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History of China

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This article is about the general history of China from prehistoric times to the present. For the history of the Republic of China since 1912, see History of the Republic of China. For the history of the People’s Republic of China since 1949, see History of the People’s Republic of China.

Approximate territories occupied by the various dynasties and states throughout the history of China
Timeline of Chinese history

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding’s reign,[1][2] who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same.[3][4] Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents (early chapters, 11th century BC), the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) mention and describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[5] The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world’s oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.[6]

The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang, and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and fought with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.

In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or “emperor” of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China’s last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and then in the mainland by the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan in 1949. Hong Kong and Macau transferred sovereignty to China in 1997 and 1999.

Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood—the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.


Paleolithic (3.3 Ma ~ 12 ka)
See also: List of Paleolithic sites in China

What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago.[7] Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago.[8] The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province has evidence of use of fire by Homo erectus,[9] which is dated 1.27 million years ago,[7] and Homo erectus fossils in China include the Yuanmou Man, the Lantian Man and the Peking Man. Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan.[10] Evidence of Middle Palaeolithic Levallois technology has been found in the lithic assemblage of Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China, dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago.[11]

See also: List of Neolithic cultures of China
Further information: Yellow river civilization, Yangtze civilization, and Liao civilization
Neolithic10,000-year-old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BC)Bone Arrowheads, Peiligang culture (7000–5000 BC)Butterfly-shaped ivory vessel with the pattern of two birds facing the sun, Hemudu culture (5500–3300 BC)Pottery artifacts from Hemudu culture (5500–3300 BC)

The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC.[12] The earliest evidence of cultivated rice, found by the Yangtze River, is carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago.[13] Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC.[14] Farming gave rise to the Jiahu culture (7000 to 5800 BC). At Damaidi in Ningxia, 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, “featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing”. These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese.[15] Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BC,[16]Dadiwan from 5800 BC to 5400 BC, Damaidi around 6000 BC[17] and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BC. Some scholars have suggested that Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BC) were the earliest Chinese writing system.[16] Excavation of a Peiligang culture site in Xinzheng county, Henan, found a community that flourished in 5,500 to 4,900 BC, with evidence of agriculture, constructed buildings, pottery, and burial of the dead.[18] With agriculture came increased population, the ability to store and redistribute crops, and the potential to support specialist craftsmen and administrators.[13] In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a center of Yangshao culture (5000 BC to 3000 BC), and the first villages were founded; the most archaeologically significant of these was found at Banpo, Xi’an.[19] Later, Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture, which was also centered on the Yellow River from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC.

Bronze Age
See also: List of Bronze Age sites in China
Bronze AgeWuyishanya archaeological site, FujianBronzeware unearthed at the Liulihe Site.Jade bi from the Liangzhu culture (3400–2250 BC).Bronze jue (wine vessel) from Erlitou culture (1900–1500 BC).

Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC).[20][21] The Bronze Age is also represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture (2200–1600 BC[22]) site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a previously unknown Bronze Age culture (between 2000 and 1200 BC). The site was first discovered in 1929 and then re-discovered in 1986. Chinese archaeologists have identified the Sanxingdui culture to be part of the ancient kingdom of Shu, linking the artifacts found at the site to its early legendary kings.[23][24]

Ferrous metallurgy begins to appear in the late 6th century in the Yangzi Valley.[25]
A bronze tomahawk with a blade of meteoric iron excavated near the city of Gaocheng in Shijiazhuang (now Hebei province) has been dated to the 14th century BC.
For this reason, authors such as Liana Chua and Mark Elliott have used the term “Iron Age” by convention for the transitional period of c. 500 BC to 100 BC, roughly corresponding to the Warring States period of Chinese historiography.[26]
An Iron Age culture of the Tibetan Plateau has tentatively been associated with the Zhang Zhung culture described in early Tibetan writings.

Ancient China

Xia dynasty (2070 – 1600 BC)
Main article: Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty of China (from c. 2070 to c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian and Bamboo Annals.[5] The dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959.[27] With few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones, it remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period.[28] Excavations that overlap the alleged time period of the Xia indicate a type of culturally similar groupings of chiefdoms. Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestral to modern Chinese characters.[29]

According to ancient records, the dynasty ended around 1600 BC as a consequence of the Battle of Mingtiao.

Shang dynasty (1600 – 1046 BC)
Main article: Shang dynasty
Further information: Chinese Bronze Age
Shang dynasty (1600 – 1046 BC)Map of the Shang dynastyOracle bones pit at YinThe Golden Sun Bird, a ring-shaped piece of foil, made of nearly pure gold. Late Sanxingdui culture (Shang period).Guang, a Shang-period ritual wine vessel.

Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang dynasty, c. 1600–1046 BC, are divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period, comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou, and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, is at Anyang, in modern-day Henan, which has been confirmed as the last of the Shang’s nine capitals (c. 1300–1046 BC).[30] The findings at Anyang include the earliest written record of the Chinese so far discovered: inscriptions of divination records in ancient Chinese writing on the bones or shells of animals—the “oracle bones”, dating from around 1250 BC.[1]

A series of thirty-one kings reigned over the Shang dynasty. During their reign, according to the Records of the Grand Historian, the capital city was moved six times.[31] The final (and most important) move was to Yin in around 1300 BC which led to the dynasty’s golden age.[31] The term Yin dynasty has been synonymous with the Shang dynasty in history, although it has lately been used to refer specifically to the latter half of the Shang dynasty.

Chinese historians in later periods were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the political situation in early China was much more complicated. Hence, as some scholars of China suggest, the Xia and the Shang can refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou existed at the same time as the Shang.[32]

Although written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty,[33] Western scholars are often hesitant to associate settlements that are contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty. For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang. The evidence is inconclusive in proving how far the Shang realm extended from Anyang. The leading hypothesis is that Anyang, ruled by the same Shang in the official history, coexisted and traded with numerous other culturally diverse settlements in the area that is now referred to as China proper.[34]

Bronze square ding (cauldron) with human faces.

Ding, a Shang-dynasty bronze.

Bronze Battle Axe, Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC). Excavated at Yidu, Shandong Province.

A Shang dynasty bronze vessel to preserve drink

Zhou dynasty (1046 – 256 BC)
Main articles: Zhou dynasty and Iron Age China
Zhou dynasty (1046 – 256 BC)The approximate territory of the Zhou dynasty in China.Spear of FuchaiBronze ritual vessel (You), Western Zhou dynastyJi, a Chinese polearm combining a spear and dagger-axe, Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC)
Ding vessels had its origins in standard ceramic vessels. A Lidded Ding with Interlaced Dragons from Middle Eastern Zhou dynasty, late Spring and Autumn or early Warring States period, about 500-450 BC

The Zhou dynasty (1046 BC to approximately 256 BC) is the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history. By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the territory of the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou lived west of the Shang, and the Zhou leader was appointed Western Protector by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent, managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye.

The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that was influential for almost every succeeding dynasty. Like Shangdi, Heaven (tian) ruled over all the other gods, and it decided who would rule China.[35] It was believed that a ruler lost the Mandate of Heaven when natural disasters occurred in great number, and when, more realistically, the sovereign had apparently lost his concern for the people. In response, the royal house would be overthrown, and a new house would rule, having been granted the Mandate of Heaven.

The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi’an, on the Wei River, a tributary of the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.

Spring and Autumn period (722 – 476 BC)
Main article: Spring and Autumn period
Further information: Chinese Iron Age
Spring and Autumn period (722 – 476 BC)Map of the Five Hegemons during the Spring and Autumn period of Zhou dynastyRemains of city sewer passing underneath the former city wall in Ancient Linzi, Spring and Autumn period.Sword of Goujian, Hubei Provincial MuseumThe Sun Gao Bianzhong, Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC), excavated in 1978 from a tomb in Yingchuan, Henan.

In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn period, named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second major phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. The Spring and Autumn period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Some local leaders even started using royal titles for themselves. China now consisted of hundreds of states, some of them only as large as a village with a fort.

As the era continued, larger and more powerful states annexed or claimed suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century BC most small states had disappeared by being annexed and just a few large and powerful principalities dominated China. Some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou, who undertook wars against some of them (Wu and Yue). Many new cities were established in this period and Chinese culture was slowly shaped.

Once all these powerful rulers had firmly established themselves within their respective dominions, the bloodshed focused more fully on interstate conflict in the Warring States period, which began when the three remaining élite families in the Jin state—Zhao, Wei and Han—partitioned the state. Many famous individuals such as Laozi, Confucius and Sun Tzu lived during this chaotic period.

The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The first two philosophical thoughts would have an enormous influence on Chinese culture.

Warring States period (476 – 221 BC)
Main article: Warring States period
Warring States period (476 – 221 BC)Map of the Warring States. Qin is shown in pinkGē with engraved decoration of a tiger, Warring States period (475-221 BC)Bi disc with a dual dragon motif, Warring States periodA cup carved from crystal, unearthed at Banshan, Hangzhou.

After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of the 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power.

The Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, containing the world’s earliest decimal multiplication table, dated 305 BC

Numerous developments were made during this period in culture and mathematics. Examples include an important literary achievement, the Zuo zhuan on the Spring and Autumn Annals, which summarizes the preceding Spring and Autumn period, and the bundle of 21 bamboo slips from the Tsinghua collection, which was invented during this period dated to 305  BC, are the world’s earliest example of a two digit decimal multiplication table, indicating that sophisticated commercial arithmetic was already established during this period.[36]

As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture. This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn period, and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng and Xian (province and county).

The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng, the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC, enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huang).

Imperial China

“Empire of China” and “Chinese Empire” redirect here. For the empire founded by Yuan Shikai, see Empire of China (1915–1916).
See also: Political systems of Imperial China

The Imperial China Period can be divided into three sub-periods: Early, Middle, and Late.

Major events in the Early sub-period include the Qin unification of China and their replacement by the Han, the First Split followed by the Jin unification, and the loss of north China. The Middle sub-period was marked by the Sui unification and their supplementation by the Tang, the Second Split, and the Song unification. The Late sub-period included the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties.

Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BC)
Main article: Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BC)The territory of Qin dynasty, 210 BCThe Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Dujiangyan, an irrigation project completed in 256 BC during the Warring States period of China by the State of QinRuins of the ancient Great Wall of Qi on Dafeng Mountain in the Changqing District of Jinan, Shandong province, dated back to the Warring States period

Historians often refer to the period from the Qin dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the First Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (close to modern Xi’an). The doctrine of Legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peacetime. The Qin Emperor presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning of books and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.

Terracotta Army General (Left), Mid-rank officer of the Terracotta Army in Xi’an (Right)
Stone slab with twelve Qin seal characters (221–206 BC)

Major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, and the unification and development of the legal code, the written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods. Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts—which need to match ruts in the roads—had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire. Also as part of its centralization, the Qin connected the northern border walls of the states it defeated, making the first, though rough, version of the Great Wall of China.

The tribes of the north, collectively called the Wu Hu by the Qin, were free from Chinese rule during the majority of the dynasty.[37] Prohibited from trading with Qin dynasty peasants, the Xiongnu tribe living in the Ordos region in northwest China often raided them instead, prompting the Qin to retaliate. After a military campaign led by General Meng Tian, the region was conquered in 215 BC and agriculture was established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later revolted. The succeeding Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Indeed, this was true of the dynasty’s borders in multiple directions; modern Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Manchuria, and regions to the southeast were foreign to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were culturally distinct.[38]

After Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s unnatural death due to the consumption of mercury pills,[39] the Qin government drastically deteriorated and eventually capitulated in 207 BC after the Qin capital was captured and sacked by rebels, which would ultimately lead to the establishment of a new dynasty of a unified China.[40] Despite the short 15-year duration of the Qin dynasty, it was immensely influential on China and the structure of future Chinese dynasties.

Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220)
Main article: Han dynasty
Further information: History of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220)The territory of Han dynasty in 2 AD.The ruins of a Han-dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, the eastern end of the Silk RoadAn early Western-Han silk map, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha and Kingdom of Nanyue in southern ChinaA mural showing women dressed in traditional Hanfu silk robes, from the Dahuting Tomb of the late Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD), located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China
Western Han
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC

The Han dynasty was founded by Liu Bang, who emerged victorious in the Chu–Han Contention that followed the fall of the Qin dynasty. A golden age in Chinese history, the Han dynasty’s long period of stability and prosperity consolidated the foundation of China as a unified state under a central imperial bureaucracy, which was to last intermittently for most of the next two millennia. During the Han dynasty, territory of China was extended to most of the China proper and to areas far west. Confucianism was officially elevated to orthodox status and was to shape the subsequent Chinese civilization. Art, culture and science all advanced to unprecedented heights. With the profound and lasting impacts of this period of Chinese history, the dynasty name “Han” had been taken as the name of the Chinese people, now the dominant ethnic group in modern China, and had been commonly used to refer to Chinese language and written characters. The Han dynasty also saw many mathematical innovations being invented such as the method of Gaussian elimination which appeared in the Chinese mathematical text Chapter Eight Rectangular Arrays of The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art. Its use is illustrated in eighteen problems, with two to five equations. The first reference to the book by this title is dated to 179 AD, but parts of it were written as early as approximately 150 BC, more than 1500 years before a European came up with the method in the 18th century.[41]

After the initial laissez-faire policies of Emperors Wen and Jing, the ambitious Emperor Wu brought the empire to its zenith. To consolidate his power, Confucianism, which emphasizes stability and order in a well-structured society, was given exclusive patronage to be the guiding philosophical thoughts and moral principles of the empire. Imperial Universities were established to support its study and further development, while other schools of thought were discouraged.

Left image: Western-Han painted ceramic jar decorated with raised reliefs of dragons, phoenixes, and taotieRight image: Reverse side of a Western-Han bronze mirror with painted designs of a flower motif

Major military campaigns were launched to weaken the nomadic Xiongnu Empire, limiting their influence north of the Great Wall. Along with the diplomatic efforts led by Zhang Qian, the sphere of influence of the Han Empire extended to the states in the Tarim Basin, opened up the Silk Road that connected China to the west, stimulating bilateral trade and cultural exchange. To the south, various small kingdoms far beyond the Yangtze River Valley were formally incorporated into the empire.

A Chinese crossbow mechanism with a buttplate from either the late Warring States Period or the early Han dynasty; made of bronze and inlaid with silver

Emperor Wu also dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Baiyue tribes. The Han annexed Minyue in 135 BC and 111 BC, Nanyue in 111 BC, and Dian in 109 BC.[42] Migration and military expeditions led to the cultural assimilation of the south.[43] It also brought the Han into contact with kingdoms in Southeast Asia, introducing diplomacy and trade.[44]

After Emperor Wu, the empire slipped into gradual stagnation and decline. Economically, the state treasury was strained by excessive campaigns and projects, while land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. Various consort clans exerted increasing control over strings of incompetent emperors and eventually the dynasty was briefly interrupted by the usurpation of Wang Mang.

Xin dynasty
Main article: Xin dynasty

In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang claimed that the Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the Han dynasty and the rise of his own, and he founded the short-lived Xin dynasty. Wang Mang started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms, including the outlawing of slavery and land nationalization and redistribution. These programs, however, were never supported by the landholding families, because they favored the peasants. The instability of power brought about chaos, uprisings, and loss of territories. This was compounded by mass flooding of the Yellow River; silt buildup caused it to split into two channels and displaced large numbers of farmers. Wang Mang was eventually killed in Weiyang Palace by an enraged peasant mob in AD 23.

Eastern Han
A bronze caliper from the Eastern Han period

Emperor Guangwu reinstated the Han dynasty with the support of landholding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of the former capital Xi’an. Thus, this new era is termed the Eastern Han dynasty. With the capable administrations of Emperors Ming and Zhang, former glories of the dynasty was reclaimed, with brilliant military and cultural achievements. The Xiongnu Empire was decisively defeated. The diplomat and general Ban Chao further expanded the conquests across the Pamirs to the shores of the Caspian Sea,[45] thus reopening the Silk Road, and bringing trade, foreign cultures, along with the arrival of Buddhism. With extensive connections with the west, the first of several Roman embassies to China were recorded in Chinese sources, coming from the sea route in AD 166, and a second one in AD 284.

The Eastern Han dynasty was one of the most prolific era of science and technology in ancient China, notably the historic invention of papermaking by Cai Lun, and the numerous scientific and mathematical contributions by the famous polymath Zhang Heng.

Three Kingdoms (AD 220 – 280)
Main article: Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms (AD 220 – 280)Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu, Wei, and Wu.Fresco of a tomb in Luoyang dated to the Cao Wei period (220–266 AD), showing seated men wearing Hanfu silk robes

By the 2nd century, the empire declined amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in AD 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the period of the Three Kingdoms, since greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

After Cao Cao reunified the north in 208, his son proclaimed the Wei dynasty in 220. Soon, Wei’s rivals Shu and Wu proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms period. This period was characterized by a gradual decentralization of the state that had existed during the Qin and Han dynasties, and an increase in the power of great families.

In 266, the Jin dynasty overthrew the Wei and later unified the country in 280, but this union was short-lived.

Jin dynasty (AD 266 – 420)
Main articles: Jin dynasty (266–420) and Sixteen Kingdoms
Jin dynasty (AD 266 – 420)Western Jin Dynasty, c. 280 ADView of Maijishan hill caves, grottoes and stairways.Maijishan hill caves”The Painting of Goddess Luo Rhapsody”(in a part), Gu Kaizhi, Jin Dynasty

The Jin dynasty was severely weakened by internecine fighting among imperial princes and lost control of northern China after non-Han Chinese settlers rebelled and captured Luoyang and Chang’an. In 317, a Jin prince in modern-day Nanjing became emperor and continued the dynasty, now known as the Eastern Jin, which held southern China for another century. Prior to this move, historians refer to the Jin dynasty as the Western Jin.

Northern China fragmented into a series of independent kingdoms, most of which were founded by Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Di and Qiang rulers. These non-Han peoples were ancestors of the Turks, Mongols, and Tibetans. Many had, to some extent, been “sinicized” long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Qiang and the Xiongnu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times. During the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms, warfare ravaged the north and prompted large-scale Han Chinese migration south to the Yangtze River Basin and Delta.

Northern and Southern dynasties (AD 420 – 589)
Main article: Northern and Southern dynasties
Northern and Southern dynasties (AD 420 – 589)Southern and Northern Dynasties, 440 ADHanging Monastery, a temple with the combination of Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.Yungang Grottoes, an ancient Chinese Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the province of Shanxi.Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes, located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province.

In the early 5th century, China entered a period known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, in which parallel regimes ruled the northern and southern halves of the country. In the south, the Eastern Jin gave way to the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and finally Chen. Each of these Southern dynasties were led by Han Chinese ruling families and used Jiankang (modern Nanjing) as the capital. They held off attacks from the north and preserved many aspects of Chinese civilization, while northern barbarian regimes began to sinify.

In the north, the last of the Sixteen Kingdoms was extinguished in 439 by the Northern Wei, a kingdom founded by the Xianbei, a nomadic people who unified northern China. The Northern Wei eventually split into the Eastern and Western Wei, which then became the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou. These regimes were dominated by Xianbei or Han Chinese who had married into Xianbei families. During this period most Xianbei people adopted Han surnames, eventually leading to complete assimilation into the Han.

Despite the division of the country, Buddhism spread throughout the land. In southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. By the end of the era, Buddhists and Taoists had become much more tolerant of each other.

Sui dynasty (AD 581 – 618)
Main article: Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty (AD 581 – 618)Sui dynasty c. 609The Anji Bridge, the world’s oldest open-spandrel segmental arch bridge of stone construction.Manshan Pavilion of the Tianlongshan GrottoesYang Guang depicted as Emperor Yang of Sui

The short-lived Sui dynasty was a pivotal period in Chinese history. Founded by Emperor Wen in 581 in succession of the Northern Zhou, the Sui went on to conquer the Southern Chen in 589 to reunify China, ending three centuries of political division. The Sui pioneered many new institutions, including the government system of Three Departments and Six Ministries, imperial examinations for selecting officials from commoners, while improved on the systems of fubing system of the army conscription and the Equal-field system of land distributions. These policies, which were adopted by later dynasties, brought enormous population growth, and amassed excessive wealth to the state. Standardized coinage were enforced throughout the unified empire. Buddhism took root as a prominent religion and was supported officially. Sui China was known for its numerous mega-construction projects. Intended for grains shipment and transporting troops, the Grand Canal was constructed, linking the capitals Daxing (Chang’an) and Luoyang to the wealthy southeast region, and in another route, to the northeast border. The Great Wall was also expanded, while series of military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers further pacified its borders. However, the massive invasions of the Korean Peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War failed disastrously, triggering widespread revolts that led to the fall of the dynasty.

Tang dynasty (AD 618 – 907)
Main article: Tang dynasty
See also: Zhou dynasty (690–705)
Tang dynasty (AD 618 – 907)Tang Dynasty in 669 ADThe Fengxian cave (c. 675 AD) of the Longmen Grottoes, commissioned by Wu Zetian.Inside a cave of Longmen Grottoes, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.The Dunhuang map is to date the world’s oldest complete preserved star atlas.

The Tang dynasty was a golden age of Chinese civilization, a prosperous, stable, and creative period with significant developments in culture, art, literature, particularly poetry, and technology. Buddhism became the predominant religion for the common people. Chang’an (modern Xi’an), the national capital, was the largest city in the world during its time.[46]

The first emperor, Emperor Gaozu, came to the throne on 18 June 618, placed there by his son, Li Shimin, who became the second emperor, Taizong, one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history. Combined military conquests and diplomatic maneuvers reduced threats from Central Asian tribes, extended the border, and brought neighboring states into a tributary system. Military victories in the Tarim Basin kept the Silk Road open, connecting Chang’an to Central Asia and areas far to the west. In the south, lucrative maritime trade routes from port cities such as Guangzhou connected with distant countries, and foreign merchants settled in China, encouraging a cosmopolitan culture. The Tang culture and social systems were observed and adapted by neighboring countries, most notably, Japan. Internally the Grand Canal linked the political heartland in Chang’an to the agricultural and economic centers in the eastern and southern parts of the empire. Xuanzang, a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India on his own, and returned with, “over six hundred Mahayana and Hinayana texts, seven statues of the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics.”

Map of the six major protectorates during Tang dynasty.

The prosperity of the early Tang dynasty was abetted by a centralized bureaucracy. The government was organized as “Three Departments and Six Ministries” to separately draft, review, and implement policies. These departments were run by royal family members and landed aristocrats, but as the dynasty wore on, were joined or replaced by scholar officials selected by imperial examinations, setting patterns for later dynasties.

Under the Tang “equal-field system” all land was owned by the Emperor and granted to each family according to household size. Men granted land were conscripted for military service for a fixed period each year, a military policy known as the “Fubing system”. These policies stimulated a rapid growth in productivity and a significant army without much burden on the state treasury. By the dynasty’s midpoint, however, standing armies had replaced conscription, and land was continuously falling into the hands of private owners and religious institutions granted exemptions.

