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ch_6 practice test

source : uamont.edu

ch_6 practice test

ch_6 practice test

Chapter 6 Multiple Choice

 

  1. The elastic rebound theory for the origin
of earthquakes was first proposed by ____________ following the ____________
earthquake.

     
a. Reid; 1906, San
Francisco                                   

      b. Giuseppe; 1925, Pizza Lake

      c. Richter; 1989, Loma
Prieta                                  

      d. Mohorovicic; 1964, Anchorage

 

  2. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates
in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the
__________.

      a. inertial point                    

      b. epicenter                        

      c. focus                             

      d. seismic zone

 

  3. Which one of the following statements is
correct?

      a. P waves travel through solids; S waves
do not.

      b. P and S waves travel through liquids,
but P waves do not travel through solids.

      c. S waves travel through solids and P
waves travel through liquids.

      d. P and S waves travel through liquids,
but S waves do not travel through solids.

 

  4. ____________ have the highest velocities.

      a. Primary waves               

      b. Secondary waves           

      c. Surface waves               

      d. Refracted S waves

 

  5. Which one of the following is true
regarding tsunamis?

                 a. they travel as deep-water
waves at speeds greater than surface seismic waves but slower than S

                     waves

      b. their wave heights decrease and
wavelengths increase as they move into shallower water

                 c. they are started by
fault-induced, horizontal shifts in the sea floor that suddenly propel great
masses

                     of water in opposite
directions

                 d. they occur in the open
ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only

                     a few feet

 

  6. The amount of destruction caused by
earthquake vibrations is affected by __________.

      a. design of
structures                                             

      b. intensity and duration of the
vibrations

      c. nature of the surface
material                              

      d. all of these

 

  7. On a typical seismogram, ____________ will
show the highest amplitudes.

      a. P waves                         

      b. S waves                         

      c. surface waves                

      d. body waves

 

  8. Major earthquakes are often followed by
somewhat smaller events known as __________.

      a. aftershocks                    

      b. foreshocks                     

      c. tremors                          

      d. hyposhocks

 

  9. The ____________ magnitude scale is a
measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of
building damage.

      a. Gutenberg                      

      b. Reid 

      c. Mercalli                         

      d. Richter

 

10.  The instrument which records earthquake
events is termed a __________.

      a. polygraph                       

      b. thermograph                   

      c. seismograph                   

      d. barograph

 

11.  ____________ is the maximum possible damage
designation on the Mercalli scale.

      a. XII  

      b. 12    

      c. X     

      d. 10

 

12. The position on Earth’s surface directly
above the earthquake source is called the __________.

      a. epicenter                        

      b. inertial point                    

      c. focus                             

      d. seismic zone

 

13.  The mechanism by which rocks store and
eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed __________.

      a. elastic rebound               

      b. seismic rebound              

      c. fault displacement           

      d. stress fracture

 

14.  Overall, this type of seismic wave is the
most destructive.

      a. P wave                          

      b. S wave                          

      c. surface wave                 

      d. tsunami

 

15.  Approximately how much more energy is
released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

      a. 3000 times                      

      b. 3 times                           

      c. 300 times                       

      d. 30 times

 

16.  P waves ____________.

      a. propagate only in solids   

      b. are faster than S waves and surface
waves

      c. have higher amplitudes than do S
waves               

      d. produce the strongest ground shaking

 

17.  The Mercalli Scale is a scale from
____________.

      a. 1 to 12 that rates the energy required
for faulting to occur

      b. 1 to 10 that rates the energy released
by an earthquake

      c. I to XII that rates the structural
damage due to an earthquake

      d. I to X that rates the total energy
released during the main quake and all aftershocks

 

18.  The distance between a seismological
recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the __________.

      a. earthquake
magnitude                                         

      b. intensity of the earthquake

      c. length of the seismic
record                                 

      d. arrival times of P and S waves

 

19.  The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is
determined from the __________.

      a. duration of the
earthquake                                   

      b. intensity of the earthquake

      c. arrival time of P and S
waves                              

      d. amplitude of the surface waves

 

