have a sound team
in place for your crisis team. You will want to have a
mixture of professionals who are part of your team
like the CEO and key decision makers. Representatives from
the legal department are going to be key to make sure
the actions and messages follow the law. In addition, subject
matter experts will continue communicating
the key specifics that the media may have
questions about, for example, a health specialist on Ebola for
the Center for Disease Control. Internal representations from
the brand like PR, marketing, accounting, finance,
and HR are also keen to have as part
of the crisis team. Each member will be able to come
in with their subject matter expertise and offer
a unique perspective. Lastly, one of the most
important things you need to have is a crisis plan. A crisis plan
outlines all the steps needed to take during a crisis. It describes who should be
involved, when to respond, a prepared statement,
and the action plan if a crisis escalates. You should regularly
look at this plan and revise based
on the social media platform changes as
well as in response to the rising issues
and challenges that need to be accounted
for in a crisis. When a crisis emerge,
you do not want to be responding on the fly. Preparation is key to be
as proactive as possible when a crisis hits. There are three different
stages to a crisis– preparation, precrisis,
response, crisis, and recovery, postcrisis. Preparation comes in
many forms like sending a proactive monitoring system,
training all your team members in crisis communication,
setting social media guidelines and protocols, creating a
message map for responses and statements for
each given situation, building a healthy and
interactive relationship with key parties. Even the best brands can have
preparation plans in place. But they still are in
the midst of a crisis. During the response stage
crisis or the trigger event occurs, and it is game on. In the response stage, a social
media manager and their team has to react quickly,
compassionately, with authoritative and
clear words and actions. Understand the emotions
being shared on social media. Pay attention to feedback,
comments, sentiment, and false information
that could be spreading. Integrate social media messages
to the appropriate medium and audience. Monitor and integrate comments
into crisis plan strategy. Provide statements to audiences
to take certain actions embracing self-efficacy. Once the crisis has been
resolved and addressed, the recovery or
postcrisis stage emerges. And we have to evaluate
the overall sentiment of the messages. Determine the overall
response in the media and amongst key audiences. Analyze the data to see
what lessons to take away. Evaluate team members and
the response strategies from the crisis. Determine best practices
and lessons learned. What exactly is involved
in a crisis plan? There are many different types
of crisis plans out there. But you need to first build one
that fits your team, resources, and the industry you are in. Here are some must-have
components for your crisis plan– a good mix of executive
personnel to enforce decisions, management to coordinate and
partner with communication experts to craft the messages. Make sure you also have someone
from legal and potentially investor relations involved. Brainstorm all of the potential
issues that could arise. Start by making a
list of everything you can think of that could
be a crisis or a problem. This could be events like gun
terror, a lying executive, a fire, white-collar
crime, delivery problems with your product,
internet trolls gone wild, data breaches, sexual
harassment, website issues, you name it. Assign a level based on how much
it will affect your company's bottom line. Then determine exactly at what
point will you push the issue up the risk ladder. Determine which stakeholder
will be notified at what risk level– managers,
executives, partners, clients, vendors, local and federal
authorities, and the press. Create a list of internal
contacts and their titles, the departments that
should get involved. Include their email
addresses, phone numbers, and alternative contact numbers. Alert the stakeholders using
the risk levels you've preset. You'll also need a
social monitoring program that will help you see
all of the incoming social conversations that you
have a sense of the urgency of the crisis or problem. If there is a situation
that needs an apology, do it and do it fast
within 60 minutes. Be as sincere and as
transparent as possible. The longer you wait,
the more the situation can spiral out of control. It is a proactive move to
see what mentions, key words, and conversations are emerging
about a brand in crisis. It is not only important to
explore what is being said, but who is driving
the conversations. These conversations
can tell us a lot about any potential
early warning signs, level of sentiment for
the brand in crisis, who are the influencers
driving the conversation, for example, advocates,
customers, media, or trolls, and any issues that need to be
addressed in a timely manner. There are different
ways to approach this. Let's look at examples
from two case studies. Southwest Airlines, which
has established itself as a proactive party to social
media because of its dedication to timely customer service,
was responsible to the engine explosion incident that
happened in April 2018 with one of their planes. In this crisis, the