A gilt Buddhist reliquary with decorations of armored guards, from Silla, 7th-centuryA Tang period gilt-silver jar, shaped in the style of northern nomad’s leather bag[47] decorated with a horse dancing with a cup of wine in its mouth, as the horses of Emperor Xuanzong were trained to do.[47]

The dynasty continued to flourish under the rule of Empress Wu Zetian, the only empress regnant in Chinese history, and reached its zenith during the long reign of Emperor Xuanzong, who oversaw an empire that stretched from the Pacific to the Aral Sea with at least 50 million people. There were vibrant artistic and cultural creations, including works of the greatest Chinese poets, Li Bai, and Du Fu.

One of the Three Pagodas of Chong Shen Monastery in Dali.The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Chang’an (modern-day Xi’an), built in 652, repaired by Empress Wu Zetian in 704.The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built by 709, was adjacent to the Dajianfu Temple in Chang’an, where Buddhist monks gathered to translate Sanskrit texts into Chinese[48]

At the zenith of prosperity of the empire, the An Lushan Rebellion from 755 to 763 was a watershed event. War, disease, and economic disruption devastated the population and drastically weakened the central imperial government. Upon suppression of the rebellion, regional military governors, known as Jiedushi, gained increasingly autonomous status. With loss of revenue from land tax, the central imperial government came to rely heavily on salt monopoly. Externally, former submissive states raided the empire and the vast border territories were lost for centuries. Nevertheless, civil society recovered and thrived amidst the weakened imperial bureaucracy.

In late Tang period, the empire was worn out by recurring revolts of regional warlords, while internally, as scholar-officials engaged in fierce factional strife, corrupted eunuchs amassed immense power. Catastrophically, the Huang Chao Rebellion, from 874 to 884, devastated the entire empire for a decade. The sack of the southern port Guangzhou in 879 was followed by the massacre of most of its inhabitants, especially the large foreign merchant enclaves.[49][50] By 881, both capitals, Luoyang and Chang’an, fell successively. The reliance on ethnic Han and Turkic warlords in suppressing the rebellion increased their power and influence. Consequently, the fall of the dynasty following Zhu Wen’s usurpation led to an era of division.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907 – 960)
Main article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Zhenguo Pagoda of Kaiyuan Temple (Quanzhou)Gongchen Bagoda, Lin’an, Hangzhou, China
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907 – 960)Five Dynasties Ten Kingdoms Period 947 ADYunyan Pagoda in Jiangsu Province of Eastern China.Coins of the Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsSection and detail of Night Revels of Han Xizai, by Gu Hongzhong

The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, lasted from 907 to 960. During this half-century, China was in all respects a multi-state system. Five regimes, namely, (Later) Liang, Tang, Jin, Han and Zhou, rapidly succeeded one another in control of the traditional Imperial heartland in northern China. Among the regimes, rulers of (Later) Tang, Jin and Han were sinicized Shatuo Turks, which ruled over the ethnic majority of Han Chinese. More stable and smaller regimes of mostly ethnic Han rulers coexisted in south and western China over the period, cumulatively constituted the “Ten Kingdoms”.

Amidst political chaos in the north, the strategic Sixteen Prefectures (region along today’s Great Wall) were ceded to the emerging Khitan Liao dynasty, which drastically weakened the defense of the China proper against northern nomadic empires. To the south, Vietnam gained lasting independence after being a Chinese prefecture for many centuries. With wars dominated in Northern China, there were mass southward migrations of population, which further enhanced the southward shift of cultural and economic centers in China. The era ended with the coup of Later Zhou general Zhao Kuangyin, and the establishment of the Song dynasty in 960, which eventually annihilated the remains of the “Ten Kingdoms” and reunified China.

Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia dynasties (AD 960 – 1279)
Main articles: Song dynasty, Liao dynasty, Western Xia, and Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Further information: History of the Song dynasty
See also: Dali Kingdom and Qara Khitai
Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia dynasties (AD 960 – 1279)Jin, Southern Song, and Western Xia in China.A wooden Bodhisattva from the Song dynasty.Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.

In 960, the Song dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu, with its capital established in Kaifeng (also known as Bianjing). In 979, the Song dynasty reunified most of the China proper, while large swaths of the outer territories were occupied by sinicized nomadic empires. The Khitan Liao dynasty, which lasted from 907 to 1125, ruled over Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of Northern China. Meanwhile, in what are now the north-western Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, the Tangut tribes founded the Western Xia dynasty from 1032 to 1227.

Liaodi Pagoda, Song dynastyThe Pagoda of Tianing Temple, Liao dynastyThe Ten Thousand Copies of the Huayan Sutra Pagoda, commonly known as the White Pagoda, Liao dynastyPoyang Yongfu Temple Pagoda, Song dynasty

Aiming to recover the strategic Sixteen Prefectures lost in the previous dynasty, campaigns were launched against the Liao dynasty in the early Song period, which all ended in failure. Then in 1004, the Liao cavalry swept over the exposed North China Plain and reached the outskirts of Kaifeng, forcing the Song’s submission and then agreement to the Chanyuan Treaty, which imposed heavy annual tributes from the Song treasury. The treaty was a significant reversal of Chinese dominance of the traditional tributary system. Yet the annual outflow of Song’s silver to the Liao was paid back through the purchase of Chinese goods and products, which expanded the Song economy, and replenished its treasury. This dampened the incentive for the Song to further campaign against the Liao. Meanwhile, this cross-border trade and contact induced further sinicization within the Liao Empire, at the expense of its military might which was derived from its primitive nomadic lifestyle. Similar treaties and social-economical consequences occurred in Song’s relations with the Jin dynasty.

Within the Liao Empire, the Jurchen tribes revolted against their overlords to establish the Jin dynasty in 1115. In 1125, the devastating Jin cataphract annihilated the Liao dynasty, while remnants of Liao court members fled to Central Asia to found the Qara Khitai Empire (Western Liao dynasty). Jin’s invasion of the Song dynasty followed swiftly. In 1127, Kaifeng was sacked, a massive catastrophe known as the Jingkang Incident, ending the Northern Song dynasty. Later the entire north of China was conquered. The survived members of Song court regrouped in the new capital city of Hangzhou, and initiated the Southern Song dynasty, which ruled territories south of the Huai River. In the ensuing years, the territory and population of China were divided between the Song dynasty, the Jin dynasty and the Western Xia dynasty. The era ended with the Mongol conquest, as Western Xia fell in 1227, the Jin dynasty in 1234, and finally the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.

Despite its military weakness, the Song dynasty is widely considered to be the high point of classical Chinese civilization. The Song economy, facilitated by technology advancement, had reached a level of sophistication probably unseen in world history before its time. The population soared to over 100 million and the living standards of common people improved tremendously due to improvements in rice cultivation and the wide availability of coal for production. The capital cities of Kaifeng and subsequently Hangzhou were both the most populous cities in the world for their time, and encouraged vibrant civil societies unmatched by previous Chinese dynasties. Although land trading routes to the far west were blocked by nomadic empires, there were extensive maritime trade with neighboring states, which facilitated the use of Song coinage as the de facto currency of exchange. Giant wooden vessels equipped with compasses traveled throughout the China Seas and northern Indian Ocean. The concept of insurance was practised by merchants to hedge the risks of such long-haul maritime shipments. With prosperous economic activities, the historically first use of paper currency emerged in the western city of Chengdu, as a supplement to the existing copper coins.

The Song dynasty was considered to be the golden age of great advancements in science and technology of China, thanks to innovative scholar-officials such as Su Song (1020–1101) and Shen Kuo (1031–1095). Inventions such as the hydro-mechanical astronomical clock, the first continuous and endless power-transmitting chain, woodblock printing and paper money were all invented during the Song dynasty.

There was court intrigue between the political reformers and conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively. By the mid-to-late 13th century, the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi. Enormous literary works were compiled during the Song dynasty, such as the historical work, the Zizhi Tongjian (“Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government”). The invention of movable-type printing further facilitated the spread of knowledge. Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During the Qingming Festival and Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, along with great Buddhist painters such as the prolific Lin Tinggui.

City views of Song dynasty from paintings. Clockwise from upper left: A Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127) era Chinese painting of a water-powered mill for grain, with surrounding river transport. The bridge scene from Zhang Zeduan’s (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival. Chinese boats from Along the River During Qingming Festival. Leifeng Pagoda in the Southern Song Dynasty by Li Song.

The Song dynasty was also a period of major innovation in the history of warfare. Gunpowder, while invented in the Tang dynasty, was first put into use in battlefields by the Song army, inspiring a succession of new firearms and siege engines designs. During the Southern Song dynasty, as its survival hinged decisively on guarding the Yangtze and Huai River against the cavalry forces from the north, the first standing navy in China was assembled in 1132, with its admiral’s headquarters established at Dinghai. Paddle-wheel warships equipped with trebuchets could launch incendiary bombs made of gunpowder and lime, as recorded in Song’s victory over the invading Jin forces at the Battle of Tangdao in the East China Sea, and the Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161.

The advances in civilization during the Song dynasty came to an abrupt end following the devastating Mongol conquest, during which the population sharply dwindled, with a marked contraction in economy. Despite viciously halting Mongol advance for more than three decades, the Southern Song capital Hangzhou fell in 1276, followed by the final annihilation of the Song standing navy at the Battle of Yamen in 1279.

Yuan dynasty (AD 1271 – 1368)
Main article: Yuan dynasty
See also: Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty (AD 1271 – 1368)The White Stupa of Miaoying Temple in Beijing.Deva King of the East on the east wall of the Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass.Yuan period firearm with inscription dated the 3rd year of the Zhiyuan era (1332). Yuan Dynasty (1206–1368). Discovered at the Yunju Temple, Fangshan, Beijing, 1935.Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing wood plate, 1287 AD.
Mongol successor khanates

The Yuan dynasty was formally proclaimed in 1271, when the Great Khan of Mongol, Kublai Khan, one of the grandsons of Genghis Khan, assumed the additional title of Emperor of China, and considered his inherited part of the Mongol Empire as a Chinese dynasty. In the preceding decades, the Mongols had conquered the Jin dynasty in Northern China, and the Southern Song dynasty fell in 1279 after a protracted and bloody war. The Mongol Yuan dynasty became the first conquest dynasty in Chinese history to rule the entire China proper and its population as an ethnic minority. The dynasty also directly controlled the Mongolian heartland and other regions, inheriting the largest share of territory of the divided Mongol Empire, which roughly coincided with the modern area of China and nearby regions in East Asia. Further expansion of the empire was halted after defeats in the invasions of Japan and Vietnam. Following the previous Jin dynasty, the capital of Yuan dynasty was established at Khanbaliq (also known as Dadu, modern-day Beijing). The Grand Canal was reconstructed to connect the remote capital city to economic hubs in southern part of China, setting the precedence and foundation where Beijing would largely remain as the capital of the successive regimes that unified China mainland.

After the peace treaty in 1304 that ended a series of Mongol civil wars, the emperors of the Yuan dynasty were upheld as the nominal Great Khan (Khagan) of the greater Mongol Empire over other Mongol Khanates, which nonetheless remained de facto autonomous. The era was known as Pax Mongolica, when much of the Asian continent was ruled by the Mongols. For the first and only time in history, the silk road was controlled entirely by a single state, facilitating the flow of people, trade, and cultural exchange. Network of roads and a postal system were established to connect the vast empire. Lucrative maritime trade, developed from the previous Song dynasty, continued to flourish, with Quanzhou and Hangzhou emerging as the largest ports in the world. Adventurous travelers from the far west, most notably the Venetian, Marco Polo, would have settled in China for decades. Upon his return, his detail travel record inspired generations of medieval Europeans with the splendors of the far East. The Yuan dynasty was the first ancient economy, where paper currency, known at the time as Jiaochao, was used as the predominant medium of exchange. Its unrestricted issuance in the late Yuan dynasty inflicted hyperinflation, which eventually brought the downfall of the dynasty.

Dengfeng Observatory, the first in a series of 27 astronomical observatories built in the early Yuan dynasty.The Pagoda of Bailin Temple, an octagonal-based brick pagoda built in 1330 during the reign of Emperor Wenzong, ruler of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).

While the Mongol rulers of the Yuan dynasty adopted substantially to Chinese culture, their sinicization was of lesser extent compared to earlier conquest dynasties in Chinese history. For preserving racial superiority as the conqueror and ruling class, traditional nomadic customs and heritage from the Mongolian steppe were held in high regard. On the other hand, the Mongol rulers also adopted flexibly to a variety of cultures from many advanced civilizations within the vast empire. Traditional social structure and culture in China underwent immense transform during the Mongol dominance. Large group of foreign migrants settled in China, who enjoyed elevated social status over the majority Han Chinese, while enriching Chinese culture with foreign elements. The class of scholar officials and intellectuals, traditional bearers of elite Chinese culture, lost substantial social status. This stimulated the development of culture of the common folks. There were prolific works in zaju variety shows and literary songs (sanqu), which were written in a distinctive poetry style known as qu. Novels of vernacular style gained unprecedented status and popularity.

The Ayuwang Stupa in northern Shanxi, China.A stupa on top of an arch (crossing street tower), is a common form of architecture during Yuan period.

Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reported approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest had been completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.[51] This major decline is not necessarily due only to Mongol killings. Scholars such as Frederick W. Mote argue that the wide drop in numbers reflects an administrative failure to record rather than an actual decrease; others such as Timothy Brook argue that the Mongols created a system of enserfment among a huge portion of the Chinese populace, causing many to disappear from the census altogether; other historians including William McNeill and David Morgan consider that plague was the main factor behind the demographic decline during this period. In the 14th century China suffered additional depredations from epidemics of plague, estimated to have killed 25 million people, 30% of the population of China.[52]

Throughout the Yuan dynasty, there was some general sentiment among the populace against the Mongol dominance. Yet rather than the nationalist cause, it was mainly strings of natural disasters and incompetent governance that triggered widespread peasant uprisings since the 1340s. After the massive naval engagement at Lake Poyang, Zhu Yuanzhang prevailed over other rebel forces in the south. He proclaimed himself emperor and founded the Ming dynasty in 1368. The same year his northern expedition army captured the capital Khanbaliq. The Yuan remnants fled back to Mongolia and sustained the regime. Other Mongol Khanates in Central Asia continued to exist after the fall of Yuan dynasty in China.

Ming dynasty (AD 1368 – 1644)
Main article: Ming dynasty
Further information: History of the Ming dynasty
See also: Southern Ming
Ming dynasty (AD 1368 – 1644)Haihui Temple Pagodas, built in the Ming period.Da Ming Baochao, a series of banknotes issued by the Ming government.Porcelain Tower, from An embassy from the East-India Company (1665) by Johan Nieuhof . It was first discovered by the Western world when travelers like Johan Nieuhof visited it, sometimes listing it as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.Pagoda of Chongjue Temple, dated to the Song dynasty. The onion-shaped Sōrin was a Ming dynasty addition.
Residence of the Lu Family in Dongyang, built in the Ming period.City wall of Xi’an, a UNESCO World Heritage Site built during the early Ming dynastyFenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.Hongcun, a village in Yi County in the historical Huizhou region of southern Anhui Province.Xinye, a village noted for its well-preserved Ming and Qing era architecture and ancient residential buildings.

The Ming dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368, who proclaimed himself as the Hongwu Emperor. The capital was initially set at Nanjing, and was later moved to Beijing from Yongle Emperor’s reign onward.

Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry. In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods. For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country. Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.

Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming dynasty was not isolated. Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan, increased considerably. Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He.

The Hongwu Emperor, being the only founder of a Chinese dynasty who was also of peasant origin, had laid the foundation of a state that relied fundamentally in agriculture. Commerce and trade, which flourished in the previous Song and Yuan dynasties, were less emphasized. Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers. Land estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out. Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of the Yongle Emperor, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes. Towards later era of the Ming dynasty, with declining government control, commerce, trade and private industries revived.

The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor’s role became more autocratic, although Hongwu Emperor necessarily continued to use what he called the “Grand Secretariat” to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.

The Yongle Emperor strenuously tried to extend China’s influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops was created. The Chinese armies conquered and occupied Vietnam for around 20 years, while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in eastern Moghulistan. Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded and became a stimulus to domestic trade. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced. Many books were printed using movable type. The imperial palace in Beijing’s Forbidden City reached its current splendor. It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited. New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished.

In 1449 Esen Tayisi led an Oirat Mongol invasion of northern China which culminated in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu. Since then, the Ming became on the defensive on the northern frontier, which led to the Ming Great Wall being built. Most of what remains of the Great Wall of China today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watchtowers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.

Eagles by Lin Liang (c. 1424–1500). Located at the National Palace Museum.Snow Plums and Twin Cranes by Bian Jingzhao (c. 1355–1428). Located at the Guangdong Museum.

At sea, the Ming became increasingly isolationist after the death of the Yongle Emperor. The treasure voyages which sailed Indian Ocean were discontinued, and the maritime prohibition laws were set in place banning the Chinese from sailing abroad. European traders who reached China in the midst of the Age of Discovery were repeatedly rebuked in their requests for trade, with the Portuguese being repulsed by the Ming navy at Tuen Mun in 1521 and again in 1522. Domestic and foreign demands for overseas trade, deemed illegal by the state, led to widespread wokou piracy attacking the southeastern coastline during the rule of the Jiajing Emperor (1507–1567), which only subsided after the opening of ports in Guangdong and Fujian and much military suppression.[53] The Portuguese were allowed to settle in Macau in 1557 for trade, which remained in Portuguese hands until 1999. The Dutch entry into the Chinese seas was also met with fierce resistance, with the Dutch being chased off the Penghu islands in the Sino-Dutch conflicts of 1622–1624 and were forced to settle in Taiwan instead. The Dutch in Taiwan fought with the Ming in the Battle of Liaoluo Bay in 1633 and lost, and eventually surrendered to the Ming loyalist Koxinga in 1662, after the fall of the Ming dynasty.

In 1556, during the rule of the Jiajing Emperor, the Shaanxi earthquake killed about 830,000 people, the deadliest earthquake of all time.

The Ming dynasty intervened deeply in the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), which ended with the withdrawal of all invading Japanese forces in Korea, and the restoration of the Joseon dynasty, its traditional ally and tributary state. The regional hegemony of the Ming dynasty was preserved at a toll on its resources. Coincidentally, with Ming’s control in Manchuria in decline, the Manchu (Jurchen) tribes, under their chieftain Nurhaci, broke away from Ming’s rule, and emerged as a powerful, unified state, which was later proclaimed as the Qing dynasty. It went on to subdue the much weakened Korea as its tributary, conquered Mongolia, and expanded its territory to the outskirt of the Great Wall. The most elite army of the Ming dynasty was to station at the Shanhai Pass to guard the last stronghold against the Manchus, which weakened its suppression of internal peasants uprisings.

Qing dynasty (AD 1644 – 1912)
Main article: Qing dynasty
See also: Later Jin (1616–1636), High Qing era, and Century of humiliation
Qing dynasty (AD 1644 – 1912)1836 map of China published by C. Picque.Pilgrim flask, porcelain with underglaze blue and iron-red decoration.A military attire of the Qianlong EmperorA Qing period geomantic compass (c. 1760)
Summer Palace, an imperial garden in Qing dynasty.Putuo Zongcheng Temple, a Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771. The temple was modeled after the Potala Palace of Tibet.The House of the Huangcheng Chancellor, a 10-hectare walled estate on Phoenix Hill in southeastern Shanxi, China.Flower Theatre, a Qing period guildhall.A residential building of Qiao Family Compound, built in the Qing period.

The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty in China. Founded by the Manchus, it was the second conquest dynasty to rule the entirety of China proper, and roughly doubled the territory controlled by the Ming. The Manchus were formerly known as Jurchens, residing in the northeastern part of the Ming territory outside the Great Wall. They emerged as the major threat to the late Ming dynasty after Nurhaci united all Jurchen tribes and declared the founding of the Qing dynasty in 1636. The Qing dynasty set up the Eight Banners system that provided the basic framework for the Qing military conquest. Li Zicheng’s peasant rebellion captured Beijing in 1644 and the Chongzhen Emperor, the last Ming emperor, committed suicide. The Manchus allied with the Ming general Wu Sangui to seize Beijing, which was made the capital of the Qing dynasty, and then proceeded to subdue the Ming remnants in the south. The decades of Manchu conquest caused enormous loss of lives and the economic scale of China shrank drastically. In total, the Qing conquest of the Ming (1618–1683) cost as many as 25 million lives.[54] The early Manchu emperors combined traditions of Central Asian rule with Confucian norms of traditional Chinese government and were considered a Chinese dynasty.

The Manchus enforced a ‘queue order’, forcing Han Chinese men to adopt the Manchu queue hairstyle. Officials were required to wear Manchu-style clothing Changshan (bannermen dress and Tangzhuang), but ordinary Han civilians were allowed to wear traditional Han clothing. Bannermen could not undertake trade or manual labor; they had to petition to be removed from banner status. They were considered a form of nobility and were given annual pensions, land, and allotments of cloth. The Kangxi Emperor ordered the creation of the Kangxi Dictionary, the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters that had been compiled.

Over the next half-century, all areas previously under the Ming dynasty were consolidated under the Qing. Conquests in Central Asia in the eighteenth century extended territorial control. Between 1673 and 1681, the Kangxi Emperor suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, an uprising of three generals in Southern China who had been denied hereditary rule of large fiefdoms granted by the previous emperor. In 1683, the Qing staged an amphibious assault on southern Taiwan, bringing down the rebel Kingdom of Tungning, which was founded by the Ming loyalist Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) in 1662 after the fall of the Southern Ming, and had served as a base for continued Ming resistance in Southern China. The Qing defeated the Russians at Albazin, resulting in the Treaty of Nerchinsk.

Qianlong Emperor

By the end of Qianlong Emperor’s long reign in 1796, the Qing Empire was at its zenith. The Qing ruled more than one-third of the world’s population, and had the largest economy in the world. By area it was one of the largest empires ever.

Li Hongzhang, a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

In the 19th century the empire was internally restive and externally threatened by western powers. The defeat by the British Empire in the First Opium War (1840) led to the Treaty of Nanking (1842), under which Hong Kong was ceded to Britain and importation of opium (produced by British Empire territories) was allowed. Opium usage continued to grow in China, adversely affecting societal stability. Subsequent military defeats and unequal treaties with other western powers continued even after the fall of the Qing dynasty.

Internally the Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864), a Christian religious movement led by the “Heavenly King” Hong Xiuquan swept from the south to establish the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and controlled roughly a third of China proper for over a decade. The court in desperation empowered Han Chinese officials such as Zeng Guofan to raise local armies. After initial defeats, Zeng crushed the rebels in the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864.[55] This was one of the largest wars in the 19th century in terms of troop involvement; there was massive loss of life, with a death toll of about 20 million.[56] A string of civil disturbances followed, including the Punti–Hakka Clan Wars, Nian Rebellion, Dungan Revolt, and Panthay Rebellion.[57] All rebellions were ultimately put down, but at enormous cost and with millions dead, seriously weakening the central imperial authority. China never rebuilt a strong central army, and many local officials used their military power to effectively rule independently in their provinces.[58]

Yet the dynasty appeared to recover in the Tongzhi Restoration (1860-1872), led by Manchu royal family reformers and Han Chinese officials such as Zeng Guofan and his proteges Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang. Their Self-Strengthening Movement made effective institutional reforms, imported Western factories and communications technology, with prime emphasis on strengthening the military. However, the reform was undermined by official rivalries, cynicism, and quarrels within the imperial family. The defeat of Yuan Shikai’s modernized “Beiyang Fleet” in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) led to the formation of the New Army. The Guangxu Emperor, advised by Kang Youwei, then launched a comprehensive reform effort, the Hundred Days’ Reform (1898). Empress Dowager Cixi, however, feared that precipitous change would lead to bureaucratic opposition and foreign intervention and quickly suppressed it.

