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Demographics of Texas

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Demographics of Texas

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Texas is the second-most populous U.S. state, with an estimated July 2019 population of 28.996 million.[1] In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, and El Paso.

Historical population

1850212,592—1860604,215184.2%1870818,57935.5%18801,591,74994.5%18902,235,52740.4%19003,048,71036.4%19103,896,54227.8%19204,663,22819.7%19305,824,71524.9%19406,414,82410.1%19507,711,19420.2%19609,579,67724.2%197011,196,73016.9%198014,229,19127.1%199016,986,51019.4%200020,851,82022.8%201025,145,56120.6%2019 (est.)28,995,88115.3%1910 – 2010 census[2]2016 Estimate[3]


2000 Texas Population Density Map.

The 2010 US Census recorded Texas as having a population of 25.1 million—an increase of 4.3 million since the year 2000, involving an increase in population in all three subcategories of population growth: natural increase (births minus deaths), net immigration, and net migration. Texas passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California. The state also is the most populous state in the South Central United States, and the most populous state in the South.[4]

Texas’ population growth between 2000 and 2010 represents the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during this time period. The large population increase can somewhat be attributed to Texas’ relative insulation from the US housing bubble.

As of 2012, the state has an estimated 4.1 million foreign-born residents, constituting approximately 15% of the state population.[5] An estimated 1.7 million people are undocumented immigrants.[6]

U.S. Census data from 2010 indicate that 7.7% of Texas’ population is under 5 years old, 27.3% is under 18, and 10.3% is aged 65 and older. Females make up 50.4% of the population.

The center of population of Texas is located at

30°54′19″N 97°21′56″W / 30.905244°N 97.365594°W in Bell County, in the town of Holland.[4]
Net domestic migration


Net migration





























Racial Makeup of Texas excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[8]NH=Non-Hispanic

  White NH (41.40%)  Black NH (11.88%)  Asian NH (4.93%)  Native American NH (0.25%)  Pacific Islander NH (0.07%)  Two or more races NH (1.72%)  Other NH (0.16%)  Hispanic Any Race (39.61%)

As of the 2010 US Census, the racial distribution in Texas was as follows: 70.4% of the population of Texas was White American; 11.8% African American; 3.8% Asian American; 0.7% American Indian; 0.1% native Hawaiian or Pacific islander only; 10.5% of the population were of some other race only; and 2.7% were of two or more races. Hispanics (of any race) were 37.6% of the population of the state, while Non-Hispanic Whites composed 45.3%.

According to the 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, the population of Texas was 73.5% White (41.4% Non-Hispanic White and 32.1% Hispanic White), 12.3% Black or African American, 5.0% Asian, 0.5% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.0% Some Other Race, and 2.7% from two or more races.[8] The White population continues to remain the largest racial category as Hispanics in Texas primarily identify as White (81.1%) with others identifying as Some Other Race (14.6%), Multiracial (2.4%), Black (1.0%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (0.7%), Asian (0.2%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%).[8] By ethnicity, 39.6% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 60.4% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). If treated as a separate category, Hispanics are the largest minority group in Texas.[8]

English Americans predominate in eastern, central, and northern Texas; German Americans, in central and western Texas. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in parts of northern, eastern and east-central Texas as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas.

See also: Czech Texan
See also: German Texan

As in other Southern states settled largely in the 19th century, the vast majority have European ancestry: Irish, English and German.[9] Texas includes a diverse set of European ancestries, due both to historical patterns of settlement from the Southeastern United States, as well as contemporary dynamics. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels. Many Romanians, Dutch, Germans from Switzerland and Austria, Poles, Russians, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, and French immigrated at least in part because of the European revolutions of 1848. This immigration continued until World War I and the 1920s. The influence of these diverse European immigrants survives in the town names, architectural styles, music, and cuisine in Texas.

Lavaca County, for example, is over one-quarter Czech American, Seguin has a large Slovak American community, and Nederland has many Dutch Americans whose ancestors immigrated from the Netherlands.

Demographics of Texas (csv)

By race





2000 (total population)





2000 (Hispanic only)





2005 (total population)





2005 (Hispanic only)





Growth 2000–05 (total population)





Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only)





Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only)





* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

In the 1980 United States Census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English, forming 3,083,323 or 27% of the population.[9] Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry.