20.  Which one of the following best
characterizes tsunamis?

      a. they cause the land to ripple and
oscillate             

      b. they are faster than seismic surface
waves

      c. they have relatively small amplitudes
compared to their very long wavelengths

      d. they are easily seen at sea but are
lost in the swell and breaking waves along a coast

 

21.  The ____________ earthquake was accompanied
by extensive fire damage.

      a. Anchorage,
1964                                                

      b. San Francisco, 1906

      c. Mexico City,
1985                                               

      d. Yerevan, Armenia, 1988

 

22.  A ____________ refers to the tendency for a
foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during
earthquake shaking.

      a. Slurrying                        

      b. Liquefaction                   

      c. Motion slip                     

      d. Seismoflowage

 

23.  The record of an earthquake obtained from a
seismic instrument is a(n) __________.

      a. seismograph                   

      b. seismogram                    

      c. time-travel graph            

      d. epigraph

 

24.  Most of our knowledge about Earth’s
interior comes from __________.

      a. drill
holes                                                            

      b. volcanic eruptions

      c. seismic
waves                                                    

      d. examination of deep mine shafts

 

25.  Which one of the following statements about
the crust is NOT true?

      a. it is the thinnest of the major
subdivisions

      b. it is thickest where prominent
mountains exist

      c. oceanic crust is enriched in potassium,
sodium, and silicon

      d. continental rocks are compositionally
different than oceanic rocks

 

26.  The dense core of Earth is thought to
consist predominantly of __________.

      a. nickel                             

      b. lead

      c. iron

      d. copper

 

27.  The lithosphere is defined as __________.

      a. a rocky layer having a relatively
uniform chemical composition

      b. a rigid layer of crustal and mantle
material

      c. a rocky layer composed mainly of
crustal rocks

      d. a plastic layer composed mainly of
mantle material

 

28.  The average composition of the oceanic
crust is thought to approximate that of __________.

     
a. granite                           

      b.
basalt                             

      c.
peridotite                        

      d. iron

 

29.  The average composition of the continental
crust most closely approximates that of __________.

     
a. granite                           

      b.
basalt                             

      c.
peridotite                        

      d. iron

 

30.  The Earth’s magnetic field originates by
____________.

      a. weak electrical currents associated
with hot, rising, mantle plumes

      b. magnetic mineral grains in the inner
core

      c. weak electrical currents associated
with fluid motions in the outer core

      d. magnetization of oxygen and nitrogen
atoms in the atmospheric ozone layer by solar radiation

 

31.  The asthenosphere is located __________.

      a. within the
crust                                                   

      b. in the upper mantle

      c. between the mantle and outer
core                      

      d. within the outer core

 

32.  A ____________ fault has little or no
vertical movements of the two blocks.

      a. stick slip                         

      b. oblique slip                     

      c. strike slip                        

      d. dip slip

 

33.  In a ____________ fault, the hanging wall
block move up with respect to the footwall block.

      a. normal                           

      b. inverse                           

      c. reverse                          

      d. abnormal

 

34.  In thrust faulting, ____________.

      a. grabens develop on the footwall block

      b. the crust is shortened and thickened

      c. horizontal, tensional stresses drive
the deformation

      d. the hanging wall block slips downward
along the thrust fault

 

35.  A graben is characterized by ____________.

      a. a hanging wall block that has moved up
between two reverse faults

      b. a footwall block that has moved up
between two normal faults

      c. a hanging wall block that has moved
down between two normal faults

      d. a footwall block that has moved down
between two reverse faults

 

36.  The mountains and valleys of the Basin and
Range Province of western United States formed in response to ____________.

      a. strike-slip faulting and hanging wall
block uplifts

      b. reverse faults and large displacement,
thrust faulting

      c. tensional stresses and normal-fault
movements

      d. normal faulting and horizontal
compression

 