team responded promptly and discussed the
ways in which they will be addressing this type
of situation in the future. In 2017, Uber took actions that
were counter to individuals protesting at New
York's JFK Airport during President Donald
Trump's travel ban. Customers of Uber were outraged
by the actions of the CEO and voiced their
frustration publicly, which resulted in a
worldwide viral movement on social media of people
deleting the Uber app. In 2018, there was also
a Delete Facebook crisis which came about when Cambridge
Analytica, a elections consulting agency, were
outed by a whistleblower for hijacking data from over
87 million Facebook users without their knowledge. As a result, Uber
and Facebook had to address the Delete
Uber and Delete Facebook movements online. Many felt that the
companies took too long to respond to the crises. And their statements
appeared to not be tailored to the situation. Uber's CEO eventually
left the company. And Mark Zuckerberg had
to testify to Congress. Both brands had different
results to their crisis. But neither had a sound
listening and monitoring protocol to guide them in
how they needed to respond. You also have to know
where the crisis first started on social media. Most of the time,
a crisis sparks on a particular platform. This is where you
have to be since this is where your audience
will be having the conversations surrounding
the particular incident. Not responding or being
present on social media could result in a
bigger situation to address, which could impact
the company more in the future. Within the social listening
and monitoring protocol you have set forth,
you do want to make sure you are empathetic
to the current landscape and emotional state
of your audiences. This is not the time to promote
posts or news-jack a crisis situation. In addition, researching why
certain trends are trending is crucial because
not understanding the context of things could
result in getting yourself into a bigger crisis. In this day and
age where everyone wants to be relevant and
trending on social media, this could actually result in
creating crisis for yourself. Look at what happened a
few years ago to DiGiorno's and the #WhyIStayed hashtag. The brand entered a
serious conversation about survivors of
domestic violence by stating they stayed
because of the pizza. The brand apologized
for this incident and recognized it was
a key to first research a trending hashtag before
jumping into the conversation. With that being said,
here are some tips for handling social
media during a crisis. Make sure to pause scheduled
social media posts. Pause paid ads on
social media channels. Pause marketing emails. Assess the plan, blogging,
and campaign schedule for appropriateness. Create a blog post addressing
the situation as needed. Provide talking points
for executives as needed. Check all content for
relevant references that could be perceived
as offensive or rude in light of the event. Cancel any planned product
updates or changes. Create a plan for employee
communications as needed. Communicate issues and customer
support via social media. Notify folks speaking that
they need to address or not and relevant talking points. Consider creating a
flowchart of action. Make sure you disseminate your
plan to internal stakeholders. For the most part, social
media crises can be prevented. Educational training is key. And crisis simulations
need to be conducted to make sure all parties
are aware of what they need to do if something happens. If a mistake happens, own
it, and take responsibility. Make sure you address
this proactively and in a timely manner. Never say no comment. This is what you
do not want to do. There are always ways to address
a question from the media and others if you do not have
the information at a given time, for example,
stating, "At this time, we are still in the
midst of an investigation and do not have
all of the facts. However, we will be providing
an update on Tuesday to provide more
details for you all." Don't engage in a flame war. Trolls and those who
are not your fans may want to start a heated
conversation with you to create an emotional spark. While it is tempting
to reply, it is better to not engage
in a conversation that could escalate into
a bigger situation. Do not blame the intern. Many times there is a perception
that if something goes wrong, it's because of the intern. That's not always the case. And it is key to not allow
this narrative to spread amongst the online community. Understand the role of the
spokesperson and key players involved. How you present yourself is just
as important as what you say. First impressions matter. Make sure the statements
you share on social media reflect on these points. Use your best influencers
and advocates. These individuals are not just
for promoting new products and services but could
be your best allies in a time of crisis. In summary,
preparation is the name of the game for having a strong
crisis communication plan. Like the changes we
see in social media, we have to be prepared for the
incidents that could negatively impact our brand culture,
reputation, and community. Listening and monitoring
for these potential crises could help in being a proactive
and effective social media professional. [MUSIC PLAYING] .

Barrett Dorko, PT – CSU Prestige Day Banquet Address – My father, Andrew John Dorko, was the resident
poet of Westlake Ohio.