The Texas city of San Antonio.
See also: History of Mexican Americans in Texas

As of 2010, 37% of Texas residents had Hispanic ancestry; these include recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as Tejanos, whose ancestors have lived in Texas as early as the 1700s. Tejanos are the largest ancestry group in southern Duval County and amongst the largest in and around Bexar County, including San Antonio, where over one million Hispanics live. The state has the second largest Hispanic population in the United States, behind California.

Hispanics dominate southern, south-central, and western Texas and form a significant portion of the residents in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and Austin. The Hispanic population contributes to Texas having a younger population than the American average, because Hispanic births have outnumbered non-Hispanic white births since the early 1990s. In 2007, for the first time since the early nineteenth century, Hispanics accounted for more than half of all births (50.2%), while non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 34%.

In 2016 the state had 59,115 persons of Cuban origin. 6,157 of them lived in Travis County.[10]

Main article: History of African Americans in Texas

Texas has one of the largest African-American populations in the country.[11] African Americans are concentrated in northern, eastern and east central Texas as well as the Dallas, Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas. African Americans form 24 percent of both the cities of Dallas and Houston, 19% of Fort Worth, 8.1 percent of Austin, and 7.5 percent of San Antonio. They form a majority in sections of eastern San Antonio, southern Dallas, eastern Fort Worth, and southern Houston. A strong labor market between 1995 and 2000 contributed to Texas being one of three states in the South receiving the highest numbers of black college graduates in an increasing New Great Migration.[11]

See also: History of the Chinese Americans in Texas

In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in west Houston, Fort Bend County southwest of Houston, the western and northern suburbs of Dallas, and Arlington near Fort Worth. Vietnamese Americans, South Asian Americans, Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas. The Gulf Coast also has large numbers of Asian Americans, because the shrimp fishing industry attracted tens of thousands of Vietnamese, Filipinos, and Chinese from the coast of the South China Sea in the late 1970s and 1980s.

As of 2016, there is also an emerging Asian immigrant population in Amarillo consisting primarily of Southeast Asian refugees.

Native American tribes who once lived or resettled inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Coushatta, Hueco, the Karankawa of Galveston, Kiowa, Lipan Apache, Muscogee, Natchez, Quapaw, Seminole, Tonkawa, Wichita, and many others.

Three federally recognized Native American tribes currently are headquartered in Texas:

Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas in eastern Texas[12]
Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas in the Rio Grande Valley[12]
Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of El Paso, Texas.[13]

According to Steve H. Murdock, a demographer with the Hobby Center for the Study of Texas at Rice University and a former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, the White American population is aging, while minority populations remain relatively young. As of 2011, according to Murdock, two out of three children in Texas are not non-Hispanic Whites. Murdock also predicted that, between 2000 and 2040 (assuming that the net migration rate will equal half that of 1990-2000), Hispanic public school enrollment will increase by 213 percent, while non-Hispanic white enrollment will decrease by 15 percent.[14]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don’t add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother



318,211 (82.1%)

326,480 (81.7%)

327,429 (81.1%)

> Non-Hispanic White

136,608 (35.3%)

140,992 (35.3%)

140,553 (34.8%)

134,262 (33.7%)

127,533 (33.4%)

125,549 (33.2%)

124,678 (33.0%)

49,039 (12.7%)

51,274 (12.4%)

53,144 (13.2%)

58,562 (14.2%)

58,642 (14.6%)

48,144 (12.7%)

47,326 (12.5%)

18,861 (4.9%)

20,844 (5.2%)

21,775 (5.4%)

20,889 (5.2%)

20,385 (5.3%)

19,850 (5.2%)

19,930 (5.3%)
American Indian

1,229 (0.3%)

1,168 (0.3%)

1,270 (0.3%)

782 (0.2%)

664 (0.2%)

721 (0.2%)

689 (0.2%)
Pacific Islander

498 (0.1%)

510 (0.1%)

487 (0.1%)

566 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race)

185,467 (47.9%)

189,462 (47.4%)

191,157 (47.4%)

188,393 (47.3%)

180,216 (47.2%)

179,142 (47.3%)

179,689 (47.6%)
Total Texas

387,340 (100%)

399,766 (100%)

403,618 (100%)

398,047 (100%)

382,050 (100%)

378,624 (100%)

377,599 (100%)
Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


The most common American English accent spoken was Texan English, which is a mix of Southern American English and Western American English dialects. Louisiana Creole language is spoken mostly in Southeast Texas. Chicano English is also widely spoken, as well as African American Vernacular English, and General American English.