The national flag of the Great Qing from 1862 to 1889. (Triangular version)
The national flag of the Great Qing from 1889 to 1912.

In the summer of 1900, the Boxer Uprising opposed foreign influence and murdered Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries. When Boxers entered Beijing, the Qing government ordered all foreigners to leave, but they and many Chinese Christians were besieged in the foreign legations quarter. An Eight-Nation Alliance sent the Seymour Expedition of Japanese, Russian, British, Italian, German, French, American, and Austrian troops to relieve the siege, but they were forced to retreat by Boxer and Qing troops at the Battle of Langfang. After the Alliance’s attack on the Dagu Forts, the court declared war on the Alliance and authorized the Boxers to join with imperial armies. After fierce fighting at Tientsin, the Alliance formed the second, much larger Gaselee Expedition and finally reached Beijing; the Empress Dowager evacuated to Xi’an. The Boxer Protocol ended the war, exacting a tremendous indemnity.

The Qing court then instituted “New Policies” of administrative and legal reform, including abolition of the examination system. But young officials, military officers, and students debated reform, perhaps a constitutional monarchy, or the overthrow of the dynasty and the creation of a republic. They were inspired by an emerging public opinion formed by intellectuals such as Liang Qichao and the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen. A localised military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on 10 October 1911, in Wuchang (Today part of Wuhan), and soon spread. The Republic of China was proclaimed on 1 January 1912, ending 2,000 years of dynastic rule.

Modern China

Republic of China (1912–1949)
Main articles: 1911 Revolution, History of the Republic of China, Republic of China (1912–1949), and Taiwan
See also: History of Taiwan, History of Taiwan (1945–present), and Retreat of the Republic of China to Taiwan
Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising
Nanjing Road during Xinhai Revolution, 1911

The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Nanking on 12 March 1912. Sun Yat-sen became President of the Republic of China, but he turned power over to Yuan Shikai, who commanded the New Army. Over the next few years, Yuan proceeded to abolish the national and provincial assemblies and declared himself as the emperor of Empire of China in late 1915. Yuan’s imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates; faced with the prospect of rebellion, he abdicated in March 1916 and died of natural causes in June.

Sun Yat-sen, the intellectual leader of the Revolution.Yuan Shikai, the first official president of the Republic of China.

Yuan’s death in 1916 left a power vacuum; the republican government was all but shattered. This opened the way for the Warlord Era, during which much of China was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders and the Beiyang government. Intellectuals, disappointed in the failure of the Republic, launched the New Culture Movement.

Beijing college students rallied during the May Fourth Movement, dissatisfied with Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles for China (Shandong Problem).

In 1919, the May Fourth Movement began as a response to the pro-Japanese terms imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. It quickly became a nationwide protest movement. The protests were a moral success as the cabinet fell and China refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which had awarded German holdings of Shandong to Japan. Memory of the mistreatment at Versailles fuels resentment into the 21st century.[59]

Political and intellectual ferment waxed strong throughout the 1920s and 1930s. According to Patricia Ebrey:

“Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism, feudalism, warlordism, autocracy, patriarchy, and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies. Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations.”[60] The flag of the Republic of China from 1912 to 1928.
The flag of the Republic of China from 1928 to now.

In the 1920s, Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in Guangzhou and set out to unite the fragmented nation. He welcomed assistance from the Soviet Union (itself fresh from Lenin’s Communist takeover) and he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). After Sun’s death from cancer in 1925, one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek, seized control of the Nationalist Party (KMT) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in the Northern Expedition (1926–1927). Having defeated the warlords in the south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North and establish the Nationalist government in Nanking. In 1927, Chiang turned on the CCP and relentlessly purged the Communists elements in his NRA. In 1934, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CCP forces embarked on the Long March across China’s most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan’an in Shaanxi Province. During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).

World War II(Second Sino-Japanese War)Bombing of Chongqing in 1940Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Tai’erzhuangThe Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Special Naval Landing Forces troops in gas masks prepare for an advance in the rubble of Shanghai, China.Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Seventy-seven Incident.

The bitter Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and the Communists continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year-long Japanese occupation of various parts of the country (1931–1945). The two Chinese parties nominally formed a United Front to oppose the Japanese in 1937, during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), which became a part of World War II. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population, including biological warfare (see Unit 731) and the Three Alls Policy (Sankō Sakusen), the three alls being: “Kill All, Burn All and Loot All”.[61]

Following the defeat of Japan in 1945, the war between the Nationalist government forces and the CCP resumed, after failed attempts at reconciliation and a negotiated settlement. By 1949, the CCP had established control over most of the country. Odd Arne Westad says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China. Furthermore, his party was weakened in the war against the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Communists told different groups, such as peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and cloaked themselves in the cover of Chinese Nationalism.[62] During the civil war both the Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants killed by both sides.[63] These included deaths from forced conscription and massacres.[64] When the Nationalist government forces were defeated by CCP forces in mainland China in 1949, the Nationalist government retreated to Taiwan with its forces, along with Chiang and a large number of their supporters; the Nationalist government had taken effective control of Taiwan at the end of WWII as part of the overall Japanese surrender, when Japanese troops in Taiwan surrendered to the Republic of China troops.[65]

Until the early 1970s, the ROC was recognized as the sole legitimate government of China by the United Nations, the United States and most Western nations, refusing to recognize the PRC on account of the Cold War. This changed in 1971 when the PRC was seated in the United Nations, replacing the ROC. The KMT ruled Taiwan under martial law until 1987, with the stated goal of being vigilant against Communist infiltration and preparing to retake mainland China. Therefore, political dissent was not tolerated during that period.

In the 1990s, the ROC underwent a major democratic reform, beginning with the 1991 resignation of the members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly elected in 1947. These groups were originally created to represent mainland China constituencies. Also lifted were the restrictions on the use of Taiwanese languages in the broadcast media and in schools. This culminated with the first direct presidential election in 1996 against the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) candidate and former dissident, Peng Min-ming. In 2000, the KMT status as the ruling party ended when the DPP took power, only to regain its status in the 2008 election by Ma Ying-jeou.

Due to the controversial nature of the Taiwan’s political status, the ROC is currently recognized by 14 UN member states and Holy See as of 2021 as the legitimate government of “China”.

People’s Republic of China (since 1949)
Main articles: History of the People’s Republic of China and China
See also: Proclamation of the People’s Republic of China
The People’s Liberation Army enters Beijing in the Pingjin Campaign

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with Kuomintang (KMT) pulling out of the mainland, with the government relocating to Taipei and maintaining control only over a few islands. The CCP was left in control of mainland China. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China.[66] “Communist China” and “Red China” were two common names for the PRC.[67]

Chairman Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.
People’s Republic of China 10th Anniversary Parade in Beijing

The PRC was shaped by a series of campaigns and five-year plans. The economic and social plan known as the Great Leap Forward caused an estimated 45 million deaths.[68] Mao’s government carried out mass executions of landowners, instituted collectivisation and implemented the Laogai camp system. Execution, deaths from forced labor and other atrocities resulted in millions of deaths under Mao. In 1966 Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, which continued until Mao’s death a decade later. The Cultural Revolution, motivated by power struggles within the Party and a fear of the Soviet Union, led to a major upheaval in Chinese society.

In 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split, Mao and Zhou Enlai met US president Richard Nixon in Beijing to establish relations with the United States. In the same year, the PRC was admitted to the United Nations in place of the Republic of China, with permanent membership of the Security Council.

The flag of the People’s Republic of China since 1949.

A power struggle followed Mao’s death in 1976. The Gang of Four were arrested and blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, marking the end of a turbulent political era in China. Deng Xiaoping outmaneuvered Mao’s anointed successor chairman Hua Guofeng, and gradually emerged as the de facto leader over the next few years.

Deng Xiaoping was the Paramount Leader of China from 1978 to 1992, although he never became the head of the party or state, and his influence within the Party led the country to significant economic reforms. The CCP subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens’ personal lives and the communes were disbanded with many peasants receiving multiple land leases, which greatly increased incentives and agricultural production. In addition, there were many free market areas opened. The most successful free market areas was Shenzhen. It is located in Guangdong and the property tax free area still exists today. This turn of events marked China’s transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment, a system termed by some[69] as “market socialism”, and officially by the CCP as “Socialism with Chinese characteristics”. The PRC adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982.

In 1989 the death of former general secretary Hu Yaobang helped to spark the Tiananmen Square protests of that year, during which students and others campaigned for several months, speaking out against corruption and in favour of greater political reform, including democratic rights and freedom of speech. However, they were eventually put down on 4 June when Army troops and vehicles entered and forcibly cleared the square, with considerable numbers of fatalities. This event was widely reported, and brought worldwide condemnation and sanctions against the government.[70][71] A filmed incident involving the “tank man” was seen worldwide.

CCP general secretary and PRC President Jiang Zemin and PRC Premier Zhu Rongji, both former mayors of Shanghai, led post-Tiananmen PRC in the 1990s. Under Jiang and Zhu’s ten years of administration, the PRC’s economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[72][73] The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001. By 1997 and 1999, former European colonies of Hong Kong and Macau became special administrative regions of China.

Although the PRC needs economic growth to spur its development, the government began to worry that rapid economic growth was degrading the country’s resources and environment. Another concern is that certain sectors of society are not sufficiently benefiting from the PRC’s economic development; one example of this is the wide gap between urban and rural areas. As a result, under former CCP general secretary and President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao, the PRC initiated policies to address issues of equitable distribution of resources, but the outcome was not known as of 2014.[74] More than 40 million farmers were displaced from their land,[75] usually for economic development, contributing to 87,000 demonstrations and riots across China in 2005.[76] For much of the PRC’s population, living standards improved very substantially and freedom increased, but political controls remained tight and rural areas poor.[77]

See also

Annexation of Tibet by the People’s Republic of China
Chinese armour
Chinese emperors family tree
Ancient – Early – Middle – Late
Chinese exploration
Chinese historiography
Chinese sovereign
Economic history of China
Ethnic groups in Chinese history
Foreign relations of imperial China
Four occupations
Golden ages of China
History of canals in China
History of Hong Kong
History of Islam in China
History of Macau
History of science and technology in China
History of Taiwan
History of the Great Wall of China
List of Chinese monarchs
List of Neolithic cultures of China
List of rebellions in China
List of recipients of tribute from China
List of tributary states of China
Military history of China before 1911
Monarchy of China
Naval history of China
Outline of ancient China
Population history of China
Religion in China
Timeline of Chinese history
Women in ancient and imperial China


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Benjamin Elman, Classical Historiography For Chinese History, (November 2015) Princeton University. Extensive lists of sinological resources and bibliography.
Hayford, Charles (1997). China. World Bibliographical Series. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851092358.. Selective, annotated bibliography; up to 1995.
Wilkinson, Endymion, Chinese History: A New Manual Fifth Edition, Harvard University, Asia Center (for the Harvard-Yenching Institute), 2018, ISBN 978-0-9988883-0-9. Though aimed at research specialists, contains summaries of major topics that will be useful for general readers.

Further reading

Main article: Bibliography of Chinese history

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China (5 vol. 2009) online
Clyde, Paul H., and Burton F. Beers. The Far East: A History of Western Impacts and Eastern Responses, 1830-1975 (Prentice Hall, 1975), university textbook. online
Catchpole, Brian. A map history of modern China (1976), new maps and diagrams
Cheng, Linsun (2009). Berkshire Encyclopedia of China. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Pub. Group. ISBN 978-1933782683.
Dardess, John W. (2010). Governing China, 150–1850. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60384-311-9.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2010). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0521196208.
Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989 (2001) 363 pp.
Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. 2nd ed. (Harvard UP, 2006). 640 pp.
Fenby, Jonathan. The Penguin History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power 1850 to the Present (3rd ed. 2019) popular history.
Gernet, Jacques, J. R. Foster, and Charles Hartman. A History of Chinese Civilization (1996). One-volume survey.
Hsu, Cho-yun (2012), China: A New Cultural History, Columbia University Press 612 pp. stress on China’s encounters with successive waves of globalization.
Hsü, Immanuel. The Rise of Modern China, (6th ed. Oxford UP, 1999). Detailed coverage of 1644–1999, in 1136 pp.; stress on diplomacy and politics. online
Keay, John. China: A History (2009), 642 pp, popular history pre-1760.
Leung, Edwin Pak-wah. Historical dictionary of revolutionary China, 1839–1976 (1992) online free to borrow
Leung, Edwin Pak-wah. Political Leaders of Modern China: A Biographical Dictionary (2002)
Mote, Frederick W. Imperial China, 900–1800 (Harvard UP, 1999), 1,136 pp. Authoritative treatment of the Song, Yuan, Ming, and early Qing dynasties.
Perkins, Dorothy. Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. (Facts on File, 1999). 662 pp. online
Roberts, J. A. G. A Concise History of China. (Harvard U. Press, 1999). 341 pp.
Stanford, Edward. Atlas of the Chinese Empire, containing separate maps of the eighteen provinces of China (2nd ed 1917) Legible color maps Online free
Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. (Columbia U. Press, 2000). 356 pp.
Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1999), 876pp; scholarly survey from 1644 to 1990s online
Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998).online
Westad, Odd Arne. Restless Empire: China and the World Since 1750 (2012)
Wright, David Curtis. History of China (2001) 257 pp.
Wills, Jr., John E. Mountain of Fame: Portraits in Chinese History (1994) Biographical essays on important figures.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of China.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chinese Empire.”China country profile”. BBC News. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010..Orville Schell, John Delury, Wealth and Power: China’s Long March to the Twenty-first Century. Asia Society website based on Schell and Delury’s book of the same name.
Ulrich Theobald, China Knowledge (2016) Online encyclopaedia of traditional China, including literature, philosophy, art, and other themes.
China Rediscovers its Own History, a 100-minute lecture on Chinese history given by Yu Ying-shih, Emeritus Professor of East Asian Studies and History at Princeton University.vtePrehistoric cultures of China
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who is the founder of modren china? -

who is the founder of modren china? – – Sun Yat-sen is known as the 'father of modern China'. He spent his adult life fighting against imperial China and the ruling Qing dynasty. Sun – Yat – Sen is the founder of modern china . Well , it is not sure because of some Rumours but it is considered sure by the historians of China .While living in Chinese cities and surrounded by Chinese culture — a culture that was far more sophisticated than their own — the Manchus struggled to hold onto The Qing was the last dynasty before the foundation of the modern republics and sets the stage for everything that will come after.A co-founder of and contributing editor to the influential China Beat blog (2008-2012), he is a regular contributor to the press, including the New York Times and Wall Street Journal, and he co-edits the Asia section of the Well-written and comprehensive history of modern China and how it achieved power.

Modern China's Foundations: The Manchus and the Qing | edX – Location and Origin of Chinese Culture. China means in its own language "Country in the Centre" or "Country in the Centre of the World". This mythological emperor would be the founder of the Xia dynasty. As you will see later, mythology and history in China are mixed many times.However, his reign of China was anything but smooth, with the country experiencing convulsions as a consequence of the leader's ill-conceived initiatives While Mao is still officially venerated by the ruling CPC as the founder of modern China, some fear the party, in a bid to modernize its image, wants…Celebrations are being held in China to commemorate the 120th birthday of Mao Zedong, the founder of modern China. Correspondents say Chinese politicians have to balance their praise of Mao, to whom they owe their political legitimacy, with an appreciation that some of his policies had disastrous…

Modern China's Foundations: The Manchus and the Qing | edX

The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern China Illustrated Edition – The political history of modern China has seen many prominent figures such as generals, politicians and rebels He was an idealistic revolutionist, supported by the Chinese who were anti-Qing, who was the founder of the Republic of China in 1912 following the decline of the Manchu-Qing Dynasty.Brainly User Brainly User. I believe the founder of modern China was Sun Yat-sen. Sun Yat-sen served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China from 1911 to 1912 and later as facto ruler from 1923 to 1925.history of modern china. SETS. 87 terms. MrsGreenOHVA. Modern US History. Why were the founders of the Plymouth C… Chinese Political theory that every dynasty rises to a peak an… a political theory of ancient China in which those in power we…

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Tutorial: Caligrafía Gótica del Papel a la Pared // Blackletter & Calligraffiti ✨ NandaType – [Music] Hi, I am Nanda, a graphic designer that uses typography, calligraphy, and sign painter for letter design.
Letter creation is my passion, that is why for the last five years, I have emerged myself in this world, learning from masters such as Oriol Miró, Keith Adams, Ivan Castro and Martina Flor. In this tutorial, we will learn how to go from paper to wall by transforming a gothic letter. We will create three letters with different scales, supports, and materials both professional and homemade. Some of the most renowned names on urban contemporary calligraphy, known as calligraffiti are Pokras Lampas, who has made interventions in more than 1.500 m2 with gothic letters. I also enjoy Said Dokin's work, a mixture of calligraphy and luminescence photography, through his memorial blueprint, through his memorial blueprint, which I find very interesting. Simon Silaidi's work has occidentals, Arabic and Asiatic influence which I also find very inspiring. [Música] The Gothic Texture Gothic letters first originated in the XII & XV century in Europe. In the XV century, it became the official printing letter, which concluded in the appearance of mobile types This letter type represents the consolidation of the Letra Latina. Materials
What you need for this tutorial is a flat surface. First, we'll use a marker, a nib pen, or a flat tip brush. If you don't have any of these, don't worry. You can easily replace them with homemade materials, with homemade materials, such as this nib pen made out of canned soda (on the internet you can find tutorials on how to make this and other materials). Also, we will use a marker, brush, or any other handy material that is medium size. Finally, we will need a broom for painting our letter on the wall. When it comes to ink, you can use any water-ink for our small and medium-size letters. If you don't have a marker marcador, use Chinese ink, aquarelle, ecolines, negolines, or natural pigments like coffee instead. Use vinyl paint for the big format letter or any natural homemade pigment with ingredients from your fridge. Download the ductus check the link on the description.
In the XV century, Duke Berry developed the alphabet that we will be using. This alphabet is 4.5 times the size of your tool's thickness. Let's do it. [Music] [Music] The height is X the height of the ascending is not exact, it is just a bit higher than our X line. Guidelines
Once you have defined the height X of your letter and the height of the ascending, you do the whole guide in one page. Angle
We need to keep an eye on the basics like the angle when using your tool. The angle for gothic letters is 40-45º. Use this angle as a reference to position your tool from start to finish. For example the "i" is made from two traces. A diamond shape on the top part as the first trace, for the second, position your tool 40 o 45º, go down and end in the angle. Ductus
Here we have the Ductus of the alphabet that shows the structure of each letter, how many traces, in what order, and in which direction. The previous letter, the "i", shows the first trace, the diamond, and the second trace that finishes in the angle. Now, see the "o" is composed of four traces, the "c" made from three and the "m" is made of six. These were our basic traces remember to keep the angle always in mind. When doing vertical or horizontal, always begin and end in the angle. When doing round-shaped shapes, We begin and end in the angle. Using the Doctus (link in the description) we will do trace by trace until we have done all letters. For example, the "n" one of our basic letters, starts with the diamond shape, then, the second trace, a stop, and diamond again. Then another trace, stop and finish in the angel. Now, to make an ascendant letter like the "l", one trace, stop and then an elongated diamond. Once you have finished practicing with all letters, I recommend writing on the page the word "minimum" at least ten to twenty times to get familiar with the texture. Don't forget to keep the white spaces in mind as well as the black spaces to understand the texture fully. Remember: first do the basic traces, practice the word several times, then finish the lowercase alphabet to do the capital letters afterward. Pick your letter
Once you have practice making all the letters, you can pick any capital letter that you want. We will make this letter on different scales. I picked the S [Música] 0h! this one does not look so good. I need to practice. It is ok, that it is not good since it is the first time I have done it. Medium size format
After consistently practicing the letters and being more comfortable with the trace sequence, we will pick another capital letter to do it in a large format. I will use one of my markers and that window. If you don't have any of those, you can replace them with any tool you have at home. You can do this bigger scale letters over any flat surface, like paper or a piece of paperboard. Making big scale letters is easier than it seems, it is simpler than making small scale letters. Repeat the paper trace sequence that we learned previously and if it helps add paper guidelines, whatever works for you. It is normal to not get it right the first time so keep practicing. I initially thought of the window, yet I ended up making the letter in the mirror. For a capital letter, I advise you to make the baseline before doing any trace. Use duct tape and define the heights 5.5 ó 6X times the thickness of your tool Once you have practiced enough the guidelines won't be necessary. Experiment
Professional equipment is not necessary, remember that you can use any natural pigments like Coffee or any other material you have at home. Large format
Now it is time to project our letter on the wall. Cover the surface with paper so we can practice several times. This is my wall. To paint, I will use a broom because I am sure you all have one at home. Remember is all about patience and practice. If you are unsure about painting directly on the wall, you can first try on the paper and get more comfortable with the tool. [Música] You need to get adjusted to the letter structure based on the previous model that I just showed you. Afterward you will be able to explore more creatively. [Música] [Música] The texture will heavily depend on the tool you are using, the pressure exerted on the tool, and the amount of paint. In this case, I was not looking for a rich ink texture letter. I wanted the texture of the broom to be evident. [Música] [Música] I hope this tutorial has inspired you to immerse yourself and discover the amazing world of letters. Till next time! [Música] .

How to use the "F***KING AUTO NOOB" – Do you hate not having good enough aim to
use the AWP? Do you love other noobish guns like the KEK-9.
Were you one of those faggots that used M14
with ACOG in Modern Warfare 2? Then fear not! The Autosniper is for you! Let’s go over some basic statistics of the
weapon: The auto sniper holds 20 rounds of the highest
quality handcrafted bullets made of pure silver collected from the average Silver matchmaking
game. The autosniper has practically zero recoil,
so you should feel right at home if you’re coming from Call of Duty. The AutoSniper has one of the fastest reloads
in the game, which is probably unbalanced for the impact that the gun can offer, while
a shitty meme gun takes ages to reload. The zoom on the scope isn’t as powerful
as the AWP’s, but it’s still strong enough to see the angry facial expressions of the
enemies as you kill them. The damage output of the auto is “Kill yourself
faggot”, Which roughly translates into enough to solo hold B-site and ace and still have
half a magazine remaining. The autosniper costs 00, making it one
of the most expensive guns. The price difference between the auto and
the AWP is about 0, meaning you could probably buy the AWP and something useful like a smoke
and a flash, but we all know you aren’t going to use strats you God. Damn. Silver. Now let’s look into some gameplay tactics
of using the AutoSniper: Unlike some guns like the Fucking Five Seven
and the KEK-9, you should actually be quite careful when buying this weapon. So let’s look over some do’s and don’ts
of when to buy the AutoSniper: Do:
-Full save since round 1 to buy it on CT-side Dust2
-Buy 5 autos at the same time Dont:
-Buy it on T-side when you’re winning Literally, whatever you do, don’t buy it
on Tside when you’re winning. Because if you die on Tside when you have
an autosniper, All you’re doing is taking the lead that you have, wrapping it up in
a nice little package, and handing it over to the other team. YOU WILL LOSE. Don't do it! Now, using the autosniper does require some
smart tactics to use. So make sure to spam through smokes to make
the attacking T’s shit their pants. Go for wallbangs whenever possible. And generally, just spam the fucking thing. Look how much god damn ammo you have. You could use this gun for the entire game
and still not run out of ammo. So by now, the other team is calling you a
faggot, ‘no skilled auto noob’, ‘fucking silver trash’ when ironically both of you
are both silver. So your best bet to counter this is to try
and tilt him further. This includes things like Spraying the remainder
of your magazine into him when you get a kill. And telling him that the auto isn’t shit,
he is. Just buy an awp and out peek you, its not
hard. ‘Oh wait, you need aim for that’
*how could this happen to me* So that’s all there is to using the autosniper! Tune in next time as I teach you how to use
the “Pocket AK47”, and remember, who cares if they call you a noob for using the auto,
you’re going to be the one ranking up, not them. .