During the last ten years of his life he was regularly invited
to write and recite original verse in honor of special occasions such as ground breakings,
dedications or holiday events. Not long before his passing he did something for the dedication
of the new recreation center in his favorite city and another attendee, Congressman Dennis
Kucinich subsequently put that poem in the Congressional Record-which was pretty cool. As I grew to actually know him late in his
life, I realized for the first time that his poetry emerged from his center irresistibly;
instinctively-as if he had been seized suddenly by some internal freight train that would
not let him off until he had committed his words to paper. He seemed not to be in charge
of this process-one day he just allowed it to have its way-he was fourteen. He wrote
his final poem at the age of 84 while lying in a hospital bed in a skilled nursing facility
in his beloved city of Westlake. I realize now that until he was quite a bit
older than I am today, no one encouraged his writing. His parents and seven siblings never
read any of it. His six children were collectively indifferent and my mother was, in my memory,
totally silent on the matter of being married to a poet. This never stopped him. I don't
think it even slowed him down. And that willingness to continue without external approval is,
to me, my father's legacy. The approval of others-something we all seek.
And in order to acquire it we are obliged to examine and accept what those around us
seem to want. In adolescence we call this "peer pressure," and we admonish our children
not to fall prey to it. But adults feel it no less powerfully and have no specific name
for it. Its insidious nature makes it even more powerful. In his latest book, Status Anxiety, the essayist
Alain de Botton speaks of it in this way: "Up until a certain age, no one minds much
what we do, existence alone is enough to earn us unconditional affection. We can burp up
our food, scream at the top of our voice, throw the cutlery on the floor, spend the
day gazing blankly out the window, relieve ourselves in the flower pot-and still know
that someone will come and stroke our hair, change our clothes and sing us songs. We begin
our time on earth in the hands of a mother, who asks little more of us than that we continue
to live…But this idyllic state is fated not to endure. By the time we have finished
our education, we are forced to take our place in a world dominated by a new kind of person,
a person as different from a mother as it is possible to be and whose behavior lies
at the heart of our status anxieties; the snob. (Like it or not) we are forced to subsist
on a diet of the highly conditional attention of snobs." The thing that drives our behavior as adults
is what I always refer to as the culture, and I deliver these two words to my classes
and patients with a lowered voice and a slightly Draconian implication. Simply put, the culture
is a snob. It not only tells us what we should look like and how we should behave, it isn't
the least bit interested in our health-though it may pretend to be. Now-how does all of this relate to the profession
of physical therapy? Well, whatever else it might be, physical pain is, at its root, a
consequence of behavior. At times, we're talking about the behavior of systems over which we
may have little or no control. In the face of pathological processes that require chemical
alteration or repair in order to resolve the pain, conservative therapeutic methods will
probably have little effect. Fortunately, the medical profession is quite competent
in such cases. What I'm talking about are those many instances
when pain arises from just enough mechanical deformation to cause it-I'm talking about
the ways in which we hold ourselves and allow ourselves to move, and I'm convinced that
the culture has more to say about this than most therapists suspect. Is it possible that
the greatest challenge facing the profession of physical therapy today is the tendency
of the culture to restrict those movements that would relieve pain? In his remarkable book, Illness and Culture
in the Postmodern Age, David Morris in the chapter titled "Utopian Bodies" says this;
"Health no longer refers, via metaphor, to the ideal social state that generates it but
instead signifies the perfection of a single private self. Further, good health is not
exactly the issue. What matters is that the individual body appears healthy. Image is
everything. The average family lives in a realm of pictures created with the favored
postmodern technologies of camera and videotape where they cannot avoid versions of the same
subliminal message: the healthy-looking body is the beautiful body; and the beautiful body
is the healthy-looking body." I'm suggesting this evening that our profession
is often driven toward a sort of practice that attends more carefully to the dictates
of the culture than the realities of science. I know this isn't a popular thing to say,
but as I travel and read and especially when I see the ways in which my colleagues approach
treatment of nonpathologic painful problems, I am increasingly convinced that we have succumbed
to the concept of style over substance; to the seduction of beauty over the complexity
of health. Moreover, the ease with which we can now document
and bill for the patterns of treatment typically offered the patient in pain makes the continuity
of these methods immune to the naturally occurring changes that are the common in any other medical
discipline. Ask an orthopedist what percentage of the diagnoses he or she sees today that
they treat precisely as they did ten years ago and they will answer, "About ten percent."