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Texas

Percentage of population(as of 2010)[22]Spanish
Chinese (including Mandarin and Cantonese)
Korean and Urdu (tied)
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba)

As of 2010, 65.80% (14,740,304) of Texas residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 29.21% (6,543,702) spoke Spanish, 0.75% (168,886) Vietnamese, and Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (122,921) of the population over the age of five.[22]

Other languages spoken include German (including Texas German) by 0.33% (73,137,) Tagalog with 0.29% (73,137) speakers, and French (including Cajun French) was spoken by 0.25% (55,773) of Texans.[22]

In total, 34.20% (7,660,406) of Texas’s population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[22]


Religion in Texas (2014)[23]

  Protestantism (50%)  Catholicism (23%)  Mormonism (1%)  Other Christians (3%)  No religion (18%)  Judaism (1%)  Other religion (3%)  No response given/Unknown (1%)

Texas is a part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt.[24] The Dallas-Fort Worth area is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America’s largest megachurches, including the Potter’s House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.[24]

In 2010, the religious demographics of Texas were: 50% Protestant, (31% Evangelical Protestant, 13% Mainline Protestant, and 6% Black church) 23% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 3% Other Christian, 4% Other Religions, (1% Jew, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist, 0.5% Hindu and 0.5% Other) and 18% are Unaffiliated.[23]

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church (4,673,500); the Southern Baptist Convention (3,721,318); Non-denominational Churches (1,546,542); and the United Methodist Church with (1,035,168).[25]

Other religious groups in Texas include Jewish Texans. Most of the state’s estimated 128,000 Jews live in or around Dallas and Houston.[26]


See also: List of cities in Texas, List of Texas metropolitan areas, List of cities in Texas by population, and List of United States cities by population

The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.[27] These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States. As of 2010, six Texas cities had populations greater than 600,000 people. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 20 largest U.S. cities. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos. The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively.

Largest city in Texas by year[28]Year(s)

San Antonio[29]1870–1890
San Antonio[29]1930–present

Three interstate highways—I-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region. The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state’s largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas’s total population.[32] Houston and Dallas have been recognized as beta world cities.[33] These cities are spread out amongst the state. Texas has 254 counties, which is more than any other state by 95 (Georgia).[34]

In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[35] The office of the Texas Attorney General stated, in 2011, that Texas had about 2,294 colonias and estimates about 500,000 lived in the colonias. Hidalgo County, as of 2011, has the largest number of colonias.[36] Texas has the largest number of people of all states, living in colonias.[35]

See also

German Texan
History of African-Americans in Texas
History of Mexican-Americans in Texas
Jewish history in Texas
History of African Americans in Houston
History of African Americans in Dallas-Ft. Worth
History of African Americans in San Antonio
History of Mexican Americans in Houston
History of Mexican Americans in Dallas-Fort Worth


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^ “Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015”. U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015.

^ a b Population and Population Centers by State: 2010 Archived 2015-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 5, 2017.

^ “United States Census Bureau”. 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014.

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^ a b c d “B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE – Texas – 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates”. U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.

^ a b “Table 3. Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for Regons, Divisions, and States: 1980” (PDF). United States Census. pp. 15–32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

^ Bagden, Samantha. “Cubans in Texas see some hope in new relations” (Archive) Austin American-Statesman. Monday January 18, 2016. Retrieved on January 19, 2016.

^ a b William H. Frey, “The New Great Migration: Black Americans’ Return to the South, 1965-2000”, May 2004, The Brookings Institution, p.1 Archived April 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, accessed 19 Mar 2008

^ a b “Tribal Governments by Area: Southern Plains.” Archived March 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 28 Feb 2012.

^ “Tribal Governments by Area: Southwest.” Archived March 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 28 Feb 2012.

^ Scharrer, Gary. “Texas demographer: ‘It’s basically over for Anglos’ Archived 2011-08-19 at Wikiwix” Houston Chronicle. February 24, 2011. Retrieved on February 27, 2011.

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^ Hamilton, B.E.; Martin, J.A.; Osterman, M.J.K.; et al. (2015). “Births: Final Data for 2014” (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 64 (12). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2017-09-04.

^ Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Osterman, M.J.K.; et al. (2015). “Births: Final Data for 2015” (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 66 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-09-04.

^ Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Osterman, M.J.K.; et al. (2018). “Births: Final Data for 2016” (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 67 (1). Retrieved 11 March 2021.

^ Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Osterman, M.J.K.; et al. (2018). “Births: Final Data for 2017” (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 67 (8). Retrieved 11 March 2021.

^ Martin, J.A.; Hamilton, B.E.; Osterman, M.J.K.; et al. (2019). “Births: Final Data for 2018” (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 68 (13). Retrieved 2019-12-21.

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^ McComb, David G. (May 5, 2016) [June 15, 2010]. “Galveston, TX”. Handbook of Texas (online ed.). Texas State Historical Association.

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External links

Kever, Jeannie. “Census finds thousands of Californians flocking to Texas.” Houston Chronicle. Tuesday November 15, 2011.
Hlavaty, Craig. “Texas: The land of Davis, White, and Martinez.” (Archive) Houston Chronicle. July 16, 2013.vte State of TexasAustin (capital)Topics
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Formation of Texas Entities FAQs

Formation of Texas Entities FAQs – The Texas Business Organizations Code does not impose any age requirements on who can be an owner, officer, or director in a business entity. An entity's registered office must be a physical address in Texas where the registered agent can be personally served with process during business hours.East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological region in the U.S. state of Texas. According to the Handbook of Texas, the East Texas area "may be separated from the rest of Texas roughly by a line extending from the Red River in north-central Lamar County southwestward to…Which racial or ethnic group in Texas is concentrated in East Texas? A. Caucasian Americans B. German Americans C. Asian Americans D. African Which statement regarding urbanization in Texas is incorrect? A. the origins of cities in Texas are found in Native American civilizations.

East Texas – Wikipedia – The difference between East Texas and those places are the east texans that moved to the bigger cities over time kept there East I've been to so many places in East Texas and can tell you culturally it's a different fell from the rest of Texas.Houston, (Texas largest city and the fourth largest city in the country) has a democrat Mayor and so does Dallas and Austin. San Antonio has an independent mayor who's not The shift in Texas is attributed largely to the influx of illegal immigrants (imported Democrat voters) and liberals who have…73 hate groups said to be in Texas. Mary Claire Patton. There are 1,020 active hate groups in the country, including 73 in Texas and at least four based in San Antonio. The SPLC, a nonprofit focusing on legal advocacy and civil rights, documented 103 more groups than the group counted in July…

East Texas - Wikipedia

Texas Government: Unit 1 Chapter 19 Essay – – Ethnicity. Racial Makeup of Texas excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[8] NH=Non-Hispanic. Texas has one of the largest African-American populations in the country.[11] African Americans are concentrated in northern, eastern and east central Texas as well as the Dallas…Which racial or ethnic group in Texas is concentrated in East Texas? Under the Texas Constitution, it is unconstitutional to impeach elected officeholders. The Texas Constitution rules that all officers against whom articles of impeachment are proffered are suspended from their office…It is required by the Texas Constitution. 3. Which phrase best characterizes Texas' reputation in terms of taxes and services? low service, low tax 4. Following a legislative decision in 2003 to reduce state funding to higher Which racial or ethnic group in Texas is concentrated in East Texas A Asian.

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North Africa – .

#SpotlightSaturday – Episode 22 (Team Hoyt Racing Chairs, SITREP) – .