37.  In a normal fault ____________.

      a. the hanging wall block below an
inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

      b. the footwall block below an inclined
fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

      c. the hanging wall block above an
inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

      d. the footwall block above an inclined
fault plane moves upward relative to the other block

 

38.  A transform fault is ____________.

      a. a strike-slip fault that forms the
boundary between tectonic plates

      b. a dip-slip fault connecting an
anticline with a syncline

      c. a reverse fault that steepens into a
thrust fault

      d. the rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean
ridge

 

39.  Brittle deformation would be favored over
plastic deformation in which of the following conditions?

      a. high confining pressures  

      b. warmer temperatures      

      c. cooler temperatures
                                           

      d. shallow depths

 

40.  A thrust fault is best described as
____________.

      a. a steeply inclined, oblique-slip fault
                      

      b. a low-angle, reverse fault

      c. a vertical, normal fault     

      d. a near vertical, strike-slip fault

 

41.  A horst is ____________.

      a. an uplifted block bounded by two normal
faults

      b. a downdropped block bounded by two
reverse faults

      c. an uplifted block bounded by two
reverse faults

      d. a downdropped block bounded by two
normal faults

 

42.  A syncline is ____________.

      a. a fold in which the strata dip away
from the axis

      b. a fold with only one limb

      c. a fold in which the strata dip toward
the axis

      d. a fold characterized by recumbent limbs

 

43.  The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good
example of a(n) __________.

      a. anticline                         

      b. syncline                          

      c. basin                              

      d. dome

 

44.  Large circular downwarped structures are
called __________.

      a. anticlines                        

      b. synclines                        

      c. basins                            

      d. domes

 

45.  Which of the following combinations should
favor folding rather than faulting?

      a. high temperature and low confining
pressure

      b. low confining pressure and low
temperature

      c. high confining pressure and low
temperature

      d. high temperature and high confining
pressure

 

46.  Tensional forces normally cause which one
of the following?

      a. strike-slip faults              

      b. reverse faults                 

      c. normal faults                  

      d. thrust faults

 

47.  The ____________ in California is the
boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.

      a. Sierra Nevada frontal
fault                                  

      b. San Andreas strike-slip fault

      c. San Luis Obispo thrust fault
                                

      d. San Francisco normal fault

 

48.  A(n) ____________ is a thick accumulation
of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of material scraped off a
descending, lithospheric plate.

      a. mass movement complex

      b. continental shelf, terrain complex

      c. accretionary-wedge
complex                               

      d. subterranean-accumulation complex

 

49.  The Sierra Nevada, CA, and Teton, WY ranges
are examples of ____________.

      a. fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary
to Quaternary normal faulting

      b. folding, compression, and thickening of
Paleozoic strata in Jurassic time

      c. isostatic uplift of crust over
thickened in early Paleozoic time

      d. uplifted blocks bounded by Quaternary
reverse faults

 

 

Word Analysis.
Examine the words and/or phrases for each
question below and determine the relationship among the majority of
words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

50.        a. p-wave                     b. s-wave                      c.
surface wave            d. body wave

 

51.        a. focus                        b. seismograph              c.
epicenter                   d. fault

 

52.        a. tsunami                     b. fire                           c.
liquefaction                d. seiches

 

53.        a. dome                        b.
anticline                    c. thrust fault                 d. basin

 

54.        a. normal fault               b. reverse fault              c. thrust
fault                 d. strike-slip fault

 

Answers

  1. a

  2. c

  3. c

  4. a

  5. d

  6. d

  7. c

  8. a

  9. d

10. c

11. a

12. a

13. a

14. c

15. d

16. b

17. c

18. d

19. d

20. c

21. b

22. b

23. b

24. c

25. c

26. c

27. b

28. b

29. a

30. c

31. b

32. c

33. c

34. b

35. c

36. c

37. c

38. a

39. c

40. b

41. a

42. c

43. d

44. c

45. d

46. c

47. b

48. c

49. a

50. c

51. b

52. b

53. c

54. d

 

 

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