Put the same question to a therapist about the various permutations of spinal and limb
pain common to their clinic and they will answer with a much higher number. Perhaps an alteration in the care we offer
will come from a deeper understanding of what physical pain does to all of us-how it effects
us in ways the therapy community does not normally consider. In an amazing book published
in 1985 Elaine Scarry, then a professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania
and now at Harvard wrote of a consequence of pain that I feel anyone treating it should
come to know intimately. The book is titled The Body in Pain-The Making and Unmaking of
the World. I think this English teacher has discovered something that the leading scientists
in physical therapy have overlooked. This is not an easy book to read. Scarry gains
her understanding of pain's effect through what she's learned from the victims of torture.
And although that circumstance leading to painful sensation is not something we are
commonly familiar with, the perception of pain secondary to nociception otherwise is
not essentially different. She says that pain "unmakes" us. That it systematically
destroys our familiar world by reducing our ability to live in it in our familiar ways.
First and foremost it destroys language, and it is well known that finding words to accurately
describe our physically painful experience is a difficult task. It "unmakes" us even
further by restricting the pursuit of movement that had previously been part of our lives-the
ways in which we express ourselves nonverbally. When a child is told to "sit still and sit
straight and to be quiet," something eerily similar occurs. What Scarry says about the consequences of
pain surprises no one that I know, but it is what she proposes is best done to resolve
this that I feel may surprise you. Fortunately, it mirrors precisely what I've been saying
for many years, though that's not been met with a whole lot of external approval. Scarry says, "Physical pain deconstructs the
territory of creating-it brings into sharp focus the relation between it and the ability
to imagine." While in pain, patients will commonly tell you that they don't have any
idea in which direction they should move though, since their pain is intermittent in nature,
they must have done this many times before. Scarry is certain that it is only through
some creative act that the consequences and perception of pain might be reversed. She
says, "Though the capacity to experience physical pain is as primal a fact about the human being
as is the capacity to hear, to touch, to desire to fear to hunger it differs from these events
and from every other bodily and psychic event by not having an object in the external world.
Hearing and touch are of objects outside the boundaries of the body, as desire is of x,
fear is fear of y, hunger is hunger for z; but pain is not of or for anything-it is itself
alone. This objectlessness, the complete absence of referential content, almost prevents it
from being rendered in language but this is also what may give rise to imagining by encouraging
the process that eventually brings forth the dense sea of artifacts and symbols that we
make and move about in." In other words, our personal and unique creative activity. And
we all know that creative activity, both its pursuit and what it might produce, is vitally
dependent upon the approval of others. As the poet Mary Oliver intones, "Homesick for
moderation, half the world's artists shrink or fall away." Couple this insight with the conclusions of
Patrick Wall, arguably one of the greatest neuroscientists who ever lived-a clinician
and theorist almost without peer and a man focused on the study and treatment of human
pain for over sixty years. In his final text, Pain-The Science of Suffering, he says that
pain creates a "need state" as does hunger or thirst, that can only be terminated by
the appropriate "consummatory act." At this banquet each of us has terminated our hunger
and thirst by acting in a fashion we all know is best done in an instinctive manner, rather
than in the ways the culture encourages us otherwise. Wall makes it clear that the need state produced
by physical pain is best terminated by the consummatory act of movement-a thing our profession
prides itself on knowing something about-and that that movement must be the final act of
a sequence of responses hard wired in the brain, instinctive and inherent to life-and-a
movement that only the person in pain knows precisely how to do. It will surprise them
as it appears, as does every creative act. This movement is unlikely to be found in the
protocols of care we've developed for weakness and dysfunction. Providing only these for
patients who need something else hasn't gotten us anywhere in our attempts to resolve pain
with movement-and, of course that is the very thing we are expected to do. Is there a place for creative movement in
either traditional or modern physical therapy practice? I think not. In my travels I see
that physical therapy is rarely about anything other than training, whereas, to me, the creative
act begins with care. Training takes place in a space full of effort,
repetitions, charts noting progress and specific goals. An imagined future is as important
here as the present, and the present is unacceptable. But there is something about a unique connection
between an individual therapist and one patient at a time. This connection is possible only
when there aren't insulating layers of machinery and generic protocols between them. It is
then that the therapist has an opportunity to attend to the patient's story and not just
to their diagnoses. When caring is the primary mode of treatment, the therapist is willing
to allow the stew of symptoms, frustrations, fears, denial and bargaining emerge from the
patient in no particular order. When caring is present, the patient is allowed to speak
of the disruption of their life. When caring is present, measurement is replaced by acknowledgement
and judgment by acceptance. But I've noticed that it seems no longer possible to expand
any clinic or private office without turning it into a place where only training is available,
and creativity is a foreign concept. No wonder their struggle to relieve pain.