European American – European Americans are Americans with ancestry
from Europe.
The Spanish were the first Europeans to establish
a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San
Agustín, La Florida, was the first known person of European descent born in what is
now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare, born in 1587 on Roanoke Island
in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English
parents. In 2009, German Americans, Irish Americans,
English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry
groups in the United States forming 43.9% of the total population. However, the English-Americans
and British-Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to
self-report and identify as simply 'Americans' due to the length of time they have inhabited
America, subsequently they consider themselves indigenous.
European Americans do not self-identify as such, and are not recognized as a group by
the United States Census Bureau on their own, but are included in the category of "White".
"White" is defined by the United States Census Bureau as "a person having origins in any
of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa". The "White" category
of Americans had the second lowest poverty rate, the second highest educational attainment
levels, the third highest median household income, behind Pacific Islands Americans and
Asian Americans, and the second highest median personal income among the racial demographics
in the United States, placing them behind Asian Americans in all categories. Terminology
Use In 1995, as part of a review of the Office
of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, a survey was conducted of
census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined
in the Directive. For the 'white' group, 'European American' came third, preferred by 2.35% of
panel interviewees. The term "European American" is not in popular use in the U.S. among the
general public or in the mass media, and the terms "white" or "white American" are commonly
used instead. The term is used interchangeably with "Caucasian
American", "White American", and "Anglo American" in many places around the United States. "Anglo
American" derives from the English speaking British colonists descended from the Angles
tribes but refers to all English speaking White Americans/ While, European descended
Americans who have ancestors that spoke Spanish. It is used in the southwestern United States
in place of "White" or "European American". European American also has a more specific
reference than either "White American" or "Caucasian American" since both of these terms
include a larger group of people than what is acknowledged in Europe. Also, whereas the
terms "White American" and "Caucasian American" carry somewhat ambiguous definitions, depending
on the speaker, European American has a more specific definition and scope. According to
linguist Janet Bing, the term "European American" has increased a little in use, especially
among scholars. Origin
The term was coined by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral
origins of Americans in the same way that is done for African Americans and Asian Americans.
A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified
as white on the U.S. Census knew their European ancestry. Historically, the concept of an
American was conceived in the U.S. as a person of European ancestry to the exclusion of African
Americans and Native Americans. As a linguistic concern, the term is often
meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the normative
white category and everyone else. Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific
European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from
a variety of different cultures. History
Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands.
Approximately 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned
to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. Prior to 1960,
the overwhelming majority came from Europe or European descent from Canada. In 1960 for
example, 75.0% of foreign-born population in the U.S came from the region of Europe.
Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants, almost 86% of the total, arrived from northwest
Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. The years between
1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the sources of U.S. “New immigration”. Between
1894 and 1914, immigrants from southern, central, and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the
total. European Americans are largely descended from
colonial American stock supplemented by two sizable waves of immigration from Europe.
Approximately 53 percent of European Americans today are of colonial ancestry, and 47 percent
are descended from European, Canadian, or Mexican immigrants who have come to the U.S.
since 1790. Today, each of the three different branches of immigrants are most common in
different parts of the country. Colonial Colonial stock, which mostly consists of people
of English, Scottish, Scots-Irish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country
but is especially dominant in the South. Some people of colonial stock, especially in the
Mid-Atlantic states, are also of Dutch, German and Flemish descent. The vast majority of
these are Protestants. The Pennsylvania Dutch population gave the state of Pennsylvania
a high German cultural character. French descent, which can also be found throughout the country,
is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida.
These are primarily Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and
the aftermath of the Mexican-American War and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively.
The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern
and Central-Western Europe between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from
Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and Britain, and with large numbers of Irish and German
Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans
usually used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland lost its independence
in the period between 1772–1795. Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest
and West, although German descent is extremely common in Pennsylvania, and Irish descent
is also common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans held onto their ethnic
identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well of other European
ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Northeast and the Midwest.
Second wave The second wave of European Americans arrived
from the mid-1890s to the 1920s, mainly from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well
as Ireland. This wave included Irish, Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Portuguese, Ukrainians,
Russians, Poles and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Mexico,
Spanish Caribbean, and South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the
US population, and Texas, California, New York, and Florida are important centers for
them. Demographics At the 2010 Census there were 223,553,265
"White Americans", which includes 26.7 million White Hispanic and Latino Americans. That
is, there are 196.8 million "Non-Hispanic Whites" and 26,735,713 White Hispanic and
Latino Americans. Non-Hispanic Whites together with White Hispanic and Latino Americans form
the census category of "White Americans" – see Race and ethnicity.
The numbers below give numbers of European Americans as measured by the U.S. Census in
1980, 1990, and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses.
This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen,