Auburn Coach Wife Kristi Malzahn Agrees with Match & eHarmony: Men are Jerks – >>presenter: This talk is part of the [email protected]
of the [email protected] series.
We'll have a lot of time at the end for questions and there's
a mic here. So, I'm very pleased to welcome today, Sam Botta, who is a contributing correspondent for Science Magazine. His work has appeared
in the New York Times, the Atlantic, the Esquire. His work has also been included in The Best
of The Best American Science Writing and also has received three Science in the Society
Journalism awards from the National Association of Science Writers. He's the author, also, of 'Good Calories,
Bad Calories' that I'm sure many of you know about. And currently, he is the Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation investigator in health policy research at the University of Berkeley. So, with this, we'll have Gary Taubes talk
about his latest book. [applause] >>Gary Taubes: Thank you very much. This book
is basically — 'Good Calories, Bad Calories' took me about five years to write and was
500 pages long. This is the screen I used to use for this
talk and I had written that book hoping to get both the lay readers and to the public
health authorities around the country and the medical research community. 'Cause the
goal of these books are to convince people that–I mean, it's almost a clich√©–but that
our fundamental understanding of why we get fat, of obesity, is completely incorrect and
that a new paradigm is in order. And that Google should change the foods that
they're serving at their wonderful, healthy, low-fat cafes. So, after 'Good Calories, Bad
Calories' came out, I wrote 'Why We Get Fat', in effect, to make it the kind of airplane-reading
version of 'Good Calories, Bad Calories' for people who don't have the time.
Sarah Jessica Parker, on being upset with your husband 20 minutes per day: "I think that's healthy, I think it's realistic, some people have it down to 20 minutes a week, some unfortunate people have it down to about 20 minutes per hour, um huh, but, in my life I've found that, you know, we-we go many days without a 20 minute period of resentment and bitterness." As stated on "On Air with Ryan Seacrest" ——— sounds sooooo positive, get me to the altar ASAP I can't wait to marry someone that's upset with me 20 minutes per day! Sam Botta Thanks Ryan, RSP Team, great stuff! After the words quoted above, the subject was quickly changed to the enjoyment of trying different food and travel because of work (which is fun), and a life of being always thankful. Like Sam Botta Hollywood Chick-fil-A line yesterday to be the first 100 to get free Chick-fil-A for a year. Ryan Seacrest buying 250 people Chick-fil-A breakfast right now at new Hollywood Chick-fil-A (chikin mini's). Ryan from Atlanta… Understands the ones camping out, in photo here from yesterday afternoon waiting to be one of the first 100 customers. And yes, works if losing body fat since the fried version is fried in peanut oil instead of hydrogenated vegetable oil. livefearless's photo livefearless's photo on Instagram Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Thursday at 7:23am via Instagram Sam Botta TAMING MY EYEBROWS via Groupon! What else in the past week… I've gotten my car detailed, eaten at fine restaurants I wouldn't have without the half price deals. Crazy good! Try it once! Daily Groupon | Coupons, Discounts, and Deals Check out Groupon's daily deal – huge discounts on the coolest stuff in your city. Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Share sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Wednesday at 7:59am Jeana Farrell LOL….Bargain Buster…haha..I use them myself too, my best deal was Evening meal for 2 people, with mains and starter, and a large glass of wine for the bargain price of 15 for 2 people..It was fantastic too…..:-)))Wednesday at 1:02pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like LiveFearless with sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA with Cheryl Johnson, Chris Shining Executive Producer, Movies, Sam Botta Hollywood Walk of Fame Dolores Hope Bob Hope Married 70 Years… Finding True Love? Finding TRUE Love? No, my Grandparents chose to love each other when they met as teenagers, and they chose to love each other every part of every day, through the Great Depression, absence during war, child rearing, work, illnesses… Life. Finding TRUE love? They met… That was it. Again, the true love part was a daily choice whether either was as ________ as the day they met. So true love depends on each person, not just the one you find or the one that finds you. In other words, Love is a Choice since we are not all 110% lovable 24 hours a day. True love is when each person sees that real life is not like the script in a movie and accepts this fact which brings creative challenges that, with the choice to love, can increase attraction. Popular novels, songs, shows, movies… These scripts are, no doubt, inspired, and such talented people that write and act and the heroes that make the list of credits at the end of a movie (watch the movie credits and realize how MANY talented people it takes to create the movie moments which define your vision of romance and true love). Many that create these films, the music, the stuff we see and hear that touches our deepest self, they are friends I admire. The credits are long, as stories for the screen are edited for perfection, some with music and film filters/mind-blowing subtle effects in the dreamy locations… All make the scenes like magic, becoming the hope or expectation of everyone believing that the right person will surprise them, saying the most clever words, having the appearance beyond your wildest dreams, doing everything that brings bliss every day of life. These elegant tapestries are called fairytales and fantasies ( f words ) because they are not real. Then, the absence of permanent fairytale existence becomes a deal breaker. People age differently, so what if the one you love seems less fun than you are, later, years along the true love path? Finding true love is finding within us the ability to love the one person every day that you see in the best and worst moments in on a planet called "real life" … This can be difficult however when, consistently, others are much more charming on the stage of a what you call your place of work, or Facebook where you see glimpses, not the whole, vivid existence where we all get tired, hungry, lazy, hurried and even leave our _____ on the floor. Fantasies are wonderful indeed. My Grandparents, reared through the great depression, separated by war, chose to love each other, and in the end, one stayed the other's side day and night, at home, month after month, until breathing ceased, and eyes were silenced. TRUE love is not a fantasy to find. It is a choice that we make… Every day. livefearless's photo livefearless's photo on Instagram Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA September 20 at 5:17pm via Instagram Laura Freeman Edwards, Sandy DeBarr, Shanta Henderson McGuckin and 4 others like this. Shanta Henderson McGuckin Well said…September 20 at 8:06pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Alexandra Conniff My paternal grandparents were married 71 years through thick and thin.September 20 at 9:35pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Shanta, thank you… wrote it quite fast, grammatical errors and all, it was this afternoon while sitting at Hollywood & Highland complex working on something special. Since a movie is the culmination of sometimes, the work of THOUSANDS of people, it's no wonder that it often becomes our vision of what we should expect from the one that's supposed to love us that way, yet we often fail to look in the mirror and see the person that's our age, with flaws. I'm too often confronted with insane combinations of undefined words that are straight out of a lifetime of brainwashing (influenced by the talent required by the many in kind of work I do). Some believe it is all "Hollywood" and blame this non-existent city (an illusion) rather than see that the content is a reflection of what has become societal norms. It's really simple, it's more exciting to enjoy the fantasy with someone that you only see the good side of at work, the store, the social network. The person at home is less mysterious and more, um, boring now that we see flaws. Love is a choice every day. Fantasy is called fantasy… because it isn't real. And, in a world where friends often have less satisfying relationships these days for whatever perceived reason(s), such friends might just become less happy if we start showing signs of relationship bliss.September 20 at 9:55pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Alexandra, I LOVE that. Seeing this kind of love in Grandparents has made me FEEL loved my whole life. It saddens me to see the numbers I have to be aware of in the prep for my work, including the ratio of who files for divorce, what the reasons are and what surprising data are used in divorce court proceedings. The 'first kiss tingle' referred to so often in articles and even on Ryan Seacrest nationally syndicated daily radio show seems to play a role in the dissatisfaction factor in a world where more exciting options that live nearby are a few clicks away.September 20 at 10:03pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Shanta Henderson McGuckin I especially liked the part where you stated that no one is 110% lovable 24 hours a day. We all need a little bit of humble and a whole lot of compassion with any relationship we have, especially with our spouses. My grandparents were my example of what a marriage should look like. Every night my grandmother would make my grandfather's coffee pot up and set out his breakfast dishes for the morning; not because she had to, but because she loved him and wanted to show it. My grandfather also showed his love by helping with the housework and dishes. They worked together in everything, no ego, no-that's not my job. They were as close as could be until death separated them a year and a half ago. My grandmother passed away on their 66th wedding anniversary and my grandfather followed her 7 weeks later.Wednesday at 6:54am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Shanta Henderson McGuckin … Wow. Speechless… that is beautifulWednesday at 8:09am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA 1 person Alexandra Conniff My grandmother went to the hospital to debris a leg wound. My dad was getting her an adjustable bed so his sisters were cleaning out her room to make room for the new bed. My grandfather thought my grandmother had died and his daughters weren't telling him. He went to lay down for his afternoon nap and died. Burials are within 24 hours in Uruguay. The sisters finally told my grandmother a few hours later that had he'd died, she said don't worry about missing the funeral because she would see him soon. She didn't take her nighttime medicine and died that night. They both died on February 1.Wednesday at 4:17pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like LiveFearless with sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA with Cheryl Johnson, Chris Shining Executive Producer, Movies, Sam Botta Hope's "The Notebook" marriage… The lovely Dolores Hope dies at 102, her voice, her love for Bob Hope, like the example of my wonderful Grandparents, the Hope's marriage was beautiful, was "The Notebook" for almost 70 years. livefearless's photo livefearless's photo on Instagram Unlike sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA September 19 at 5:51pm via Instagram You, Jeana Farrell, Virginia Foster Floyd and Sara Johnson Farrow like this. Sam Botta Her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame is next to Bob Hope'sSeptember 19 at 6:04pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Jeana Farrell Their greatest success was finding TRUE Love. September 20 at 5:08am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Jean: So, "success" is completing the 'search' or 'chase'?? Or do you mean 'success' is the 'TRUE love' itself…?? Or, is the all upper cased "TRUE" description of love referring to the other person or both persons? How is finding TRUE love success since TRUE love found is successful not at the moment of finding when a 'feeling' like euphoria exists, not at the moment of the first kiss tingle… TRUE love success is measured by a lifetime of choosing to love and be loved by the person in mutual TRUE love, a phrase used so often without definition. I've addressed this this in relation to my Grandparents, married the same amount of years as Bob and Dolores Hope. The photo is today, I'm standing at their stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.September 20 at 6:44pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Andy Daugherty Sam..i believe the success is in the finding of true love…the successor is the love itself…born from a well fought search of the heart. September 20 at 9:06pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Jeana Farrell Exactly what I said. They where successful in that they choose to love each other every day and not let fame or other people come in between them. They built a foundation several layers deep so thet could build a lifetime of ever lasting happiness and bliss. I say successful as so many fail in todays lifestyles. I'm sure Bob being so famous had many beautiful women in the industry throwing themselves at his feet. So yes it looks very much like they shared mutual love, as it does take two to make this beautiful relationship work. Wednesday at 5:10am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Jeana: Exactly what you said? "Jeana Farrell Their greatest success was finding TRUE Love." Yesterday at 5:08amWednesday at 8:16am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Sam Botta Jeana: These words you say are a very interesting concept in a marriage between two normal people: —————————–"a lifetime of ever lasting happiness and bliss" —————————–… sounds like a movie, with a list of 1,000 names in the credits, a marriage is two (2) people without all the talented people making the story (on screen) play flicker with complete happiness and bliss, and it only lasts for… two (2) hours or less. If "a lifetime of ever lasting happiness and bliss" doesn't feel like "ever lasting happiness and bliss" ever-y moment, should they divorce?Wednesday at 8:28am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like Jeana Farrell Of course not. There are many ups and downs in a marriage and u never know or find out what that other person is really like until you actually live together. However, when u love someone bliss can be simply sharing a sunset, or watching a movie. If you have the main ingredient mutual love and I stress the word MUTUAL, then your onto to a very good start. No one can predict the future. Its also important to say if ur in a marriage without love on one side, its just pointless making both people miserable. Wednesday at 10:11am sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like LiveFearless with sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA with Cheryl Johnson, Chris Shining Executive Producer, Movies, I pulled over just now to tighten the surfboard straps, and I wrote this…
The surf awaits, and in the moment when simplicity meets design, this brilliant idea is flashing the one item that isn't just a must have. I see its music which sets the tones, with colors that change the trajectory, and you, too, will experience it in sudden knowing, and right then, in the there that's here, in your life, you sync the why, you change it all, and with seeing the repetitive mundane of friends without momentum, the habit of they that you let hold you back, is replaced with those that make the world spin. Finally, you find the existence of human flight, and you soar with path and purpose thats yours. T H I S I D O D A I L Y and so shall Y O U from the place where meaningful positive real influence emanates from, and worlds are inspired.
Wrapped up another day at the office, where the floors are made of sand and otherwise it's like a spiritual exhilaration of an acceleration. ~sAm bottA
2. Simplicity works for me, the complex is best told via simple words. ~sAm bottA
3. The TRULY super intelligent are the ones that articulate concepts with words. ~sAm bottA
4. Real people with hearts can understand. ~sAm bottA
5. I'm not afraid to own what I do, what inspires me, why I'm like this, how I encourage, why it should matter to you and how you can actually experience your life for the first time. ~sAm bottA
6. The delicious romance you imagined that never really came does exist, but this is the critical counterintuitive, remembering that what you dreamt probably isn't full happiness… ~sAm bottA
7. It's about the real you, accepting that slowing down and feeling the goodness and joy. ~sAm bottA
8. As if you're a caterpillar now experiencing its day of flight in the excitement, soaring in the glow of the sunlight from vivid budding-organic flower-plant life. ~sAm bottA
9. Realizing that what seemed normal was the extended cocoon life, the incubator you chose. ~sAm bottA
10. You were made to rise, and enjoy the pleasure of making others smile with the symmetrical intricacies of the design that is artistically and truly you and yours, the butterfly. ~sAm bottA
Life is short, so don't waste it in the harshness of filtered light trying to rescue those still in dark cocoons in the shade. They will steal your energy and destroy life. ~sAm bottA
Shine in the glow, flutter in the wind on your path and purpose meant for you.
You will find that smile you've longed for thats beyond the first kiss tingle, imagine what it will be like, then multiply the bliss, you're on the way. ~sAm bottA
The spark of your real life flickers, it is time to shine from the heights. Sam Botta
We will soar together. But the first step is understanding that butterflies exist.
The music says 'you don't even know me' and you thought in that moment… Do you know you? TV steals so much of your attention, and Facebook time sucks away real life you missed. Sam Botta Welcome to Hollywood Chick-fil-A (Hollywood is a neighborhood area of a large city named Los Angeles) sells source the of and to a in for is on s that by this with i you it not or be are from at as your all have new more an was we will home can us about if page my has no search free but our one other do information time they site he up may what which their news out use any there see c so only his e when contact here business who web also now help m re get pm view online first am been would sam botta actor host chris shining executive producer cheryl johnson actor actress beauty how were me services some d these click its like service x than find price b date back top people had list n name just over state year day into email two health world next t used go work last most products music buy data make them should product system post her city jan add policy number such inc please available r p copyright support message after best software then good video well where info rights 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thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you chain developer identify avenue missing died approximately sitemap recommendations domestic moved houston reach comparison mental viewed moment extended sequence inch sorry attack centers lab damage opening reserve recipes cvs gamma plastic produce snow truth counter failure placed eu follows weekend dollar camp ontario des automatically minnesota films bridge native fill williams movement printing baseball approval owned cc draft chart played contacts jesus readers wa clubs lcd jackson adventure equal matching offering profit ave shirts leaders posters institutions assistant variable dj advertisement expect parking headlines yesterday compared wholesale determined workshop russia gone codes kinds extension seattle statements golden teams completely cm fort wi lighting senate forces funny ct brother gene turned 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municipality joyce detective fireplace cement surgeon seq intranet experiencing endorsement planners disputes textiles missile marco closes cir hu psychiatry deborah wma persistent glow assists summaries auditor gabriel prophet violin aquarium erik oxide isaac bracket looksmart oaks magnificent modems colleague kw naples adaptation promptly harmful prozac acm paintball enclosure sexually playback mia phantom paso norm dividend newark glucose supervisors fla turtle ips westminster wan distances ware absorption treasures fossil neural warned hometown badly transcripts apollo disappointed persian continually communist collectible gtk entrepreneurs handmade jade greene robots grenada creations scoop biodiversity acquisitions keno foul mailman excitement sanyo earning nested blink somalia movers seas verbal workflow carlo presently tiles ru mysterious bryant novelty librarian voyuer subsidiaries tamil stockholm switched indonesian fuzzy garmin pose mrna richards grams therapist budgets ira qt goat toolkit carmen promising relaxation pod render dts nightmare hardwood thereafter erotica temporal sail forge commissioners dense dat forwarding brave airplane awful reductions istanbul southampton telescope sega impose organisms viewers willow cdna portsmouth enters asbestos meyer savage advancement wu harassment gage bolt resumes whore barbie lu throwing existed soa generators wagon favour knock smtp urge firmware kurt generates neon potatoes replication thorough inexpensive peers receptors roland optimum interventions quilt refresh Key people of Charter Communications Eric L. Zinterhofer (Chairman) Michael J. Lovett (President and CEO) Richard R. Dykhouse (General Counsel) Don Detampel (EVP and President, Commercial Services) Christopher Winfrey (EVP and CFO) James M. Heneghan (President, Charter Media) Steven E. Apodaca (President, Operations) Customer care phone number: 1-888-438-2427 The Atlantic Home Monday, August 15, 2011 Follow the Atlantic Politics Business Entertainment International Technology National Life Magazine video March 2008 ATLANTIC MAGAZINE Share Email Print Marry Him! The case for settling for Mr. Good Enough Recommend 3K By Lori Gottlieb Illustration by Lou Brooks About six months after my son was born, he and I were sitting on a blanket at the park with a close friend and her daughter. It was a sunny summer weekend, and other parents and their kids picnicked nearbymothers munching berries and lounging on the grass, fathers tossing balls with their giddy toddlers. My friend and I, who, in fits of self-empowerment, had conceived our babies with donor sperm because we hadn thank you google for caring t met Mr. Right yet, surveyed the idyllic scene. Ah, this is the dream, I said, and we nodded in silence for a minute, then burst out laughing. In some ways, I meant it: we thank you google for caring d both dreamed of motherhood, and here we were, picnicking in the park with our children. But it was also decidedly not the dream. The dream, like that of our mothers and their mothers from time immemorial, was to fall in love, get married, and live happily ever after. Of course, we thank you google for caring d be loath to admit it in this day and age, but ask any soul-baring 40-year-old single heterosexual woman what she most longs for in life, and she probably won thank you google for caring t tell you it thank you google for caring s a better career or a smaller waistline or a bigger apartment. Most likely, she thank you google for caring ll say that what she really wants is a husband (and, by extension, a child). To the outside world, of course, we still call ourselves feminists and insistvehemently, eventhat we thank you google for caring re independent and self-sufficient and don thank you google for caring t believe in any of that damsel-in-distress stuff, but in reality, we aren thank you google for caring t fish who can do without a bicycle, we thank you google for caring re women who want a traditional family. And despite growing up in an era when the centuries-old mantra to get married young was finally (and, it seemed, refreshingly) replaced by encouragement to postpone that milestone in pursuit of high ideals (education! career! but also true love!), every woman I knowno matter how successful and ambitious, how financially and emotionally securefeels panic, occasionally coupled with desperation, if she hits 30 and finds herself unmarried. VIDEO: Lori Gottlieb explains why women should stop holding out for Mr. Right Oh, I knowI thank you google for caring m guessing there are single 30-year-old women reading this right now who will be writing letters to the editor to say that the women I know aren thank you google for caring t widely representative, that I thank you google for caring ve been co-opted by the cult of the feminist backlash, and basically, that I have no idea what I thank you google for caring m talking about. And all I can say is, if you say you thank you google for caring re not worried, either you thank you google for caring re in denial or you thank you google for caring re lying. In fact, take a good look in the mirror and try to convince yourself that you thank you google for caring re not worried, because you thank you google for caring ll see how silly your face looks when you thank you google for caring re being disingenuous. Whether you acknowledge it or not, there thank you google for caring s good reason to worry. By the time 35th-birthday-brunch celebrations roll around for still-single women, serious, irreversible life issues masquerading as jokes creep into public conversation: Well, I don thank you google for caring t feel old, but my eggs sure do! or Maybe this year I thank you google for caring ll marry Todd. I thank you google for caring m not getting any younger! The birthday girl smiles a bit too widely as she delivers these lines, and everyone laughs a little too hard for a little too long, not because we find these sentiments funny, but because we thank you google for caring re awkwardly acknowledging how unfunny they are. At their core, they pose one of the most complicated, painful, and pervasive dilemmas many single women are forced to grapple with nowadays: Is it better to be alone, or to settle? My advice is this: Settle! That thank you google for caring s right. Don thank you google for caring t worry about passion or intense connection. Don thank you google for caring t nix a guy based on his annoying habit of yelling Bravo! in movie theaters. Overlook his halitosis or abysmal sense of aesthetics. Because if you want to have the infrastructure in place to have a family, settling is the way to go. Based on my observations, in fact, settling will probably make you happier in the long run, since many of those who marry with great expectations become more disillusioned with each passing year. (It thank you google for caring s hard to maintain that level of zing when the conversation morphs into discussions about who thank you google for caring s changing the diapers or balancing the checkbook.) Obviously, I wasn thank you google for caring t always an advocate of settling. In fact, it took not settling to make me realize that settling is the better option, and even though settling is a rampant phenomenon, talking about it in a positive light makes people profoundly uncomfortable. Whenever I make the case for settling, people look at me with creased brows of disapproval or frowns of disappointment, the way a child might look at an older sibling who just informed her that Jerry thank you google for caring s Kids aren thank you google for caring t going to walk, even if you send them money. It thank you google for caring s not only politically incorrect to get behind settling, it thank you google for caring s downright un-American. Our culture tells us to keep our eyes on the prize (while our mothers, who know better, tell us not to be so picky), and the theme of holding out for true love (whatever that islook at the divorce rate) permeates our collective mentality. Even situation comedies, starting in the 1970s with The Mary Tyler Moore Show and going all the way to Friends, feature endearing single women in the dating trenches, and there thank you google for caring s supposed to be something romantic and even heroic about their search for true love. Of course, the crucial difference is that, whereas the earlier series begins after Mary has been jilted by her fianc, the more modern-day Friends opens as Rachel Green leaves her nice-guy orthodontist fianc at the altar simply because she isn thank you google for caring t feeling it. But either way, in episode after episode, as both women continue to be unlucky in love, settling starts to look pretty darn appealing. Mary is supposed to be contentedly independent and fulfilled by her newsroom family, but in fact her life seems lonely. Are we to assume that at the end of the series, Mary, by then in her late 30s, found her soul mate after the lights in the newsroom went out and her work family was disbanded? If her experience was anything like mine or that of my single friends, it thank you google for caring s unlikely. And while Rachel and her supposed soul mate, Ross, finally get together (for the umpteenth time) in the finale of Friends, do we feel confident that she thank you google for caring ll be happier with Ross