And so, if I'm right, our profession faces these specific challenges:
· To recognize and encourage the instinctive and creative movement Drs. Scarry and Wall
suggest are absolutely necessary for pain relief.
· To find a way of explaining this to our patients and the medical community.
· To figure out a way of billing for it. · To make it, as I feel we should, the essence
of physical therapy for pain relief. On a spring afternoon in 1934 my father's
right leg led him over the hurdles set up on the track at West Tech High School-here
in Cleveland. In the lane beside him was another hurdler from East Tech named Jesse Owens,
and Andy Dorko came in second that day. In 2001 that same leg was amputated in an effort
to relieve his pain, and I can tell you it didn't help much. But while the limb was still
attached, he wrote his final poem and during those moments of creative movement, as for
seventy years he had been compelled to do, he felt no pain. I know this because I was
beside him and he added my name as co-author. The poem spoke of the care he had received
during his final illness, specifically in the physical therapy department. This poet
never mentioned the training. What do you suppose my father was trying to
teach us? .

T. Robert Malthus on The Poor & Poor Laws – Consistent with his functionalist orientation,
Malthus asserts that a working class is absolutely essential to every society.
Labor, he says,
will always be necessary to wrest subsistence from nature. Malthus maintains that there is a necessity
for both workers and proprietors in all societies beyond hunting and gathering levels. The institution of private property and self-interest
provide the motivation for human thought and action. It is the goad of necessity, the desire
to avoid poverty or to obtain riches that motivates much of human industry. Unequal rewards for industry and idleness
are the "master spring" of human activity. The desire for riches, or the fear of poverty,
also motivates humans to regulate the number of their offspring. The poor represent that portion of the population
that is not supported through existing technology and distribution systems. Poverty (and its consequent misery and vice),
according to Malthus, is an outgrowth between our ability to produce food and our tendency
to reproduce the species. Because of population's tendency to outstrip
available food supplies, the mass of people must be subjected to physical distress (lack
of food and other necessities) in order to limit population increase (either through
preventive checks, or failing those, positive checks). It is because of this imbalance,
Malthus states, that "millions and millions of human existences have been repressed." This necessity to repress population has existed
in every society in the past, exists in the present, and will, Malthus says, "for ever
continue to exist." Malthus does not see poverty as a consequence
of moral worth or the fitness to survive. Labor is the only property owned by the poor,
which they sell in exchange for money–money to purchase the necessities of life. He views
severe inequality with horror and asserts that it is not necessary nor very useful to
the bulk of mankind, We are morally obligated to alleviate the
plight of the poor, Malthus says, though we must recognize that we can never fully do
so. Whether conceived in a purposeful manner to hold down the costs of labor, or conceived
out of compassion to alleviate distress–the provision of welfare removes the necessity
of some population checks on the poor. The result of this removal is that population
rises, the market becomes flooded with new laborers and those willing to work longer
and harder to support their increased number of offspring. The fatal flaw of the poor laws
is that it encourages population growth without increasing provisions to support that growth. In accordance with the law of supply and demand,
poor laws will contribute to "raise the price of provisions and lower the real price of
labour." Labor, you will recall, is the only commodity
that the poor have to sell in order to obtain resources. Thus, available provisions must
be spread over a greater number of people, and distress becomes more widespread and severe. Poor laws serve to soften the fear of poverty.
