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Dictatorial Government of the Philippines

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Dictatorial Government of the Philippines

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Not to be confused with Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos.
Dictatorial Government of the PhilippinesPamahalaang Diktatoryal ng Pilipinas1898–1898

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Anthem: Marcha Nacional Filipina Territory claimed by the Dictatorial Government of the Philippines in AsiaStatusUnrecognized stateCapitalBacoorCommon languagesTagalog, SpanishReligion Roman CatholicismGovernmentProvisional government under military dictatorship• Dictator[1]Emilio AguinaldoLegislatureNoneHistorical eraPhilippine Revolution• Established May 24, 1898• Battle of Alapan May 28, 1898• Declaration of Independence June 12, 1898• Proclamation (de jure) June 18, 1898• Disestablished June 23, 1898Area1898300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)CurrencyPhilippine Peso
Preceded by
Succeeded by

Captaincy General of the Philippines

Central Executive Committee

Hong Kong Junta

Captaincy General of the Philippines

Revolutionary Government

The Dictatorial Government of the Philippines (Tagalog: Pamahalaang Diktatoryal ng Pilipinas) was an insurgent government in the Spanish East Indies inaugurated during the Spanish–American War by Emilio Aguinaldo in a public address on May 24, 1898 on his return to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong,[2] and formally established on June 18.[3][4] The government was officially a dictatorship with Aguinaldo formally holding the title of “Dictator”.[1] The government was succeeded by a revolutionary government which was established by Aguinaldo on June 23.[5][6]

In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began. In December 1897, the Spanish government and the revolutionaries signed a truce, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, requiring that the Spanish pay the revolutionaries 800,000 pesos and that Aguinaldo and other leaders go into exile in Hong Kong. In April 1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Commodore George Dewey aboard the U.S.S. Olympia sailed from Hong Kong to Manila Bay leading the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy. On May 1, 1898, the United States defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay. Emilio Aguinaldo decided to return to the Philippines to help American forces defeat the Spaniards. The U.S. Navy agreed to transport him back aboard the USS McCulloch, and on May 19, he arrived in Cavite.[7]

Philippine declaration of independence and establishment of Philippine governments

Independence Day at the Aguinaldo Shrine on the back of a 5 peso bill

On 12 June 1898, Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines at his house in Cavite El Viejo.[8][9]Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista wrote the Philippine Declaration of Independence, and read this document in Spanish that day at Aguinaldo’s house.[10] On 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government.[11] On June 23, Aguinaldo issued another decree, this time replacing the dictatorial government with a revolutionary government (and naming himself as President).[5][6]

Writing retrospectively in 1899, Aguinaldo claimed that an American naval officer had urged him to return to the Philippines to fight the Spanish and said: “The United States is a great and rich nation and needs no colonies.”[12] Aguinaldo also wrote that after checking with Dewey by telegraph, U.S. Consul E. Spencer Pratt had assured him in Singapore: “That the United States would at least recognize the independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy. The consul added that there was no necessity for entering into a formal written agreement because the word of the Admiral and of the United States Consul were, in fact, equivalent to the most solemn pledge that their verbal promises and assurance would be fulfilled to the letter and were not to be classed with Spanish promises or Spanish ideas of a man’s word of honour.”[12] Aguinaldo received nothing in writing.

On April 28 Pratt wrote to United States Secretary of State William R. Day, explaining the details of his meeting with Aguinaldo:

“At this interview, after learning from General Aguinaldo the state of an object sought to be obtained by the present insurrectionary movement, which, though absent from the Philippines, he was still directing, I took it upon myself, whilst explaining that I had no authority to speak for the Government, to point out the danger of continuing independent action at this stage; and, having convinced him of the expediency of cooperating with our fleet, then at Hongkong, and obtained the assurance of his willingness to proceed thither and confer with Commodore Dewey to that end, should the latter so desire, I telegraphed the Commodore the same day as follows, through our consul-general at Hongkong:–[13]

There was no mention in the cablegrams between Pratt and Dewey of independence or indeed of any conditions on which Aguinaldo was to cooperate, these details being left for future arrangement with Dewey. Pratt had intended to facilitate the occupation and administration of the Philippines, and also to prevent a possible conflict of action. In a communication written on July 28, Pratt made the following statement:

“I declined even to discuss with General Aguinaldo the question of the future policy of the United States with regard to the Philippines, that I held out no hopes to him of any kind, committed the government in no way whatever, and, in the course of our confidences, never acted upon the assumption that the Government would cooperate with him–General Aguinaldo–for the furtherance of any plans of his own, nor that, in accepting his said cooperation, it would consider itself pledged to recognize any political claims which he might put forward.”[14]

Aguinaldo Shrine where the Flag of the Philippines was waved declaring Philippine independence from Spain