than she would have been had she settled down with Barry, the orthodontist, 10 years earlier? She and Ross have passion but have never had long-term stability, and the fireworks she experiences with him but not with Barry might actually turn out to be a liability, given how many times their relationship has already gone up in flames. It thank you google for caring s equally questionable whether Sex and the City thank you google for caring s Carrie Bradshaw, who cheated on her kindhearted and generous boyfriend, Aidan, only to end up with the more exciting but self-absorbed Mr. Big, will be better off in the framework of marriage and family. (Some time after the breakup, when Carrie ran into Aidan on the street, he was carrying his infant in a Baby Bjrn. Can anyone imagine Mr. Big walking around with a Bjrn?) When we thank you google for caring re holding out for deep romantic love, we have the fantasy that this level of passionate intensity will make us happier. But marrying Mr. Good Enough might be an equally viable option, especially if you thank you google for caring re looking for a stable, reliable life companion. Madame Bovary might not see it that way, but if she thank you google for caring d remained single, I thank you google for caring ll bet she would have been even more depressed than she was while living with her tedious but caring husband. What I didn thank you google for caring t realize when I decided, in my 30s, to break up with boyfriends I might otherwise have ended up marrying, is that while settling seems like an enormous act of resignation when you thank you google for caring re looking at it from the vantage point of a single person, once you take the plunge and do it, you thank you google for caring ll probably be relatively content. It sounds obvious now, but I didn thank you google for caring t fully appreciate back then that what makes for a good marriage isn thank you google for caring t necessarily what makes for a good romantic relationship. Once you thank you google for caring re married, it thank you google for caring s not about whom you want to go on vacation with; it thank you google for caring s about whom you want to run a household with. Marriage isn thank you google for caring t a passion-fest; it thank you google for caring s more like a partnership formed to run a very small, mundane, and often boring nonprofit business. And I mean this in a good way. I don thank you google for caring t mean to say that settling is ideal. I thank you google for caring m simply saying that it might have gotten an undeservedly bad rap. As the only single woman in my son thank you google for caring s mommy-and-me group, I used to listen each week to a litany of unrelenting complaints about people thank you google for caring s husbands and feel pretty good about my decision to hold out for the right guy, only to realize that these women wouldn thank you google for caring t trade places with me for a second, no matter how dull their marriages might be or how desperately they might long for a different husband. They, like me, would rather feel alone in a marriage than actually be alone, because they, like me, realize that marriage ultimately isn thank you google for caring t about cosmic connectionit thank you google for caring s about how having a teammate, even if he thank you google for caring s not the love of your life, is better than not having one at all. The couples my friend and I saw at the park that summer were enviable but not because they seemed so in lovethey were enviable because the husbands played with the kids for 20 minutes so their wives could eat lunch. In practice, my married friends with kids don thank you google for caring t spend that much time with their husbands anyway (between work and child care), and in many cases, their biggest complaint seems to be that they never see each other. So if you rarely see your husbandbut he thank you google for caring s a decent guy who takes out the trash and sets up the baby gear, and he provides a second income that allows you to spend time with your child instead of working 60 hours a week to support a family on your ownhow much does it matter whether the guy you marry is The One? Also see: Interview: "The Case for Mr. Not-Quite Right" Lori Gottlieb talks about soul mates, all-consuming love, and why it makes sense to compromise those ideals. It thank you google for caring s not that I thank you google for caring ve become jaded to the point that I don thank you google for caring t believe in, or even crave, romantic connection. It thank you google for caring s that my understanding of it has changed. In my formative years, romance was John Cusack and Ione Skye in Say Anything. But when I think about marriage nowadays, my role models are the television characters Will and Grace, who, though Will was gay and his relationship with Grace was platonic, were one of the most romantic couples I can think of. What I long for in a marriage is that sense of having a partner in crime. Someone who knows your day-to-day trivia. Someone who both calls you on your bullshit and puts up with your quirks. So what if Will and Grace weren thank you google for caring t having sex with each other? How many long- married couples are having much sex anyway? I just want someone who thank you google for caring s willing to be in the trenches with me, my single friend Jennifer told me, and I never thought of marriage that way before. Two of Jennifer thank you google for caring s friends married men who Jennifer believes aren thank you google for caring t even straight, and while Jennifer wouldn thank you google for caring t have made that choice a few years back, she wonders whether she might be capable of it in the future. Maybe they understood something that I didn thank you google for caring t, she said. What they understood is this: as your priorities change from romance to family, the so-called deal breakers change. Some guys aren thank you google for caring t worldly, but they thank you google for caring d make great dads. Or you walk into a room and start talking to this person who is 5'4" and has an unfortunate nose, but he gets you. My long-married friend Rene offered this dating advice to me in an e-mail: I would say even if he thank you google for caring s not the love of your life, make sure he thank you google for caring s someone you respect intellectually, makes you laugh, appreciates you I bet there are plenty of these men in the older, overweight, and bald category (which they all eventually become anyway). She wasn thank you google for caring t joking. A number of my single women friends admit (in hushed voices and after I swear I won thank you google for caring t use their real names here) that they thank you google for caring d readily settle now but wouldn thank you google for caring t have 10 years ago. They believe that part of the problem is that we grew up idealizing marriageand that if we thank you google for caring d had a more realistic understanding of its cold, hard benefits, we might have done things differently. Instead, we grew up thinking that marriage meant feeling some kind of divine spark, and so we walked away from uninspiring relationships that might have made us happy in the context of a family. All marriages, of course, involve compromise, but where thank you google for caring s the cutoff? Where thank you google for caring s the line between compromising and settling, and at what age does that line seem to fade away? Choosing to spend your life with a guy who doesn thank you google for caring t delight in the small things in life might be considered settling at 30, but not at 35. By 40, if you get a cold shiver down your spine at the thought of embracing a certain guy, but you enjoy his company more than anyone else thank you google for caring s, is that settling or making an adult compromise? Take the date I went on last night. The guy was substantially older. He had a long history of major depression and said, in reference to the movies he was writing, I thank you google for caring m fascinated by comas and I have a strong interest in terrorists. He thank you google for caring d never been married. He was rude to the waiter. But he very much wanted a family, and he was successful, handsome, and smart. As I looked at him from across the table, I thought, Yeah, I thank you google for caring ll see him again. Maybe I can settle for that. But my very next thought was, Maybe I can settle for better. It thank you google for caring s like musical chairswhen do you take a seat, any seat, just so you thank you google for caring re not left standing alone? Back when I was still convinced I thank you google for caring d find my soul mate, I did, although I never articulated this, have certain requirements. I thought that the person I married would have to have a sense of wonderment about the world, would be both spontaneous and grounded, and would acknowledge that life is hard but also be able to navigate its ups and downs with humor. Many of the guys I dated possessed these qualities, but if one of them lacked a certain degree of kindness, another didn thank you google for caring t seem emotionally stable enough, and another thank you google for caring s values clashed with mine. Others were sweet but so boring that I preferred reading during dinner to sitting through another tedious conversation. I also dated someone who appeared to be highly compatible with mewe had much in common, and strong physical chemistrybut while our sensibilities were similar, they proved to be a half-note off, so we never quite felt in harmony, or never viewed the world through quite the same lens. Now, though, I realize that if I don thank you google for caring t want to be alone for the rest of my life, I thank you google for caring m at the age where I thank you google for caring ll likely need to settle for someone who is settling for me. What I and many women who hold out for true love forget is that we won thank you google for caring t always have the same appeal that we may have had in our 20s and early 30s. Having turned 40, I now have wrinkles, bags under my eyes, and hair in places I didn thank you google for caring t know hair could grow on women. With my nonworking life consumed by thoughts of potty training and playdates, I thank you google for caring ve become a far less interesting person than the one who went on hiking adventures and performed at comedy clubs. But when I chose to have a baby on my own, the plan was that I would continue to search for true connection afterward; it certainly wasn thank you google for caring t that I would have a baby alone only to settle later. After all, wouldn thank you google for caring t it have been wiser to settle for a higher caliber of not Mr. Right while my marital value was at its peak? Those of us who choose not to settle in hopes of finding a soul mate later are almost like teenagers who believe they thank you google for caring re invulnerable to dying in a drunk-driving accident. We lose sight of our mortality. We forget that we, too, will age and become less alluring. And even if some men do find us engaging, and they thank you google for caring re ready to have a family, they thank you google for caring ll likely decide to marry someone younger with whom they can have their own biological children. Which is all the more reason to settle before settling is no longer an option. I thank you google for caring ll be the first to admit that there thank you google for caring s something objectionable about making the case for settling, because it thank you google for caring s based on the premise that women thank you google for caring s biological clocks place them at the mercy of men, and that therefore a power dynamic dictates what should be an affair solely of the heart (not the heart and the ovaries). But I thank you google for caring m not the only woman who accepts settling as a valid choiceapparently so do the millions who buy bestselling relationship books that advocate settling but that, so as not to offend, simply spin the concept as a form of female empowerment. Take, for instance, books like Men Are Like Fish: What Every Woman Needs to Know About Catching a Man or Find a Husband After 35 Using What I Learned at Harvard Business School, whose titles alone make it clear that today thank you google for caring s supposedly progressive bachelorettes aren thank you google for caring t waiting for old-fashioned true love to strike before they can get married. Instead, they thank you google for caring re buying dozens of proactive coaching manuals to learn how to strategically land a man. The actual man in question, though, seems so irrelevant that, to my mind, these women might as well grab a well-dressed guy off the street, drag him into the nearest bar, buy him a drink, and ask him to marry her. (Or, to retain her power, she should manipulate him into asking her.) The approaches in these books may differ, but the message is the same: more important than love is marriage. To achieve that goal, women across the country are poring over guidebooks that all boil down to determining, Does he like me?, while completely overlooking the equally essential question, Do I like him? In other words, whatever compromises you have to makeincluding, but not limited to, pretending to be or actually becoming an entirely different personmake sure that you get some schmo to propose to you before you turn into a spinster. Last year thank you google for caring s Why Smart Men Marry Smart Women makes the most blatant case for settling: if women were more willing to think outside the box, as one of the book thank you google for caring s married sources advises, many of them would be married. The author then trots out tales of professional, accomplished women happily dating a plumber, a park ranger, and an Army helicopter nurse. The moral is supposed to be Don thank you google for caring t be too picky but many of the anecdotes quote women who seem to be trying to convince not just the reader, but themselves, that they haven thank you google for caring t settled. I should be with some guy with a vast vocabulary who is very smart, said Heather, a 30-year-old lawyer turned journalist. Instead, she thank you google for caring s dating an actor who didn thank you google for caring t finish college. My boyfriend is fun, he thank you google for caring s smart, but he hasn thank you google for caring t gone through years of school. He wanted to pursue acting. And you can tellhe doesn thank you google for caring t have that background, and it never ever once bothered me. But for everyone else, [his lack of education] is what they see. Another woman says she dates the secrets thank you google for caring guys other women don thank you google for caring t recognize as great. How thank you google for caring s that for damning praise? Meanwhile, in sugarcoating this message, the authors often resort to flattery, telling the reader to remember how fabulous, attractive, charming, and intelligent she is, in the hopes that she thank you google for caring ll project a more confident vibe on dates. In my case, though, the flattery backfired. I read these books thinking, Wait, if I thank you google for caring m such a great catch, why should I settle for anyone less than my equal? If I thank you google for caring m so fabulous, don thank you google for caring t I deserve true romantic connection? Only one popular book that I can think of in the vast find a man genre (like most single women confounded by their singleness, I thank you google for caring m embarrassingly well versed) takes the opposite approach. In He thank you google for caring s Just Not That Into You, written by the happily married Greg Behrendt and the unhappily single Liz Tuccillo, the duo exhorts women not to settle. But the book thank you google for caring s format is telling: Behrendt gives perky pep talks to women unable to find a worthy match, while Tuccillo repeatedly comments on how hard it is to take her co-author thank you google for caring s advice, because while being with a partner who is beneath you (Behrendt thank you google for caring s term) is problematic, being single just plain sucks (Tuccillo thank you google for caring s term). Before I got pregnant, though, I also read single-mom books such as Choosing Single Motherhood: The Thinking Woman thank you google for caring s Guide, whose chapter titles Can I Afford It? and Dealing With the Stress seemed like realistic antidotes to the faux-empowering man-hunting manual headings like A Little Lingerie Can Go a Long Way. But the book thank you google for caring s author, Mikki Morrissette, held out a tantalizing carrot. In her introduction, she describes having a daughter on her own; then, she writes, a few years later and five months pregnant with her son, I met a guy I fell in love with. He and my daughter were in the delivery room when my son was born in January 2004. Each time I read about single women having babies on their own and thriving instead of settling for Mr. Wrong and hiring a divorce lawyer, I felt all jazzed and ready to go. At the time, I truly believed, I can have it alla baby now, my soul mate later! Well ha! Hahahaha. And ha. Just as the relationship books fail to mention what happens after you triumphantly land a husband (you actually have to live with each other), these single-mom books fail to mention that once you have a baby alone, not only do you age about 10 years in the first 10 months, but if you don thank you google for caring t have time to shower, eat, urinate in a timely manner, or even leave the house except for work, where you spend every waking moment that your child is at day care, there thank you google for caring s very little chance that a manmuch less The Oneis going to knock on your door and join that party. They also gloss over the cost of dating as a single mom: the time and money spent on online dating (because there are no single men at toddler birthday parties); the babysitter tab for all those boring blind dates; and, most frustrating, hours spent away from your beloved child. Even women who settle but end up divorced might be in a better position than those of us who became mothers on our own, because many ex-wives get both child-support payments and a free night off when the kids go to Dad thank you google for caring s house for a sleepover. Never-married moms don thank you google for caring t get the night off. At the end of the evening, we rush home to pay the babysitter, make any houseguest tiptoe around and speak in a hushed voice, then wake up at 6 a.m. at the first cries of Mommy! Try bringing a guy home to that. Settling is mostly a women thank you google for caring s game. Men settle far less often and, when they do, they don thank you google for caring t seem the least bit bothered by the fact that they thank you google for caring re settling. My friend Alan, for instance, justified his choice of a bland wife who thank you google for caring s a good mom but with whom he shares little connection this way: I think one-stop shopping is overrated. I get passion at my office with my work, or with my friends that I sometimes call or chat withit thank you google for caring s not the same, and, boy, it would be exciting to have it with my spouse. But I spend more time with people at my office than I do with my spouse. Then there thank you google for caring s my friend Chris, a single 35-year-old marketing consultant who for three years dated someone he calls the perfect womana kind and beautiful surgeon. She broke off the relationship several times because, she told him with regret, she didn thank you google for caring t think she wanted to spend her life with him. Each time, Chris would persuade her to reconsider, until finally she called it off for good, saying that she just couldn thank you google for caring t marry somebody she wasn thank you google for caring t in love with. Chris was devastated, but now that his ex-girlfriend has reached 35, he thank you google for caring s suddenly hopeful about their future. By the time she turns 37, Chris said confidently, she thank you google for caring ll come back. And I thank you google for caring ll bet she thank you google for caring ll marry me then. I know she wants to have kids. I asked Chris why he would want to be with a woman who wasn thank you google for caring t in love with him. Wouldn thank you google for caring t he be settling, too, by marrying someone who would be using him to have a family? Chris didn thank you google for caring t see it that way at all. She thank you google for caring ll be settling, Chris said cheerfully. But not me. I get to marry the woman of my dreams. That thank you google for caring s not settling. That thank you google for caring s the fantasy. Chris believes that women are far too picky: everyone knows, he says, that a single middle-aged man still has appealing prospects; a single middle-aged woman likely doesn thank you google for caring t. And he thank you google for caring s right. Single women are painfully aware of this. I hear far more women than men talk about getting married as a goal to be met by a certain deadline. My friend Gabe points out that this allows men to be the true romantics; when a man breaks up with a perfectly acceptable woman because he thank you google for caring s just not feeling it, there thank you google for caring s none of the ambivalence a woman with a deadline feels. Women are the least romantic, Gabe said. They think, I can do that. thank you google for caring For a lot of women, it becomes less about love and more about what they can live with. Not long ago, Gabe, who is 43, dated a woman he liked very much one-on-one, but he broke up with her because she couldn thank you google for caring t be haimishcomfortablewith his friends in a group setting. He has no regrets. A female friend who broke up with a guy because he didn thank you google for caring t like to read and who is now, too, a single mom (with, ironically, no time to read herself) similarly felt no regretsat first. At the time, she couldn thank you google for caring t imagine settling, but here thank you google for caring s the Catch-22: If I thank you google for caring d settled at 39, she said, I always would have had the fantasy that something better exists out there. Now I know better. Either way, I was screwed. The paradox, of course, is that the more it behooves a woman to settle, the less willing she is to settle; a woman in her mid- to late 30s is more discriminating than one in her 20s. She has friends who have known her since childhood, friends who will know her more intimately and understand her more viscerally than any man she meets in midlife. Her tastes and sense of self are more solidly formed. She says things like He wants me to move downtown, but I love my home at the beach, and, But he thank you google for caring s just not curious, and Can I really spend my life with someone who thank you google for caring s allergic to dogs? I thank you google for caring ve been told that the reason so many women end up alone is that we have too many choices. I think it thank you google for caring s the opposite: we have no choice. If we could choose, we thank you google for caring d choose to be in a healthy marriage based on reciprocal passion and friendship. But the only choices on the table, it sometimes seems, are settle or risk being alone forever.That thank you google for caring s not a whole lot of choice. Remember the movie Broadcast News? Holly Hunter thank you google for caring s dilemmathe choice between passion and friendshipis exactly the one many women over 30 are faced with. In the end, Holly Hunter thank you google for caring s character decides to wait for the right guy, but he (of course) never materializes. Meanwhile, her emotional soul mate, the Albert Brooks character, gets married (of course) and has children. And no matter what women decidesettle or don thank you google for caring t settlethere thank you google for caring s a price to be paid, because there thank you google for caring s always going to be regret. Unless you meet the man of your dreams (who, by the way, doesn thank you google for caring t exist, precisely because you dreamed him up), there thank you google for caring s going to be a downside to getting married, but a possibly more profound downside to holding out for someone better. My friend Jennifer summed it up this way: When I used to hear women complaining bitterly about their husbands, I thank you google for caring d think, How sad, they settled. thank you google for caring Now it thank you google for caring s like, God, that would be nice. thank you google for caring That thank you google for caring s why mothers tell their daughters to keep an open mind about the guy who spends his weekends playing Internet poker or touches your back for two minutes while watching ESPN and calls that a massage. The more-pertinent questions, to most concerned mothers of daughters in their 30s, have to do with whether the daughter thank you google for caring s boyfriend will make a good father; or, if he thank you google for caring s a workaholic, whether he can provide the environment for her to be a good mother. As my own mother once advised me, when I was dating a musician, Everyone settles to some degree. You might as well settle pragmatically. I know all this now, and yethere thank you google for caring s the problemmuch as I thank you google for caring d like to settle, I can thank you google for caring t seem to do it. It thank you google for caring s not that I have to be dazzled by a guy anymore (though it would be nice). It thank you google for caring s not even that I have to think about him when he thank you google for caring s not around (though that would be nice, too). Nor is it that I thank you google for caring m unable to accept reality and make significant compromises because that thank you google for caring s what grown-ups do (I can and haveI had a baby on my own). No, the problem is that the very nature of dating leaves women my age to wrestle with a completely different level of settling. It thank you google for caring s no longer a matter, as it was in my early 30s, of just not feeling it, of wanting to be in love. Consider the men whom older women I know have married in varying degrees of desperation over the past few years: a recovering alcoholic who doesn thank you google for caring t always go to his meetings; a trying-to-make-it-in-his-40s actor; a widower who has three nightmarish kids and who thank you google for caring s still actively grieving for his dead wife; and a socially awkward engineer (so socially awkward that he declined to attend his wife thank you google for caring s book party). It thank you google for caring s not that these women are crazy; it thank you google for caring s that the dating pool has dwindled dramatically and that, due to gender politics, the few available men tend to require far more of a concession than those who were single when we were younger. And while I have a much higher tolerance for settling than I did back then, now I have my son to consider. It thank you google for caring s one thing to settle for a subpar mate; it thank you google for caring s quite another to settle for a subpar father figure for my child. So while there thank you google for caring s more incentive to settle now, there thank you google for caring s less willingness to settle too much, because that would be a disservice to my son. This doesn thank you google for caring t undermine my case for settling. Instead, it supports my argument to do it young, when settling involves constructing a family environment with a perfectly acceptable man who may not trip your romantic triggeras opposed to doing it older, when settling involves selling your very soul in exchange for damaged goods. Admittedly, it thank you google for caring s a dicey case to make because, like the divorced women I know who claim they wouldn thank you google for caring t have done anything differently, because then they wouldn thank you google for caring t have Biff and Buffy, I, too, can thank you google for caring t imagine life without my magical son. (Although, had I had children with a Mr. Good Enough, wouldn thank you google for caring t I be as hopelessly in love with those children, too?) I also acknowledge the power of the grass-is-always-greener phenomenon, and allow for the possibility that my life alone is better (if far more difficult) than the life I would have in a comfortable but tepid marriage. But then my married friends say things like, Oh, you thank you google for caring re so lucky, you don thank you google for caring t have to negotiate with your husband about the cost of piano lessons or You thank you google for caring re so lucky, you don thank you google for caring t have anyone putting the kid in front of the TV and you can raise your son the way you want. I thank you google for caring ll even hear things like, You thank you google for caring re so lucky, you don thank you google for caring t have to have sex with someone you don thank you google for caring t want to. The lists go on, and each time, I say, OK, if you thank you google for caring re so unhappy, and if I thank you google for caring m so lucky, leave your husband! In fact, send him over here! Not one person has taken me up on this offer.