They diminish the power of the poor to save (through lowering the price of labor) and
weaken a strong incentive for the poor to work. Worse, the laws remove one of the major checks
to early marriage and having children. If subsistence does not increase, but population
does, available provisions must be spread over a greater number of people. Thus a higher proportion of the next generation
will live in poverty as a result. Malthus acknowledges that it may appear hard in individual
circumstances, but holding dependent poverty disgraceful, encouraging people to use preventive
checks, will promote the greatest good for the greatest number. If you are going to provide assistance, Malthus
asserts, you must give power to a certain class of people who will manage the necessary
institutions to provide the relief. These institutions will be charged with formulating
rules in order to discriminate between those who are worthy and unworthy of aid. This represents
a tremendous power over the life affairs of all who are forced to ask for support. He cites a frequent complaint of the poor
regarding welfare administrators, and observes (somewhat sociologically): "The fault does
not lie so much in these persons, who probably, before they were in power, were not worse
than other people, but in the nature of all such institutions." Generally, Malthus believes, a government
that attempts to "repress inequality of fortunes" through welfare mechanisms will be "destructive
of human liberty itself." He also greatly fears concentrating so much
power into the hands of the state–as absolute power corrupts absolutely. Finally, Malthus
is also concerned with the effect of dependence on the poor themselves. Hard labor, he concedes,
is evil, but dependence is far worse. In our attempts to alleviate the plight of
the poor through welfare laws we sacrifice the liberties and freedom of the poor, subjecting
them to "tyrannical regulations" in exchange for promises of relief. But society cannot fulfill its part of the
bargain, cannot eliminate the distresses of poverty without removing necessary checks
on population–thus creating more poor. The poor are forced to sacrifice their liberty
and get little in return. This analysis of welfare does not lead Malthus
to advocate that the poor should be left to their plight. Rather, he suggests some institutional
reforms–consistent with the law of population–that will serve to make a more just, equitable
society. Malthus's proposals are an attempt to tie
population growth itself to increases in the produce of the land. He advocates freedom
of movement so that people can go to areas where work is plentiful. Incentives for tilling
new lands to increase production and furnish an "increasing quantity of healthy work."
Establishment of county workhouses. The intent of these workhouses is to provide
a place "where any person, native or foreigner, might do a days work at all times and receive
the market price for it." The fare should be hard, those that are able would be obliged
to work for the prevailing wage. The workhouses are intended to eliminate the
most severe distress while maintaining the necessary incentive for human industry and
the operation of preventive checks on population. Finally, Malthus clearly states, human benevolence
and compassion must augment these social policies. For Malthus, "the proper office of benevolence
is to soften the partial evils arising from people acting in their own self-interests." But compassion and benevolence can never replace
self-interest as the mainspring of human action. The poor, Malthus maintains, will always be
among us. But it is our moral obligation to minimize inequalities as much as the laws
of nature will allow. He points out that while inequality is essential
to motivate human beings to activity and productivity, the inequality need not be as great as existed
in his own society. Malthus's 1798 Essay was fully titled: An
Essay on the Principle of Population As it affects the future improvement of society
with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers. Mr. Godwin
and Condorcet were utopians, men who wrote that man would someday evolve a perfect, ordered,
and just society. The Essay was designed to demonstrate the impossibility of a social
utopia—population will always need to be checked, and those checks will prevent the
perfectibility of the social order. But, he insisted, that we could (indeed, should)
reduce social and economic inequality through structural reform. Next time we will be looking at Malthus's
contributions to theories of social and biological evolution. If you are interested in the big picture you
should take a look at Macro Social Theory, a book that reviews the theories of classical
macro social theorists such as Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim as well as the
work of many who extended their theories to better reflect modern times such as Norbert
Elias, Gerhard Lenski, and John Bellamy Foster. This book can be found exclusively at
at a reasonable price. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles
of Structure and Change to learn how these insights contribute to a fuller understanding
of modern societies. Sociocultural Systems can be purchased at
most online bookstores or at Athabasca University Press. If you are short of funds Athabasca
also offers a free pdf version of the work. A significant portion of the royalties I receive
for these books go to the Rogers State University Foundation in support of students in the Liberal
Arts. I thank you for your support and interest. .