according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years,
but in fact this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects
the increased popularity of the 'American' option following its inclusion as an example
in the 2000 census forms. It is important to note that breakdowns of
the European American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise.
Farley argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents
from their forbears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses
appear quite inconsistent". In particular, a large majority of European
Americans have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single 'ancestry'
gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for
a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the
more distinctive parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely
affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry
data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley
goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly
with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity."
He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey where for the main 'old' ancestry groups,
over 40% change their reported ancestry over the six-month period between survey waves.
An important example to note is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English ancestry
and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6
million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses
were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million.
The largest self-reported ancestries in 2000, reporting over 5 million members, were in
order: German, Irish, English, American, Italian, French, and Polish. They have different distributions
within the United States; in general, the northern half of the United States from Pennsylvania
westward is dominated by German ancestry, and the southern half by English and American.
Irish may be found throughout the entire country. Italian ancestry is most common in the Northeast,
Polish in the Great Lakes Region, and French in New England and Louisiana. U.S. Census
Bureau statisticians estimate that approximately 62 percent of European Americans today are
either wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish, or Scottish ancestry. Approximately
86% of European Americans today are of northwestern and central European ancestry, and 14% are
of southeastern European and White Hispanic and Latino American descent.
Culture For the most part European American cultural
lineage can be traced back to Western and Northern Europe and is institutionalized in
the government, traditions, and civic education in the U.S. The Solutrean hypothesis suggested
that Europeans may have been among the first in the Americas. More recent research has
argued this not to be the case and that the founding Native American population came from
Siberia through Beringia. An article in the American Journal of Human Genetics states
"Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups,
including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration
models." Since most later European Americans have assimilated
into American culture, most European Americans now generally express their individual ethnic
ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins
to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been
revived since the 1960s. Southern Europeans, specifically Italian and Greeks, have maintained
high levels of ethnic identity. Same applied to Polish Americans. In the 1960s, Mexican
Americans, Jewish Americans, and African Americans started exploring their cultural traditions
as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold. European Americans followed suit by exploring
their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural
heritage. European ancestries table See also Emigration from Europe
American Chamber of Commerce to the European Union
Anglo Ethnic groups in Europe
Hyphenated American Immigration to the United States
Melting pot People of the United States
White American Notes
Jewish Americans, particularly those of Ashkenazi and Sephardi descent, are a diaspora population
with origins in South Western Asia, but are often classified as White rather than Asian.
In addition, all of the original peoples of the Middle East are classified as White by
the US Census Bureau. Gypsy Americans are a diaspora group with
origins in the Indian Subcontinent, but are sometimes classified as European.
Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical
connections with Europe. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in the Caucasus and Western Asia.
However the population and area figures are for the entire state. This includes the exclave
of Nakhchivan and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved,
independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognized de jure by sovereign states.
Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in the Caucasus and Western Asia.
It is placed in Europe by numerous European and international organizations.
Turkey is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and south-eastern
Europe. However the population and area figures include the entire state, both the 5% European
and 95% Asian portions. The 1980 census had 188,302,438 people report
at least one specific ancestry out of the then total 226,545,805 United States population.
Numbers and percents by ancestry group do not add to totals because persons reporting
a multiple ancestry are included in more than one group. Responses of total were: Single
ancestry 63% and Multiple ancestry 37%. See 1980 U.S. Census for details.
"American ethnicity" – 12,395,999; 20,188,305. Mostly of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish
and/or Welsh ancestry that they cannot trace, given its predominance in the upper South.
Also, two-thirds of white Americans have two or more different European nationalities,
often four or more, and many "American" respondents may be cases where the person does not think
any one ancestry is dominant enough to identify with.
"White Hispanic and Latino Americans" – 16,907,852 or 48% identified themselves as "White" of
the then total Hispanic population. Presidents of European descent Most of the heritage that all forty-four US
presidents come from: is British ancestry. Others include John F. Kennedy of Irish descent,
Martin Van Buren of Dutch descent and two presidents whose fathers were of German descent:
Dwight D. Eisenhower and Herbert Hoover. Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced
to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe. Admixture
In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDNA
lineages at a frequency of 3.1% in white North Americans of European descent.
Based on a study of U.S. Census Bureau figures from 1980, 1990, and 2000, Census Bureau statisticians
determined that one out of three European Americans is descended from only one European
ethnicity; one out of three is descended from two European nationalities; and one out of
three is descended from three or more European ethnic origins.
Another study, Lao et al.2010 was done on a total of 664 Americans, among them, 246
were self-declared U.S. African Americans, 127 were self-declared U.S. Hispanic Americans,
and 245 were self-declared U.S. European Americans from Temple and Killeen, TX, Louisville, KY,
Baltimore, MD, Philadelphia, PA, Memphis, TN and Miami, FL and 46 were self-declared
U.S. Asian Americans from the Fairfield, OH source. Self-declared U.S. Europeans showed
on average 93.2% of European ancestry. References .