For twelve years, you have been asking: Who is John Galt? This is John Galt speaking. I am the man who loves his life. I am the man who does not sacrifice his love or his values. I am the man who has deprived you of victims and thus has destroyed your world, and if you wish to know why you are perishing-you who dread knowledge-I am the man who will now tell you. The chief engineer was the only one able to move; he ran to a television set and struggled frantically with its dials. But the screen remained empty; the speaker had not chosen to be seen. Only his voice filled the airways of the country-of the world, thought the chief engineer-sounding as if he were speaking here, in this room, not to a group, but to one man; it was not the tone of addressing a meeting, but the tone of addressing a mind.
You have heard it said that this is an age of moral crisis. You have said it yourself, half in fear, half in hope that the words had no meaning. You have cried that mans sins are destroying the world and you have cursed human nature for its unwillingness to practice the virtues you demanded. Since virtue, to you, consists of sacrifice, you have demanded more sacrifices at every successive disaster. In the name of a return to morality, you have sacrificed all those evils which you held as the cause of your plight. You have sacrificed justice to mercy. You have sacrificed independence to unity. You have sacrificed reason to faith. You have sacrificed wealth to need. You have sacrificed self-esteem to self-denial. You have sacrificed happiness to duty.
You have destroyed all that which you held to be evil and achieved all that which you held to be good. Why, then, do you shrink in horror from the sight of the world around you? That world is not the product of your sins, it is the product and the image of your virtues. It is your moral ideal brought into reality in its full and final perfection. You have fought for it, you have dreamed of it, and you have wished it, and I-I am the man who has granted you your wish.
Your ideal had an implacable enemy, which your code of morality was designed to destroy. I have withdrawn that enemy. I have taken it out of your way and out of your reach. I have removed the source of all those evils you were sacrificing one by one. I have ended your battle. I have stopped your motor. I have deprived your world of mans mind.
Men do not live by the mind, you say? I have withdrawn those who do. The mind is impotent, you say? I have withdrawn those whose mind isnt. There are values higher than the mind, you say? I have withdrawn those for whom there arent.
While you were dragging to your sacrificial altars the men of justice, of independence, of reason, of wealth, of self-esteem-I beat you to it, I reached them first. I told them the nature of the game you were playing and the nature of that moral code of yours, which they had been too innocently generous to grasp. I showed them the way to live by another morality-mine. It is mine that they chose to follow.
All the men who have vanished, the men you hated, yet dreaded to lose, it is I who have taken them away from you. Do not attempt to find us. We do not choose to be found. Do not cry that it is our duty to serve you. We do not recognize such duty. Do not cry that you need us. We do not consider need a claim. Do not cry that you own us. You dont. Do not beg us to return. We are on strike, we, the men of the mind.
We are on strike against self-immolation. We are on strike against the creed of unearned rewards and unrewarded duties. We are on strike against the dogma that the pursuit of ones happiness is evil. We are on strike against the doctrine that life is guilt.
There is a difference between our strike and all those youve practiced for centuries: our strike consists, not of making demands, but of granting them. We are evil, according to your morality. We have chosen not to harm you any longer. We are useless, according to your economics. We have chosen not to exploit you any longer. We are dangerous and to be shackled, according to your politics. We have chosen not to endanger you, nor to wear the shackles any longer. We are only an illusion, according to your philosophy. We have chosen not to blind you any longer and have left you free to face reality-the reality you wanted, the world as you see it now, a world without mind.
We have granted you everything you demanded of us, we who had always been the givers, but have only now understood it. We have no demands to present to you, no terms to bargain about, no compromise to reach. You have nothing to offer us. We do not need you.
Are you now crying: No, this was not what you wanted? A mindless world of ruins was not your goal? You did not want us to leave you? You moral cannibals, I know that youve always known what it was that you wanted. But your game is up, because now we know it, too.
Through centuries of scourges and disasters, brought about by your code of morality, you have cried that your code had been broken, that the scourges were punishment for breaking it, that men were too weak and too selfish to spill all the blood it required. You damned man, you damned existence, you damned this earth, but never dared to question your code. Your victims took the blame and struggled on, with your curses as reward for their martyrdom-while you went on crying that your code was noble, but human nature was not good enough to practice it. And no one rose to ask the question: Good?-by what standard?
You wanted to know John Galts identity. I am the man who has asked that question.
Yes, this is an age of moral crisis. Yes, you are bearing punishment for your evil. But it is not man who is now on trial and it is not human nature that will take the blame. It is your moral code thats through, this time. Your moral code has reached its climax, the blind alley at the end of its course. And if you wish to go on living, what you now need is not to return to morality-you who have never known any-but to discover it.
You have heard no concepts of morality but the mystical or the social. You have been taught that morality is a code of behavior imposed on you by whim, the whim of a supernatural power or the whim of society, to serve Gods purpose or your neighbors welfare, to please an authority beyond the grave or else next door-but not to serve your life or pleasure. Your pleasure, you have been taught, is to be found in immorality, your interests would best be served by evil, and any moral code must be designed not for you, but against you, not to further your life, but to drain it.
For centuries, the battle of morality was fought between those who claimed that your life belongs to God and those who claimed that it belongs to your neighbors-between those who preached that the good is self-sacrifice for the sake of ghosts in heaven and those who preached that the good is self-sacrifice for the sake of incompetents on earth. And no one came to say that your life belongs to you and that the good is to live it.
Both sides agreed that morality demands the surrender of your self-interest and of your mind, that the moral and the practical are opposites, that morality is not the province of reason, but the province of faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you and force. Both sides agreed that no rational morality is possible, that there is no right or wrong in reason-that in reason theres no reason to be moral.
Whatever else they fought about, it was against mans mind that all your moralists have stood united. It was mans mind that all their schemes and systems were intended to despoil and destroy. Now choose to perish or to learn that the anti-mind is the anti-life.
Mans mind is his basic tool of survival. Life is given to him, survival is not. His body is given to him, its sustenance is not. His mind is given to him, its content is not. To remain alive, he must act, and before he can act he must know the nature and purpose of his action. He cannot obtain his food without a knowledge of food and of the way to obtain it. He cannot dig a ditch-or build a cyclotron-without a knowledge of his aim and of the means to achieve it. To remain alive, he must think.
But to think is an act of choice. The key to what you so recklessly call human nature, the open secret you live with, yet dread to name, is the fact that man is a being of volitional consciousness. Reason does not work automatically; thinking is not a mechanical process; the connections of logic are not made by instinct. The function of your stomach, lungs or heart is automatic; the function of your mind is not. In any hour and issue of your life, you are free to think or to evade that effort. But you are not free to escape from your nature, from the fact that reason is your means of survival-so that for you, who are a human being, the question to be or not to be is the question to think or not to think.
A being of volitional consciousness has no automatic course of behavior. He needs a code of values to guide his actions. Value is that which one acts to gain and keep, virtue is the action by which one gains and keeps it. Value presupposes an answer to the question: of value to whom and for what? Value presupposes a standard, a purpose and the necessity of action in the face of an alternative. Where there are no alternatives, no values are possible.
There is only one fundamental alternative in the universe: existence or non-existence-and it pertains to a single class of entities: to living organisms. The existence of inanimate matter is unconditional, the existence of life is not; it depends on a specific course of action. Matter is indestructible, it changes its forms, but it cannot cease to exist. It is only a living organism that faces a constant alternative: the issue of life or death. Life is a process of self-sustaining and-self-generated action. If an organism fails in that action, it does; its chemical elements remain, but its life goes out of existence. It is only the concept of Life that makes the concept of Value possible. It is only to a living entity that things can be good or evil.
A plant must feed itself in order to live; the sunlight, the water, the chemicals it needs are the values its nature has set it to pursue; its life is the standard of value directing its actions. But a plant has no choice of action; there are alternatives in the conditions it encounters, but there is no alternative in its function: it acts automatically to further its life, it cannot act for its own destruction.
An animal is equipped for sustaining its life; its senses provide it with an automatic code of action, an automatic knowledge of what is good for it or evil. It has no power to extend its knowledge or to evade it. In conditions where its knowledge proves inadequate, it dies. But so long as it lives, it acts on its knowledge, with automatic safety and no power of choice, it is unable to ignore its own good, unable to decide to choose the evil and act as its own destroyer.
Man has no automatic code of survival. His particular distinction from all other living species is the necessity to act in the face of alternatives by means of volitional choice. He has no automatic knowledge of what is good for him or evil, what values his life depends on, what course of action it requires. Are you prattling about an instinct of self-preservation? An instinct of self-preservation is precisely what man does not possess. An instinct is an unerring and automatic form of knowledge. A desire is not an instinct. A desire to live does not give you the knowledge required for living. And even mans desire to live is not automatic: your secret evil today is that that is the desire you do not hold. Your fear of death is not a love of life and will not give you the knowledge needed to keep it. Man must obtain his knowledge and choose his actions by a process of thinking, which nature will not force him t9 perform. Man has the power to act as his own destroyer-and that is the way he has acted through most of his history.
A living entity that regarded its means of survival as evil, would not survive. A plant that struggled to mangle its roots, a bird that fought to break its wings would not remain for long in the existence they affronted. But the history of man has been a struggle to deny and to destroy his mind.
Man has been called a rational being, but rationality is a matter of choice-and the alternative his nature offers him is: rational being or suicidal animal. Man has to be man-by choice; he has to hold his life as a value-by choice: he has to learn to sustain it-by choice; he has to discover the values it requires and practice his virtues-by choice.
A code of values accepted by choice is a code of morality.
Whoever you are, you who are hearing me now, I am speaking to whatever living remnant is left uncorrupted within you, to the remnant of the human, to your mind, and I say: There is a morality of reason, a morality proper to man, and Mans Life is its standard of value.
All that which is proper to the life of a rational being is the good; all that which destroys it is the evil.
Mans life, as required by his nature, is not the life of a mindless brute, of a looting thug or a mooching mystic, but the life of a thinking being-not life by means of force or fraud, but life by means of achievement-not survival at any price, since theres only one price that pays for mans survival: reason.
Mans life is the standard of morality, but your own life is its purpose. If existence on earth is your goal, you must choose your actions and values by the standard of that which is proper to man-for the purpose of preserving, fulfilling and enjoying the irreplaceable value which is your life.
Since life requires a specific course of action, any other course will destroy it. A being who does not hold his own life as the motive and goal of his actions, is acting on the motive and standard of death. Such a being is a metaphysical monstrosity, struggling to oppose, negate and contradict the fact of his own existence, running blindly amuck on a trail of destruction, capable of nothing but pain.
Happiness is the successful state of life, pain is an agent of death. Happiness is that state of consciousness which proceeds from the achievement of ones values. A morality that dares to tell you to find happiness in the renunciation of your happiness-to value the failure of your values-is an insolent negation of morality. A doctrine that gives you, as an ideal, the role of a sacrificial animal seeking slaughter on the altars of others, is giving you death as your standard. By the grace of reality and the nature of life, man-every man-is an end in himself, he exists for his own sake, and the achievement of his own happiness is his highest moral purpose.
But neither life nor happiness can be achieved by the pursuit of irrational whims. Just as man is free to attempt to survive in any random manner, but will perish unless he lives as his nature requires, so he is free to seek his happiness in any mindless fraud, but the torture of frustration is all he will find, unless he seeks the happiness proper to man. The purpose of morality is to teach you, not to suffer and die, but to enjoy yourself and live.
Sweep aside those parasites of subsidized classrooms, who live on the profits of the mind of others and proclaim that man needs no morality, no values, no code of behavior. They, who pose as scientists and claim that man is only an animal, do not grant him inclusion in the law of existence they have granted to the lowest of insects. They recognize that every living species has a way of survival demanded by its nature, they do not claim that a fish can live out of water or that a dog can live without its sense of smell-but man, they claim, the most complex of beings, man can survive in any way whatever, man has no identity, no nature, and theres no practical reason why he cannot live with his means of survival destroyed, with his mind throttled and placed at the disposal of any orders they might care to issue.
Sweep aside those hatred-eaten mystics, who pose as friends of humanity and preach that the highest virtue man can practice is to hold his own life as of no value. Do they tell you that the purpose of morality is to curb mans instinct of self-preservation? It is for the purpose of self-preservation that man needs a code of morality. The only man who desires to be moral is the man who desires to live.
No, you do not have to live; it is your basic act of choice; but if you choose to live,. you must live as a man-by the work and the judgment of your mind.
No, you do not have to live as a man; it is an act of moral choice. But you cannot live as anything else-and the alternative is that state of living death which you now see within you and around you, the state of a thing unfit for existence, no longer human and less than animal, a thing that knows nothing but pain and drags itself through its span of years in the agony of unthinking self-destruction.
No, you do not have to think; it is an act of moral choice. But someone had to think to keep you alive; if you choose to default, you default on existence and you pass the deficit to some moral man, expecting him to sacrifice his good for the sake of letting you survive by your evil.
No, you do not have to be a man; but today those who are, are not there any longer. I have removed your means of survival-your victims.
If you wish to know how I have done it and what I told them to make them quit, you are hearing it now. I told them, in essence, the statement I am making tonight. They were men who had lived by my code, but had not known how great a virtue it represented. I made them see it. I brought them, not a re-evaluation, but only an identification of their values.
We, the men of the mind, are now on strike against you in the name of a single axiom, which is the root of our moral code, just as the root of yours is the wish to escape it: the axiom that existence exists.
Existence exists-and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exists which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists.
If nothing exists, there can be no consciousness: a consciousness with nothing to be conscious of is a contradiction in terms. A consciousness conscious of nothing but itself is a contradiction in terms: before it could identify itself as consciousness, it had to be conscious of something. If that which you claim to perceive does not exist, what you possess is not consciousness.
Whatever the degree of your knowledge, these two-existence and consciousness-are axioms you cannot escape, these two are the irreducible primaries implied in any action you undertake, in any part of your knowledge and in its sum, from the first ray of light you perceive at the start of your life to the widest erudition you might acquire at its end. Whether you know the shape of a pebble or the structure of a solar system, the axioms remain the same: that it exists and that you know it.
To exist is to be something, as distinguished from the nothing of non-existence, it is to be an entity of a specific nature made of specific attributes. Centuries ago, the man who was-no matter what his errors-the greatest of your philosophers, has stated the formula defining the concept of existence and the rule of all knowledge: A is A. A thing is itself. You have never grasped the meaning of his statement. I am here to complete it: Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification.
Whatever you choose to consider, be it an object, an attribute or an action, the law of identity remains the same. A leaf cannot be a stone at the same time, it cannot be all red and all green at the same time, it cannot freeze and burn at the same time. A is A. Or, if you wish it stated in simpler language: You cannot have your cake and eat it, too.
Are you seeking to know what is wrong with the world? All the disasters that have wrecked your world, came from your leaders attempt to evade the fact that A is A. All the secret evil you dread to face within you and all the pain you have ever endured, came from your own attempt to evade the fact that A is A. The purpose of those who taught you to evade it, was to make you forget that Man is Man.
Man cannot survive except by gaining knowledge, and reason is his only means to gain it. Reason is the faculty that perceives, identifies and integrates the material provided by his senses. The task of his senses is to give him the evidence of existence, but the task of identifying it belongs to his reason, his senses tell him only that something is, but what it is must be learned by his mind.
All thinking is a process of identification and integration. Man perceives a blob of color; by integrating the evidence of his sight and his touch, he learns to identify it as a solid object; he learns to identify the object as a table; he learns that the table is made of wood; he learns that the wood consists of cells, that the cells consist of molecules, that the molecules consist of atoms. All through this process, the work of his mind consists of answers to a single question: What is it? His means to establish the truth of his answers is logic, and logic rests on the axiom that existence exists. Logic is the art of non-contradictory identification. A contradiction cannot exist. An atom is itself, and so is the universe; neither can contradict its own identity; nor can a part contradict the whole. No concept man forms is valid unless he integrates it without contradiction into the total sum of his knowledge. To arrive at a contradiction is to confess an error in ones thinking; to maintain a contradiction is to abdicate ones mind and to evict oneself from the realm of reality.
Reality is that which exists; the unreal does not exist; the unreal is merely that negation of existence which is the content of a human consciousness when it attempts to abandon reason. Truth is the recognition of reality; reason, mans only means of knowledge, is his only standard of truth.
The most depraved sentence you can now utter is to ask: Whose reason? The answer is: Yours. No matter how vast your knowledge or how modest, it is your own mind that has to acquire it. It is only with your own knowledge that you can deal. It is only your own knowledge that you can claim to possess or ask others to consider. Your mind is your only judge of truth-and if others dissent from your verdict, reality is the court of final appeal. Nothing but a mans mind can perform that complex, delicate, crucial process of identification which is thinking. Nothing can direct the process but his own judgment. Nothing can direct his judgment but his moral integrity.
You who speak of a moral instinct as if it were some separate endowment opposed to reason-mans reason is his moral faculty. A process of reason is a process of constant choice in answer to the question: True or False?-Right or Wrong? Is a seed to be planted in soil in order to grow-right or wrong? Is a mans wound to be disinfected in order to save his life-right or wrong? Does the nature of atmospheric electricity permit it to be converted into kinetic power-right or wrong? It is the answers to such questions that gave you everything you have-and the answers came from a mans mind, a mind of intransigent devotion to that which is right.
A rational process is a moral process. You may make an error at any step of it, with nothing to protect you but your own severity, or you may try to cheat, to fake the evidence and evade the effort of the quest-but if devotion to truth is the hallmark of morality, then there is no greater, nobler, more heroic form of devotion than the act of a man who assumes the responsibility of thinking.
That which you call your soul or spirit is your consciousness, and that which you call free will is your minds freedom to think or not, the only will you have, your only freedom, the choice that controls all the choices you make and determines your life and your character.
Thinking is mans only basic virtue, from which all the others proceed. And his basic vice, the source of all his evils, is that nameless act which all of you practice, but struggle never to admit: the act of blanking out, the willful suspension of ones consciousness, the refusal to think-not blindness, but the refusal to see; not ignorance, but the refusal to know. It is the act of unfocusing your mind and inducing an inner fog to escape the responsibility of judgment-on the unstated premise that a thing will not exist if only you refuse to identify it, that A will not be A so long as you do not pronounce the verdict It is. Non-thinking is an act of annihilation, a wish to negate existence, an attempt to wipe out reality. But existence exists; reality is not to be wiped out, it will merely wipe out the wiper. By refusing to say It is, you are refusing to say I am. By suspending your judgment, you are negating your person. When a man declares: Who am I to know?-he is declaring: Who am I to live?
This, in every hour and every issue, is your basic moral choice: thinking or non-thinking, existence or non-existence, A or non-A, entity or zero.
To the extent to which a man is rational, life is the premise directing his actions. To the extent to which he is irrational, the premise directing his actions is death.
You who prattle that morality is social and that man would need no morality on a desert island-it is on a desert island that he would need it most. Let him try to claim, when there are no victims to pay for it, that a rock is a house, that sand is clothing, that food will drop into his mouth without cause or effort, that he will collect a harvest tomorrow by devouring his stock seed today-and reality will wipe him out, as he deserves; reality will show him that life is a value to be bought and that thinking is the only coin noble enough to buy it.
If I were to speak your kind of language, I would say that mans only moral commandment is: Thou shalt think. But a moral commandment is a contradiction in terms. The moral is the chosen, not the forced; the understood, not the obeyed. The moral is the rational, and reason accepts no commandments.
My morality, the morality of reason, is contained in a single axiom: existence exists-and in a single choice: to live. The rest proceeds from these. To live, man must hold three things as the supreme and ruling values of his life: Reason-Purpose-Self-esteem. Reason, as his only tool of knowledge-Purpose, as his choice of the happiness which that tool must proceed to achieve-Self-esteem, as his inviolate certainty that his mind is competent to think and his person is worthy of happiness, which means: is worthy of living. These three values imply and require all of mans virtues, and all his virtues pertain to the relation of existence and consciousness: rationality, independence, integrity, honesty, justice, productiveness, pride.
Rationality is the recognition of the fact that existence exists, that nothing can alter the truth and nothing can take precedence over that act of perceiving it, which is thinking-that the mind is ones only judge of values and ones only guide of action-that reason is an absolute that permits no compromise-that a concession to the irrational invalidates ones consciousness and turns it from the task of perceiving to the task of faking reality-that the alleged short-cut to knowledge, which is faith, is only a short-circuit destroying the mind-that the acceptance of a mystical invention is a wish for the annihilation of existence and, properly, annihilates ones consciousness.
Independence is the recognition of the fact that yours is the responsibility of judgment and nothing can help you escape it-that no substitute can do your thinking, as no pinch-hitter can live your life-that the vilest form of self-abasement and self-destruction is the subordination of your mind to the mind of another, the acceptance of an authority over your brain, the acceptance of his assertions as facts, his say-so as truth, his edicts as middle-man between your consciousness and your existence.
Integrity is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake your consciousness, just as honesty is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake existence-that man is an indivisible entity, an integrated unit of two attributes: of matter and consciousness, and that he may permit no breach between body and mind, between action and thought, between his life and his convictions-that, like a judge impervious to public opinion, he may not sacrifice his convictions to the wishes of others, be it the whole of mankind shouting pleas or threats against him-that courage and confidence are practical necessities, that courage is the practical form of being true to existence, of being true to ones own consciousness.
Honesty is the recognition of the fact that the unreal is unreal and can have no value, that neither love nor fame nor cash is a value if obtained by fraud-that an attempt to gain a value by deceiving the mind of others is an act of raising your victims to a position higher than reality, where you become a pawn of their blindness, a slave of their non-thinking and their evasions, while their intelligence, their rationality, their perceptiveness become the enemies you have to dread and flee-that you do not care to live as a dependent, least of all a dependent on the stupidity of others, or as a fool whose source of values is the fools he succeeds in fooling-that honesty is not a social duty, not a sacrifice for the sake of others, but the most profoundly selfish virtue man can practice: his refusal to sacrifice the reality of his own existence to the deluded consciousness of others.
Justice is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake the character of men as you cannot fake the character of nature, that you must judge all men as conscientiously as you judge inanimate objects, with the same respect for truth, with the same incorruptible vision, by as pure and as rational a process of identification-that every man must be judged for what he is and treated accordingly, that just as you do not pay a higher price for a rusty chunk of scrap than for a piece of shining metal, so you do not value a totter above a hero-that your moral appraisal is the coin paying men for their virtues or vices, and this payment demands of you as scrupulous an honor as you bring to financial transactions-that to withhold your contempt from mens vices is an act of moral counterfeiting, and to withhold your admiration from their virtues is an act of moral embezzlement-that to place any other concern higher than justice is to devaluate your moral currency and defraud the good in favor of the evil, since only the good can lose by a default of justice and only the evil can profit-and that the bottom of the pit at the end of that road, the act of moral bankruptcy, is to punish men for their virtues and reward them for their vices, that that is the collapse to full depravity, the Black Mass of the worship of death, the dedication of your consciousness to the destruction of existence.