On June 16, Secretary Day cabled Consul Pratt: “Avoid unauthorized negotiations with the Philippine insurgents,” and later on the same day:[15]

The Department observes that you informed General Aguinaldo that you had no authority to speak for the United States; and, in the absence of the fuller report which you promise, it is assumed that you did not attempt to commit this Government to any alliance with the Philippine insurgents. To obtain the unconditional personal assistance of General Aguinaldo in the expedition to Manila was proper if in so doing he was not induced to form hopes which it might not be practicable to gratify. This Government has known the Philippine insurgents only as discontented and rebellious subjects of Spain and is not acquainted with their purposes. While their contest with that power has been a matter of public notoriety, they have neither asked nor received from this Government any recognition. The United States, in entering upon the occupation of the islands, as the result of its military operations in that quarter, will do so in the exercise of the rights which the state of war confers, and will expect from the inhabitants, without regard to their former attitude toward the Spanish Government, that obedience which will be lawfully due from them.
If in the course of your conferences with General Aguinaldo, you acted upon the assumption that this Government would co-operate with him for the furtherance of any plan of his own, or that, in accepting his co-operation, it would consider itself pledged to recognize any political claims which he may put forward, your action was unauthorized and can not be approved.

Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw wrote in 1927: “A few of the principal facts, however, seem quite clear. Aguinaldo was not made to understand that, in consideration of Filipino cooperation, the United States would extend its sovereignty over the Islands, and thus in place of the old Spanish master a new one would step in. The truth was that nobody at the time ever thought that the end of the war would result in the retention of the Philippines by the United States.”[16]

Notes

^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}”The First Philippine Republic”. National Historical Commission. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2018. On June 20, Aguinaldo issued a decree organizing the judiciary, and on June 23, again upon Mabini’s advice, major changes were promulgated and implemented: change of government from Dictatorial to Revolutionary; change of the Executive title from Dictator to President

^ Elliott 1917, pp. 490–491 (Appendix D: Aguinaldo’s Proclamation on his Arrival at Cavite.)

^ Elliott 1917, pp. 491–493 (Appendix E: Aguinaldo’s Proclamation of June 18, 1898, Establishing the Dictatorial Government)

^ Duka 2008, pp. 167–174

^ a b Kalaw 1927, pp. 423–429 (Appendix C.)

^ a b Guevara 1972, p. 35

^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 157.

^ Guevara, Sulpicio, ed. (2005), “Philippine Declaration of Independence”, The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898–1899, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972), retrieved January 2, 2013

^ “Philippine History”. DLSU-Manila. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved August 21, 2006.

^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 413–417 (Appendix A)

^ Guevara 1972, p. 10

^ a b Aguinaldo 1899 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAguinaldo1899 (help)

^ Worcester 1914, p. 19

^ Worcester 1914, p. 21

^ Halstead 1898, p. 311 harvnb error: no target: Halstead1898ch28 (help) Ch.28

^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 100 (Ch.5)

References

Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People. Garotech Publishing. ISBN 978-971-8711-06-4.
Duka, Cecilio D. (2008). Struggle for Freedom’ 2008 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-5045-0.
Elliott, Charles Burke (1917). The Philippines: To the End of the Commission Government, a Study in Tropical Democracy (PDF).
Guevara, Sulpico ed. 1972. The Laws of the First Philippine Republic (The Laws of Malalos). National Historical Institute, Manila., (published online 2005, University of Michigan Library)
Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1927). The Development of Philippine Politics. Oriental commercial.
Worcester, Dean Conant (1914), The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
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Dictatorial Government of the Philippines - Wikipedia

Dictatorial Government of the Philippines – Wikipedia – Philippine declaration of independence and establishment of Philippine governments. "At this interview, after learning from General Aguinaldo the state of an object sought to be obtained by the present insurrectionary movement, which, though absent from the Philippines, he was still directing, I…After Independence, The Philippines Struggled Under The Dictatorship Of. (Correct Answer Below). Reveal the answer to this question whenever you are ready. After Independence, The Philippines Struggled Under The Dictatorship Of.Yes, the Philippines was under Dictatorship when then President Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. Since declaring its independence, the Philippines has struggled with dictatorship, economic problems, corruption, and terrorist attacks.

After Independence, The Philippines Struggled Under The… – SunnyCBSE. April 23, 2019, 9:21am #1. After independence, the Philippines struggled under the dictatorship of.the Marcos dictatorship in February 1986 has ushered in a period of. Philippine Commission under the supervision of the United States governor. Elections after Independence. The Philippines have had relatively extensive experience in electoral politics. split off after an intense leadership struggle in 1946.Dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass Typically, in a dictatorial regime, the leader of the country is identified with the title of dictator. A common aspect that characterized dictators, is to…

After Independence, The Philippines Struggled Under The...

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