Productiveness is your acceptance of morality, your recognition of the fact that you choose to live-that productive work is the process by which mans consciousness controls his existence, a constant process of acquiring knowledge and shaping matter to fit ones purpose, of translating an idea into physical form, of remaking the earth in the image of ones values-that all work is creative work if done by a thinking mind, and no work is creative if done by a blank who repeats in uncritical stupor a routine he has learned from others- that your work is yours to choose, and the choice is as wide as your mind, that nothing more is possible to you and nothing less is human-that to cheat your way into a job bigger than your mind can handle is to become a fear-corroded ape on borrowed motions and borrowed time, and to settle down into a job that requires less than your minds full capacity is to cut your motor and sentence yourself to another kind of motion: decay-that your work is the process of achieving your values, and to lose your ambition for values is to lose your ambition to live-that your body is a machine, but your mind is its driver, and you must drive as far as your mind will take you, with achievement as the goal of your road-that the man who has no purpose is a machine that coasts downhill at the mercy of any boulder to crash in the first chance ditch, that the man who stifles his mind is a stalled machine slowly going to rust, that the man who lets a leader prescribe his course is a wreck being towed to the scrap heap, and the man who makes another man his goal is a hitchhiker no driver should ever pick up-that your work is the purpose of your life, and you must speed past any killer who assumes the right to stop you, that any value you might find outside your work, any other loyalty or love, can be only travelers you choose to share your journey and must be travelers going on their own power in the same direction.
Pride is the recognition of the fact that you are your own highest value and, like all of mans values, it has to be earned-that of any achievements open to you, the one that makes all others possible is the creation of your own character-that your character, your actions, your desires, your emotions are the products of the premises held by your mind-that as man must produce the physical values he needs to sustain his life, so he must acquire the values of character that make his life worth sustaining-that as man is a being of self-made wealth, so he is a being of self-made soul-that to live requires a sense of self-value, but man, who has no automatic values, has no automatic sense of self-esteem and must earn it by shaping his soul in the image of his moral ideal, in the image of Man, the rational being he is born able to create, but must create by choice-that the first precondition of self-esteem is that radiant selfishness of soul which desires the best in all things, in values of matter and spirit, a soul that seeks above all else to achieve its own moral perfection, valuing nothing higher than itself-and that the proof of an achieved self-esteem is your souls shudder of contempt and rebellion against the role of a sacrificial animal, against the vile impertinence of any creed that proposes to immolate the irreplaceable value which is your consciousness and the incomparable glory which is your existence to the blind evasions and the stagnant decay of others.
Are you beginning to see who is John Galt? I am the man who has earned the thing you did not fight for, the thing you have renounced, betrayed, corrupted, yet were unable fully to destroy and are now hiding as your guilty secret, spending your life in apologies to every professional cannibal, lest it be discovered that somewhere within you, you still long to say what I am now saying to the hearing of the whole of mankind: I am proud of my own value and of the fact that I wish to live.
This wish-which you share, yet submerge as an evil-is the only remnant of the good within you, but it is a wish one must learn to deserve. His own happiness is mans only moral purpose, but only his own virtue can achieve it. Virtue is not an end in itself. Virtue is not its own reward or sacrificial fodder for the reward of evil. Life is the reward of virtue-and happiness is the goal and the reward of life.
Just as your body has two fundamental sensations, pleasure and pain, as signs of its welfare or injury, as a barometer of its basic alternative, life or death, so your consciousness has two fundamental emotions, joy and suffering, in answer to the same alternative. Your emotions are estimates of that which furthers your life or threatens it, lightning calculators giving you a sum of your profit or loss. You have no choice about your capacity to feel that something is good for you or evil, but what you will consider good or evil, what will give you joy or pain, what you will love or hate, desire or fear, depends on your standard of value. Emotions are inherent in your nature, but their content is dictated by your mind. Your emotional capacity is an empty motor, and your values are the fuel with which your mind fills it. If you choose a mix of contradictions, it will clog your motor, corrode your transmission and wreck you on your first attempt to move with a machine which you, the driver, have corrupted.
If you hold the irrational as your standard of value and the impossible as your concept of the good, if you long for rewards you have not earned, for a fortune, or a love you dont deserve, for a loophole in the law of causality, for an A that becomes non-A at your whim, if you desire the opposite of existence-you will reach it. Do not cry, when you reach it, that life is frustration and that happiness is impossible to man; check your fuel: it brought you where you wanted to go.
Happiness is not to be achieved at the command of emotional whims. Happiness is not the satisfaction of whatever irrational wishes you might blindly attempt to indulge. Happiness is a state of non-contradictory joy-a joy without penalty or guilt, a joy that does not clash with any of your values and does not work for your own destruction, not the joy of escaping from your mind, but of using your minds fullest power, not the joy of faking reality, but of achieving values that are real, not the joy of a drunkard, but of a producer. Happiness is possible only to a rational man, the man who desires nothing but rational goals, seeks nothing but rational values and finds his joy in nothing but rational actions.
Just as I support my life, neither by robbery nor alms, but by my own effort, so I do not seek to derive my happiness from the injury or the favor of others, but earn it by my own achievement. Just as I do not consider the pleasure of others as the goal of my life, so I do not consider my pleasure as the goal of the lives of others. Just as there are no contradictions in my values and no conflicts among my desires-so there are no victims and no conflicts of interest among rational men, men who do not desire the unearned and do not view one another with a cannibals lust, men who neither make sacrifice nor accept them.
The symbol of all relationships among such men, the moral symbol of respect for human beings, is the trader. We, who live by values, not by loot, are traders, both in matter and in spirit. A trader is a man who earns what he gets and does not give or take the undeserved. A trader does not ask to be paid for his failures, nor does he ask to be loved for his flaws. A trader does not squander his body as fodder or his soul as alms. Just as he does not give his work except in trade for material values, so he does not give the values of his spirit-his love, his friendship, his esteem-except in payment and in trade for human virtues, in payment for his own selfish pleasure, which he receives from men he can respect. The mystic parasites who have, throughout the ages, reviled the traders and held them in contempt, while honoring the beggars and the looters, have known the secret motive of their sneers: a trader is the entity they dread-a man of justice.
Do you ask what moral obligation I owe to my fellow men? None-except the obligation I owe to myself, to material objects and to all of existence: rationality. I deal with men as my nature and their demands: by means of reason. I seek or desire nothing from them except such relations as they care to enter of their own voluntary choice. It is only with their mind that I can deal and only for my own self-interest, when they see that my interest coincides with theirs. When they dont, I enter no relationship; I let dissenters go their way and I do not swerve from mine. I win by means of nothing but logic and I surrender to nothing but logic. I do not surrender my reason or deal with men who surrender theirs. I have nothing to gain from fools or cowards; I have no benefits to seek from human vices: from stupidity, dishonesty or fear. The only value men can offer me is the work of their mind. When I disagree with a rational man, I let reality be our final arbiter; if I am right, he will learn; if I am wrong, I will; one of us will win, but both will profit.
Whatever may be open to disagreement, there is one act of evil that may not, the act that no man may commit against others and no man may sanction or forgive. So long as men desire to live together, no man may initiate-do you hear me? no man may start-the use of physical force against others.
To interpose the threat of physical destruction between a man and his perception of reality, is to negate and paralyze his means of survival; to force-him to act against his own judgment, is like forcing him to act against his own sight. Whoever, to whatever purpose or extent, initiates the use of force, is a killer acting on the premise of death in a manner wider than murder: the premise of destroying mans capacity to live.
Do not open your mouth to tell me that your mind has convinced you of your right to force my mind. Force and mind are opposites; morality ends where a gun begins. When you declare that men are irrational animals and propose to treat them as such, you define thereby your own character and can no longer claim the sanction of reason-as no advocate of contradictions can claim it. There can be no right to destroy the source of rights, the only means of judging right and wrong: the mind.
To force a man to drop his own mind and to accept your will as a substitute, with a gun in place of a syllogism, with terror in place of proof, and death as the final argument-is to attempt to exist in defiance of reality. Reality demands of man that he act for his own rational interest; your gun demands of him that he act against it. Reality threatens man with death if he does not act on his rational judgment: you threaten him with death if he does. You place him into a world where the price of his life is the surrender of all the virtues required by life-and death by a process of gradual destruction is all that you and your system will achieve, when death is made to be the ruling power, the winning argument in a society of men.
Be it a highwayman who confronts a traveler with the ultimatum: Your money or your life, or a politician who confronts a country with the ultimatum: Your childrens education or your life, the meaning of that ultimatum is: Your mind or your life-and neither is possible to man without the other.
If there are degrees of evil, it is hard to say who is the more contemptible: the brute who assumes the right to force the mind of others or the moral degenerate who grants to others the right to force his mind. That is the moral absolute one does not leave open to debate. I do not grant the terms of reason to men who propose to deprive me of reason. I do not enter discussions with neighbors who think they can forbid me to think. I do not place my moral sanction upon a murderers wish to kill me. When a man attempts to deal with me by force, I answer him-by force.
It is only as retaliation that force may be used and only against the man who starts its use. No, I do not share his evil or sink to his concept of morality: I merely grant him his choice, destruction, the only destruction he had the right to choose: his own. He uses force to seize a value; I use it only to destroy destruction. A holdup man seeks to gain wealth by killing me; I do not grow richer by killing a holdup man. I seek no values by means of evil, nor do I surrender my values to evil.
In the name of all the producers who had kept you alive and received your death ultimatums in payment, I now answer you with a single ultimatum of our own: Our work or your guns. You can choose either; you cant have both. We do not initiate the use of force against others or submit to force at their hands. If you desire ever again to live in an industrial society, it Will be on our moral terms. Our terms and our motive power are the antithesis of yours. You have been using fear as your weapon and have been bringing death to man as his punishment for rejecting your morality. We offer him life as his reward for accepting ours.
You who are worshippers of the zero-you have never discovered that achieving life is not the equivalent of avoiding death. Joy is not the absence of pain, intelligence is not the absence of stupidity, light is not the absence of darkness, an entity is not the absence of a nonentity. Building is not done by abstaining from demolition; centuries of sitting and waiting in such abstinence will not raise one single girder for you to abstain from demolishing-and now you can no longer say to me, the builder: Produce, and feed us in exchange for our not destroying your production. I am answering in the name of all your victims: Perish with and in your own void. Existence is not a negation of negatives. Evil, not value, is an absence and a negation, evil is impotent and has no power but that which we let it extort from us. Perish, because we have learned that a zero cannot hold a mortgage over life.
You seek escape from pain. We seek the achievement of happiness. You exist for the sake of avoiding punishment. We exist for the sake of earning rewards. Threats will not make us function; fear is not our incentive. It is not death that we wish to avoid, but life that we wish to live.
You, who have lost the concept of the difference, you who claim that fear and joy are incentives of equal power-and secretly add that fear is the more practical-you do not wish to live, and only fear of death still holds you to the existence you have damned. You dart in panic through the trap of your days, looking for the exit you have closed, running from a pursuer you dare not name to a terror you dare not acknowledge, and the greater your terror the greater your dread of the only act that could save you: thinking. The purpose of your struggle is not to know, not to grasp or name or hear the thing. I shall now state to your hearing: that yours is the Morality of Death.
Death is the standard of your values, death is your chosen goal, and you have to keep running, since there is no escape from the pursuer who is out to destroy you or from the knowledge that that pursuer is yourself. Stop running, for once-there is no place to run-stand naked, as you dread to stand, but as I see you, and take a look at what you dared to call a moral code.
Damnation is the start of your morality, destruction is its purpose, means and end. Your code begins by damning man as evil, then demands that he practice a good which it defines as impossible for him to practice. It demands, as his first proof of virtue, that he accept his own depravity without proof. It demands that he start, not with a standard of value, but with a standard of evil, which is himself, by means of which he is then to define the good: the good is that which he is not.
It does not matter who then becomes the profiteer on his renounced glory and tormented soul, a mystic God with some incomprehensible design or any passer-by whose rotting sores are held as some inexplicable claim upon him-it does not matter, the good is not for him to understand, his duty is to crawl through years of penance, atoning for the guilt of his existence to any stray collector of unintelligible debts, his only concept of a value is a zero: the good is that which is non-man.
The name of this monstrous absurdity is Original Sin.
A sin without volition is a slap at morality and an insolent contradiction in terms: that which is outside the possibility of choice is outside the province of morality. If man is evil by birth, he has no will, no power to change it; if he has no will, he can be neither good nor evil; a robot is amoral. To hold, as mans sin, a fact not open to his choice is a mockery of morality. To hold mans nature as his sin is a mockery of nature. To punish him for a crime he committed before he was born is a mockery of justice. To hold him guilty in a matter where no innocence exists is a mockery of reason. To destroy morality, nature, justice and reason by means of a single concept is a feat of evil hardly to be matched. Yet that is the root of your code.
Do not hide behind the cowardly evasion that man is born with free will, but with a tendency to evil. A free will saddled with a tendency is like a game with loaded dice. It forces man to struggle through the effort of playing, to bear responsibility and pay for the game, but the decision is weighted in favor of a tendency that he had no power to escape. If the tendency is of his choice, he cannot possess it at birth; if it is not of his choice, his will is not free.
What is the nature of the guilt that your teachers call his Original Sin? What are the evils man acquired when he fell from a state they consider perfection? Their myth declares that he ate the fruit of the tree of knowledge-he acquired a mind and became a rational being. It was the knowledge of good and evil-he became a mortal being. He was sentenced to earn his bread by his labor-he became a productive being. He was sentenced to experience desire-he acquired the capacity of sexual enjoyment. The evils for which they damn him are reason, morality, creativeness; joy-all the cardinal values of his existence. It is not his vices that their myth of mans fall is designed to explain and condemn, it is not his errors that they hold as his guilt, but the essence of his nature as man. Whatever he was-that robot in the Garden of Eden, who existed without mind, without values, without labor, without love-he was not man.
Mans fall, according to your teachers, was that he gained the virtues required to live. These virtues, by their standard, are his Sin. His evil, they charge, is that hes man. His guilt, they charge, is that he lives.
They call it a morality of mercy and a doctrine of love for man. No, they say, they do not preach that man is evil, the evil is only that alien object: his body. No, they say, they do not wish to kill him, they only wish to make him lose his body. They seek to help him, they say, against his pain-and they point at the torture rack to which theyve tied him, the rack with two wheels that pull him in opposite directions, the rack of the doctrine that splits his soul and body.
They have cut man in two, setting one half against the other. They have taught him that his body and his consciousness are two enemies engaged in deadly conflict, two antagonists of opposite natures, contradictory claims, incompatible needs, that to benefit one is to injure the other, that his soul belongs to a supernatural realm, but his body is an evil prison holding it in bondage to this earth-and that the good is to defeat his body, to undermine it by years of patient struggle, digging his way to that gorgeous jail-break which leads into the freedom of the grave.
They have taught man that he is a hopeless misfit made of two elements, both symbols of death. A body without a soul is a corpse, a soul without a body is a ghost-yet such is their image of mans nature: the battleground of a struggle between a corpse and a ghost, a corpse endowed with some evil volition of its own and a ghost endowed with the knowledge that everything known to man is nonexistent, that only the unknowable exists.
Do you observe what human faculty that doctrine was designed to ignore? It was mans mind that had to be negated in order to make him fall apart. Once he surrendered reason, he was left at the mercy of two monsters whom he could not fathom or control: of a body moved by unaccountable instincts and of a soul moved by mystic revelations-he was left as the passively ravaged victim of a battle between a robot and a dictaphone.
And as he now crawls through the wreckage, groping blindly for a way to live, your teachers offer him the help of a morality that proclaims that hell find no solution and must seek no fulfillment on earth. Real existence, they tell him, is that which he cannot perceive, true consciousness is the faculty of perceiving the non-existent-and if he is unable to understand it, that is the proof that his existence is evil and his consciousness impotent.
As products of the split between mans soul and body, there are two kinds of teachers of the Morality of Death: the mystics of spirit and the mystics of muscle, whom you call the spiritualists and the materialists, those who believe in consciousness without existence and those who believe in existence without consciousness. Both demand the surrender of your mind, one to their revelation, the other to their reflexes. No matter how loudly they posture in the roles of irreconcilable antagonists, their moral codes are alike, and so are their aims: in matter-the enslavement of mans body, in spirit-the destruction of his mind.
The good, say the mystics of spirit, is God, a being whose only definition is that he is beyond mans power to conceive-a definition that invalidates mans consciousness and nullifies his concepts of existence. The good, say the mystics of muscle, is Society-a thing which they define as an organism that possesses no physical form, a super-being embodied in no one in particular and everyone in general except yourself. Mans mind, say the mystics of spirit, must be subordinated to the will of God. Mans mind, say the mystics of muscle, must be subordinated to the will of Society. Mans standard of value say the mystics of spirit, is the pleasure 0f God, whose standards are beyond mans power of comprehension and must be accepted on faith. Mans standard of value, say the mystics of muscle, is the pleasure of Society, whose standards are beyond mans right of judgment and must be obeyed as a primary absolute. The purpose of mans life, say both, is to become an abject zombie who serves a purpose he does not know, for reasons he is not to question. His reward, say the mystics of spirit, will be given to him beyond the grave. His reward, say the mystics of muscle, will be given on earth-to his great-grandchildren.
Selfishness-say both-is mans evil. Mans good-say both-is to give up his personal desires, to deny himself, renounce himself, surrender; mans good is to negate the life he lives. Sacrifice-cry both-is the essence of morality, the highest virtue within mans reach.
Whoever is now within reach of my voice, whoever is man the victim, not man the killer, I am speaking at the deathbed of your mind, at the brink of that darkness in which youre drowning, and if there still remains within you the power to struggle to hold on to those fading sparks which had been yourself-use it now. The word that has destroyed you is sacrifice. Use the last of your strength to understand its meaning. Youre still alive. You have a chance.
Sacrifice does not mean the rejection of the worthless, but of the precious. Sacrifice does not mean the rejection of the evil for the sake of the good, but of the good for the sake of the evil. Sacrifice is the surrender of that which you value in favor of that which you dont.
If you exchange a penny for a dollar, it is not a sacrifice; if you exchange a dollar for a penny, it is. If you achieve the career you wanted, after years of struggle, it is not a sacrifice; if you then renounce it for the sake of a rival, it is. If you own a bottle of milk and gave it to your starving child, it is not a sacrifice; if you give it to your neighbors child and let your own die, it is.
If you give money to help a friend, it is not a sacrifice; if you give it to a worthless stranger, it is. If you give your friend a sum you can afford, it is not a sacrifice; if you give him money at the cost of your own discomfort, it is only a partial virtue, according to this sort of moral standard; if you give him money at the cost of disaster to yourself that is the virtue of sacrifice in full.
If you renounce all personal desire and dedicate your life to those you love, you do not achieve full virtue: you still retain a value of your own, which is your love. If you devote your life to random strangers, it is an act of greater virtue. If you devote your life to serving men you hate-that is the greatest of the virtues you can practice.
A sacrifice is the surrender of a value. Full sacrifice is full surrender of all values. If you wish to achieve full virtue, you must seek no gratitude in return for your sacrifice, no praise, no love, no admiration, no self-esteem, not even the pride of being virtuous; the faintest trace of any gain dilutes your virtue. If you pursue a course of action that does not taint your life by any joy, that brings you no value in matter, no value in spirit, no gain, no profit, no reward-if you achieve this state of total zero, you have achieved the ideal of moral perfection.
You are told that moral perfection is impossible to man-and, by this standard, it is. You cannot achieve it so long as you live, but the value of your life and of your person is gauged by how closely you succeed in approaching that ideal zero which is death.
If you start, however, as a passionless blank, as a vegetable seeking to be eaten, with no values to reject and no wishes to renounce, you will not win the crown of sacrifice. It is not a sacrifice to renounce the unwanted. It is not a sacrifice. It is not a sacrifice to give your life for others, if death is your personal desire. To achieve the virtue of sacrifice, you must want to live, you must love it, you must burn with passion for this earth and for all the splendor it can give you-you must feel the twist of every knife as it slashes your desires away from your reach and drains your love out of your body, It is not mere death that the morality of sacrifice holds out to you as an ideal, but death by slow torture.
Do not remind me that it pertains only to this life on earth. I am concerned with no other. Neither are you.
If you wish to save the last of your dignity, do not call your best actions a sacrifice: that term brands you as immoral. If a mother buys food for her hungry child rather than a hat for herself, it is not a sacrifice: she values the child higher than the hat; but it is a sacrifice to the kind of mother whose higher value is the hat, who would prefer her child to starve and feeds him only from a sense of duty. If a man dies fighting for his own freedom, it is not a sacrifice: he is not willing to live as a slave; but it is a sacrifice to the kind of man whos willing. If a man refuses to sell his convictions, it is not a sacrifice, unless he is the sort of man who has no convictions.
Sacrifice could be proper only for those who have nothing to sacrifice-no values, no standards, no judgment-those whose desires are irrational whims, blindly conceived and lightly surrendered. For a man of moral stature, whose desires are born of rational values, sacrifice is the surrender of the right to the wrong, of the good to the evil.
The creed of sacrifice is a morality for the immoral-a morality that declares its own bankruptcy by confessing that it cant impart to men any personal stake in virtues or value, and that their souls are sewers of depravity, which they must be taught to sacrifice. By his own confession, it is impotent to teach men to be good and can only subject them to constant punishment.
Are you thinking, in some foggy stupor, that its only material values that your morality requires you to sacrifice? And what do you think are material values? Matter has no value except as a means for the satisfaction of human desires. Matter is only a tool of human values. To what service are you asked to give the material tools your virtue has produced? To the service of that which you regard as evil: to a principle you do not share, to a person you do not respect, to the achievement of a purpose opposed to your own-else your gift is not a sacrifice.
Your morality tells you to renounce the material world and to divorce your values from matter. A man whose values are given no expression in material form, whose existence is unrelated to his ideals, whose actions contradict his convictions, is a cheap little hypocrite-yet that is the man who obeys your morality and divorces his values from matter. The man who loves one woman, but sleeps with another-the man who admires the talent of a worker, but hires another-the man who considers one cause to be just, but donates his money to the support of another-the man who holds high standards of craftsmanship, but devotes his effort to the production of trash-these are the men who have renounced matter, the men who believe that the values of their spirit cannot be brought into material reality.
Do you say it is the spirit that such men have renounced? Yes, of course. You cannot have one without the other. You are an indivisible entity of matter and consciousness. Renounce your consciousness and you become a brute. Renounce your body and you become a fake. Renounce the material world and you surrender it to evil.
And that is precisely the goal of your morality, the duty that your code demands of you. Give to that which you do not enjoy, serve that which you do not admire, submit to that which you consider evil-surrender the world to the values of others, deny, reject, renounce your self. Your self is your mind; renounce it and you become a chunk of meat ready for any cannibal to swallow.
It is your mind that they want you to surrender-all those who preach the creed of sacrifice, whatever their tags or their motives, whether they demand it for the sake of your soul or of your body, whether they promise you another life in heaven or a full stomach on this earth. Those who start by saying: It is selfish to pursue your own wishes, you must sacrifice them to the wishes of others-end up by saying: It is selfish to uphold your convictions, you must sacrifice them to the convictions of others.
This much is true: the most selfish of all things is the independent mind that recognizes no authority higher than its own and no value higher than its judgment of truth. You are asked to sacrifice your intellectual integrity, your logic, your reason, your standard of truth-in favor of becoming a prostitute whose standard is the greatest good for the greatest number.
If you search your code for guidance, for an answer to the question: What is the good?-the only answer you will find is The good of others. The good is whatever others wish, whatever you feel they feel they wish, or whatever you feel they ought to feel. The good of others is a magic formula that transforms anything into gold, a formula to be recited as a guarantee of moral glory and as a fumigator for any action, even the slaughter of a continent. Your standard of virtue is not an object, not an act, not a principle, but an intention. You need no proof, no reasons, no success, you need not achieve in fact the good of others-all you need to know is that your motive was the good of others, not your own. Your only definition of the good is a negation: the good is the non-good for me.
Your code-which boasts that it upholds eternal, absolute, objective moral values and scorns the conditional, the relative and the subjective-your code hands out, as its version of the absolute, the following rule of moral conduct: If you wish it, its evil; if others wish it, its good; if the motive of your action is your welfare, dont do it; if the motive is the welfare of others, then anything goes.
As this double-jointed, double-standard morality splits you in half, so it splits mankind into two enemy camps: one is you, the other is all the rest of humanity. You are the only outcast who has no right to wish to live. You are the only servant, the rest are the masters, you are the only giver, the rest are the takers, you are the eternal debtor, the rest are the creditors never to be paid off. You must not question their right to your sacrifice, or the nature of their wishes and their needs: their right is conferred upon them by a negative, by the fact that they are non-you.
For those of you who might ask questions, your code provides a consolation prize and booby-trap: it is for your own happiness, it says, that you must serve the happiness of others, the only way to achieve your joy is to give it up to others, the only way to achieve your prosperity is to surrender your wealth to others, the only way to protect your life is to protect all men except yourself-and if you find no joy in this procedure, it is your own fault and the proof of your evil; if you were good, you would find your happiness in providing a banquet for others, and your dignity in existing on such crumbs as they might care to toss you.
You who have no standard of self-esteem, accept the guilt and dare not ask the questions. But you know the unadmitted answer, refusing to acknowledge what you see, what hidden premise moves your world. You know it, not in honest statement, but as a dark uneasiness within you, while you flounder between guilty cheating and grudgingly practicing a principle too vicious to name.
I, who do not accept the unearned, neither in values nor in guilt, am here to ask the questions you evaded. Why is it moral to serve the happiness of others, but not your own? If enjoyment is a value, why is it moral when experienced by others, but immoral when experienced by you? If the sensation of eating a cake is a value, why is it an immoral indulgence in your stomach, but a moral goal for you to achieve in the stomach of others? Why is it immoral for you to desire, but moral for others to do so? Why is it immoral to produce a value and keep it, but moral to give it away? And if it is not moral for you to keep a value, why is it moral for others to accept it? If you are selfless and virtuous when you give it, are they not selfish and vicious when they take it? Does virtue consist of serving vice? Is the moral purpose of those who are good, self-immolation for the sake of those who are evil?
The answer you evade, the monstrous answer is: No, the takers are not evil, provided they did not earn the value you gave them. It is not immoral for them to accept it, provided they are unable to produce it, unable to deserve it, unable to give you any value in return. It is not immoral for them to enjoy it, provided they do not obtain it by right.
Such is the secret core of your creed, the other half of your double standard: it is immoral to live by your own effort, but moral to live by the effort of others-it is immoral to consume your own product, but moral to consume the products of others-it is immoral to earn, but moral to mooch-it is the parasites who are the moral justification for the existence of the producers, but the existence of the parasites is an end in itself-it is evil to profit by achievement, but good to profit by sacrifice-it is evil to create your own happiness, but good to enjoy it at the price of the blood of others.
Your code divides mankind into two castes and commands them to live by opposite rules: those who may desire anything and those who may desire nothing, the chosen and the demand, the riders and the carriers, the eaters and the eaten. What standard determines your caste? What passkey admits you to the moral elite? The passkey is lack of value.
Whatever the value involved, it is your lack of it that gives you a claim upon those who dont lack it. It is your need that gives you a claim to rewards. If you are able to satisfy your need, your ability annuls your right to satisfy it. But a need you are unable to satisfy gives you first right to the lives of mankind.
If you succeed, any man who fails is your master; if you fail, any man who succeeds is your serf. Whether your failure is just or not, whether your wishes are rational or not, whether your misfortune is undeserved or the result of your vices, it is misfortune that gives you a right to rewards. It is pain, regardless of its nature or cause, pain as a primary absolute, that gives you a mortgage on all of existence.
If you heal your pain by your own effort, you receive no moral credit: your code regards it scornfully as an act of self-interest. Whatever value you seek to acquire, be it wealth or food or love or rights, if you acquire it by means of your Virtue, your code does not regard it as a moral acquisition: you occasion no loss to anyone, it is a trade, not alms; a payment, not a sacrifice. The deserved belongs in the selfish, commercial realm of mutual profit; it is only the undeserved that calls for that moral transaction which consists of profit to one at the price of disaster to the other. To demand rewards for your virtue is selfish and immoral; it is your lack of virtue that transforms your demand into a moral right.
A morality that holds need as a claim, holds emptiness-non-existence-as its standard of value; it rewards an absence, a defeat: weakness, inability, incompetence, suffering, disease, disaster, the lack, the fault, the flaw-the zero.
Who provides the account to pay these claims? Those who are cursed for being non-zeros, each to the extent of his distance from that ideal. Since all values are the product of virtues, the degree of your virtue is used as the measure of your penalty; the degree of your faults is used as the measure of your gain. Your code declares that the rational man must sacrifice himself to the irrational, the independent man to parasites, the honest man to the dishonest, the man of justice to the unjust, the productive man to thieving loafers, the man of integrity to compromising knaves, the man of self-esteem to sniveling neurotics. Do you wonder at the meanness of soul in those you see around you? The man who achieves these virtues will not accept your moral code; the man who accepts your moral code will not achieve these virtues.
Under a morality of sacrifice, the first value you sacrifice is morality; the next is self-esteem. When need is the standard, every man is both victim and parasite. As a victim, he must labor to fill the needs of others, leaving himself in the position of a parasite whose needs must be filled by others. He cannot approach his fellow men except in one of two disgraceful roles: he is both a beggar and a sucker.
You fear the man who has a dollar less than you, that dollar is rightfully his, he makes you feel like a moral defrauder. You hate the man who has a dollar more than you, that dollar is rightfully yours, he makes you feel that you are morally defrauded. The man below is a source of, your guilt, the man above is a source of your frustration. You do not know what to surrender or demand, when to give and when to grab, what pleasure in life is rightfully yours and what debt is still unpaid to others-you struggle to evade, as theory, the knowledge that by the moral standard youve accepted you are guilty every moment of your life, there is no mouthful of food you swallow that is not needed by someone somewhere on earth-and you give up the problem in blind resentment, you conclude that moral perfection is not to be achieved or desired, that you will muddle through by snatching as snatch can and by avoiding the eyes of the young, of those who look at you as if self-esteem were possible and they expected you to have it. Guilt is all that you retain within your soul-and so does every other man, as he goes past, avoiding your eyes. Do you wonder why your morality has not achieved brotherhood on earth or the good will of man to man?
The justification of sacrifice, that your morality propounds, is more corrupt than the corruption it purports to justify. The motive of your sacrifice, it tells you, should be love-the love you ought to feel for every man. A morality that professes the belief that the values of the spirit are more precious than matter, a morality that teaches you to scorn a whore who gives her body indiscriminately to all men-this same morality demands that you surrender your soul to promiscuous love for all comers.
As there can be no causeless wealth, so there can be no causeless love or any sort of causeless emotion. An emotion is a response to a face of reality, an estimate dictated by your standards. To love is to value. The man who tells you that it is possible to value without values, to love those whom you appraise as worthless, is the man who tells you that it is possible to grow rich by consuming without producing and that paper money is as valuable as gold.
Observe that he does not expect you to feel a causeless fear. When his kind get into power, they are expert at contriving means of terror, at giving you ample cause to feel the fear by which they desire to rule you. But when it comes to love, the highest of emotions, you permit them to shriek at you accusingly that you are a moral delinquent if youre incapable of feeling causeless love. When a man feels fear without reason, you call him to the attention of a psychiatrist; you are not so careful to protect the meaning, the nature and the dignity of love.
Love is the expression of ones values, the greatest reward you can earn for the moral qualities you have achieved in your character and person, the emotional price paid by one man for the joy he receives from the virtues of another. Your morality demands that you divorce your love from values and hand it down to any vagrant, not as response to his worth, but as response to his need, not as reward, but as alms, not as a payment for virtues, but as a blank check on vices. Your morality tells you that the purpose of love is to set you free of the bonds of morality, that love is superior to moral judgment, that true love transcends, forgives and survives every manner of evil in its object, and the greater the love the greater the depravity it permits to the loved. To love a man for his virtues is paltry and human, it tells you; to love him for his flaws is divine. To love those who are worthy of it is self-interest; to love the unworthy is sacrifice. You owe your love to those who dont deserve it, and the less they deserve it, the more love you owe them-the more loathsome the object, the nobler your love-the more unfastidious your love, the greater the virtue-and if you can bring your soul to the state of a dump heap that welcomes anything on equal terms, if you can cease to value moral values, you have achieved the state of moral perfection.
Such is your morality of sacrifice and such are the twin ideals it offers: to refashion the life of your body in the image of a human stockyard, and the life of your spirit in the image of a dump.
Such was your goal-and youve reached it. Why do you now moan complaints about mans impotence and the futility of human aspirations? Because you were unable to prosper by seeking destruction? Because you were unable to find joy by worshipping pain? Because you were unable to live by holding death as your standard of value?
The degree of your ability to live was the degree to which you broke your moral code, yet you believe that those who preach it are friends of humanity, you damn yourself and dare not question their motives or their goals. Take a look at them now, when you face your last choice-and if you choose to perish, do so with full knowledge of how cheaply so small an enemy has claimed your life.
The mystics of both schools, who preach the creed of sacrifice, are germs that attack you through a single sore: your fear of relying on your mind. They tell you that they possess a means of knowledge higher than the mind, a mode of consciousness superior to reason-like a special pull with some bureaucrat of the universe who gives them secret tips withheld from others. The mystics of spirit declare that they possess an extra sense you lack: this special sixth sense consists of contradicting the whole of the knowledge of your five. The mystics of muscle do not bother to assert any claim to extrasensory perception: they merely declare that your senses are not valid, and that their wisdom consists of perceiving your blindness by some manner of unspecified means. Both kinds demand that you invalidate your own consciousness and surrender yourself into their power. They offer you, as proof of their superior knowledge, the fact that they assert the opposite of everything you know, and as proof of their superior ability to deal with existence, the fact that they lead you to misery, self-sacrifice, starvation, destruction.
They claim that they perceive a mode of being superior to your existence on this earth. The mystics of spirit call it another dimension, which consists of denying dimensions. The mystics of muscle call it the future, which consists of denying the present. To exist is to possess identity. What identity are they able to give to their superior realm? They keep telling you what it is not, but never tell you what it is. All their identifications consist of negating: God is that which no human mind can know, they say-and proceed to demand that you consider it knowledge-God is non-man, heaven is non-earth, soul is non-body, virtue is non-profit, A is non-A, perception is non-sensory, knowledge is non-reason. Their definitions are not acts of defining, but of wiping out.
It is only the metaphysics of a leech that would cling to the idea of a universe where a zero is a standard of identification. A leech would want to seek escape from the necessity to name its own nature-escape from the necessity to know that the substance on which it builds its private universe is blood.
What is the nature of that superior world to which they sacrifice the world that exists? The mystics of spirit curse matter, the mystics of muscle curse profit the first wish men to profit by renouncing the earth, the second wish men to inherit the earth by renouncing all profit. Their non-material, non-profit worlds are realms where rivers run with milk and coffee, where wine spurts from rocks at their command, where pastry drops on them from clouds at the price of opening their mouth. On this material, profit-chasing earth, an enormous investment of virtue-of intelligence, integrity, energy, skill-is required to construct a railroad to carry them the distance of one mile; in their non-material, non-profit world, they travel from planet to planet at the cost of a wish. If an honest person asks them: How?-they answer with righteous scorn that a how is the concept of vulgar realists; the concept of superior spirits is Somehow. On this earth restricted by matter and profit, rewards are achieved by thought; in a world set free of such restrictions, rewards are achieved by wishing.
And that is the whole of their shabby secret. The secret of all their esoteric philosophies, of all their dialectics and super-senses, of their evasive eyes and snarling words, the secret for which they destroy civilization, language, industries and lives, the secret for which they pierce their own eyes and eardrums, grind out their senses, blank out their minds, the purpose for which they dissolve the absolutes of reason, logic, matter, existence, reality-is to erect upon that plastic fog a single holy absolute: their Wish.
The restriction they seek to escape is the law of identity. The freedom they seek is freedom from the fact that an A will remain an A, no matter what their tears or tantrums-that a river will not bring them milk, no matter what their hunger-that water will not run uphill, no matter what comforts they could gain if it did, and if they want to lift it to the roof of a skyscraper, they must do it by a process of thought and labor, in which the nature of an inch of pipe line counts, but their feelings do not-that their feelings are impotent to alter the course of a single speck of dust in space or the nature of any action they have committed.
Those who tell you that man is unable to perceive a reality undistorted by his senses, mean that they are unwilling to perceive a reality undistorted by their feelings. Things as they are are things as perceived by your mind; divorce them from reason and they become things as perceived by your wishes.
There is no honest revolt against reason-and when you accept any part of their creed, your motive is to get away with something your reason would not permit you to attempt. The freedom you seek is freedom from the fact that if you stole your wealth, you are a scoundrel, no matter how much you give to charity or how many prayers you recite-that if you sleep with sluts, youre not a worthy husband, no matter how anxiously you feel that you love our wife next morning-that you are an entity, not a series of random pieces scattered through a universe where nothing sticks and nothing commits you to anything, the universe of a childs nightmare where identities switch and swim, where the rotter and the hero are interchangeable parts arbitrarily assumed at will-that you are a man-that you are an entity-that you are.
No matter how eagerly you claim that the goal of your mystic wishing is a higher mode of life, the rebellion against identity is the wish for non-existence. The desire not to be anything is the desire not to be.
Your teachers, the mystics of both schools, have reversed causality in their consciousness, then strive to reverse it in existence. They take their emotions as a cause, and their mind as a passive effect. They make their emotions their tool for perceiving reality. They hold their desires as an irreducible primary, as a fact superseding all facts. An honest man does not desire until he has identified the object of his desire. He says: It is, therefore I want it. They say: I want it, therefore it is.
They want to cheat the axiom of existence and consciousness, they want their consciousness to be an instrument not of perceiving but of creating existence, and existence to be not the object but the subject of their consciousness-they want to be that God they created in their image and likeness, who creates a universe out of a void by means of an arbitrary whim. But reality is not to be cheated. What they achieve is the opposite of their desire. They want an omnipotent power over existence; instead, they lose the power of the consciousness. By refusing to know, they condemn themselves to the horror of a perpetual unknown.
Those irrational wishes that draw you to their creed, those emotions you worship as an idol, on whose altar you sacrifice the earth, that dark, incoherent passion within you, which you take as the voice of God or of your glands, is nothing more than the corpse of your mind. An emotion that clashes with your reason, an emotion that you cannot explain or control, is only the carcass of that stale thinking which you forbade your mind to revise.
Whenever you committed the evil of refusing to think and to see, of exempting from the absolute of reality some one small wish of yours, whenever you chose to say: Let me withdraw from the judgment of reason the cookies I stole, or the existence of God, let me have my one irrational whim and I will be a man of reason about all else-that was the act of subverting your consciousness, the act of corrupting your mind. Your mind then became a fixed jury who takes orders from a secret underworld, whose verdict distorts the evidence to fit an absolute it dares not touch-and a censored reality is the result, a splintered reality where the bits you chose to see are floating among the chasms of those you didnt, held together by that embalming fluid of the mind which is an emotion exempted from thought.
The links you strive to drown are casual connections. The enemy you seek to defeat is the law of causality: it permits you no miracles. The law of causality is the law of identity applied to action. All actions are caused by entities. The nature of an action is caused and determined by the nature of the entities that act; a thing cannot act in contradiction to its nature. An action not caused by an entity would be caused by a zero, which would mean a zero controlling a thing, a non-entity controlling an entity, the non-existent ruling the existent-which is the universe of your teachers desire, the cause of their doctrines of causeless action, the reason of their revolt against reason, the goal of their morality, their politics, their economics, the ideal they strive for: the reign of the zero.
The law of identity does not permit you to have your cake and eat it, too. The law of causality does not permit you to eat your cake before you have it. But if you drown both laws in the blanks of your mind, if you pretend to yourself and to others that you dont see-then you can try to proclaim your right to eat your cake today and mine tomorrow, you can preach that the way to have a cake is to eat it first, before you bake it, that the way to produce is to start by consuming, that all wishers have an equal claim to all things, since nothing is caused by anything. The corollary of the causeless in matter is the unearned in spirit.
Whenever you rebel against causality, your motive is the fraudulent desire, not to escape it, but worse: to reverse it. You want unearned love, as if love, the effect, could give you personal value, the cause-you want unearned admiration, as if admiration, the effect, could give you virtue, the cause-you want unearned wealth, as if wealth, the effect, could give you ability, the cause-you plead for mercy, mercy, not justice, as if an unearned forgiveness could wipe out the cause of your plea. And to indulge your ugly little shams, you support the doctrines of your teachers, while they run hog-wild proclaiming that spending, the effect, creates riches, the cause, that machinery, the effect, creates intelligence, the cause, that your sexual desires, the effect, create your philosophical values, the cause.
Who pays for the orgy? Who causes the causeless? Who are the victims, condemned to remain unacknowledged and to perish in silence, lest their agony disturb your pretense that they do not exist? We are, we, the men of the mind.
We are the cause of all the values that you covet, we who perform the process of thinking, which is the process of defining identity and discovering causal connections. We taught you to know, to speak, to produce, to desire, to love. You who abandon reason-were it not for us who preserve it, you would not be able to fulfill or even to conceive your wishes. You would not be able to desire the clothes that had not been made, the automobile that had not been invented, the money that had not been devised, as exchange for goods that did not exist, the admiration that had not been experienced for men who had achieved nothing, the love that belongs and pertains only to those who preserve their capacity to think, to choose, to value.
You-who leap like a savage out of the jungle of your feelings to the Fifth Avenue of our New York and proclaim that you want to keep the electric lights, but to destroy the generators-it is our wealth that you use while destroying us, it is our values that you use while damning us, it is our language that you use while denying the mind.
Just as your mystics of spirit invented their heaven in the image of our earth, omitting our existence, and promised you rewards created by miracle out of non-matter-so your modern mystics of muscle omit our existence and promise you a heaven where matter shapes itself of its own causeless will into all the rewards desired by your non-mind.
For centuries, the mystics of spirit had existed by running a protection racket-by making life on earth unbearable, then charging you for consolation and relief, by forbidding all the virtues that make existence possible, then riding on the shoulders of your guilt, by declaring production and joy to be sins, then collecting blackmail from the sinners. We, the men of the mind, were the unnamed victims of their creed, we who were willing to break their moral code and to bear damnation for the sin of reason-we who thought and acted, while they wished and prayed-we who were moral outcasts, we who were bootleggers of life when life was held to be a crime-while they basked in moral glory for the virtue of surpassing material greed and of distributing in selfless charity the material goods produced by-blank-out.
Now we are chained and commanded to produce by savages who do not grant us even the identification of sinners-by savages who proclaim that we do not exist, then threaten to deprive us of the life we dont possess, if we fail to provide them with the goods we dont produce. Now we are expected to continue running railroads and to know the minute when a train will arrive after crossing the span of a continent, we are expected to continue running steel mills and to know the molecular structure of every drop of metal in the cables of your bridges and in the body of the airplanes that support you in mid-air-while the tribes of your grotesque little mystics of muscle fight over the carcass of our world, gibbering in sounds of non-language that there are no principles, no absolutes, no knowledge, no mind.
Dropping below the level of a savage, who believes that the magic words he utters have the power to alter reality, they believe that reality can be altered by the power of the words they do not utter-and their magic tool is the blank-out, the pretense that nothing can come into existence past the voodoo of their refusal to identify it.
As they feed on stolen wealth in body, so they feed on stolen concepts in mind, and proclaim that honesty consists of refusing to know that one is stealing. As they use effects while denying causes, so they use our concepts while denying the roots and the existence of the concepts they are using. As they seek, not to build, but to take over industrial plants, so they seek, not to think, but to take over human thinking.
As they proclaim that the only requirement for running a factory is the ability to turn the cranks of the machines, and blank out the question of who created the factory-so they proclaim that there are no entities, that nothing exists but motion, and blank out the fact that motion presupposes the thing which moves, that without the concept of entity, there can be no such concept as motion. As they proclaim their right to consume the unearned, and blank out the question of whos to produce it-so they proclaim that there is no law of identity, that nothing exists but change, and blank out the fact that change presupposes the concepts of what changes, from what and to what, that, without the law of identity no such concept as change is possible. As they rob an industrialist while denying his value, so they seek to seize power over all of existence while denying that existence exists.
We know that we know nothing, they chatter, blanking out the fact that they are claiming knowledge-There are not absolutes, they chatter, blanking out the fact that they are uttering an absolute-You cannot prove that you exist or that youre conscious, they chatter, blanking out the fact that proof presupposes existence, consciousness and a complex chain of knowledge: the existence of something to know, of a consciousness able to know it, and of a knowledge that has learned to distinguish between such concepts as the proved and the unproved.
When a savage who has not learned to speak declares that existence must be proved, he is asking you to prove it by means of non-existence-when he declares that your consciousness must be proved, he is asking you to prove it by means of unconsciousness-he is asking you to step into a void outside of existence and consciousness to give him proof of both-he is asking you to become a zero gaining knowledge about a zero.
When he declares that an axiom is a matter of arbitrary choice and he doesnt choose to accept the axiom that he exists, he blanks out the fact that he has accepted it by uttering that sentence, that the only way to reject it is to shut ones mouth, expound no theories and die.
An axiom is a statement that identifies the base of knowledge and of any further statement pertaining to that knowledge, a statement necessarily contained in all others, whether any particular speaker chooses to identify it or not. An axiom is a proposition that defeats its opponents by the fact that they have to accept it and use it in the process of any attempt to deny it. Let the caveman who does not choose to accept the axiom of identity, try to present his theory without using the concept of identity or any concept derived from it-let the anthropoid who does not choose to accept the existence of nouns, try to devise a language without nouns, adjectives or verbs-let the witch-doctor who does not choose to accept the validity of sensory perception, try to prove it without using the data he obtained by sensory perception-let the head-hunter who does not choose to accept the validity of logic, try to prove it without using logic-let the pigmy who proclaims that a skyscraper needs no foundation after it reaches its fiftieth story, yank the base from under his building, not yours-let the cannibal who snarls that the freedom of mans mind was needed to create an industrial civilization, but is not needed to maintain it, be given an arrowhead and bearskin, not a university chair of economics.
Do you think they are taking you back to dark ages? They are taking you back to darker ages than any your history has known. Their goal is not the era of pre-science, but the era of pre-language. Their purpose is to deprive you of the concept on which mans mind, his life and his culture depend: the concept of an objective reality. Identify the development of a human consciousness-and you will know the purpose of their creed.
A savage is a being who has not grasped that A is A and that reality is real. He has arrested his mind at the level of a babys, at the state when a consciousness acquires its initial sensory perception and has not learned to distinguish solid objects. It is to a baby that the world appears as a blur of motion, without things that move-and the birth of his mind is the day when he grasps that the streak that keeps flickering past him is his mother and the whirl beyond her is a curtain, that the two are solid entities and neither can turn into the other, that they are what they are, that they exist. The day when he grasps that matter has no volition is the day when he grasps that he has-and this is his birth as a human being. The day when he grasps that the reflection he sees in a mirror is not a delusion, that it is real, but it is not himself, that the mirage he sees in a desert is not a delusion, that the air and the light rays that cause it are real, but it is not a city, it is a citys reflection-the day when he grasps that he is not a passive recipient of the sensations of any given moment, that his senses do not provide him with automatic knowledge in separate snatches independent of context, but only with the material of knowledge, which his mind must learn to integrate-the day when he grasps that his senses cannot deceive him, that physical objects cannot act without causes, that his organs of perception are physical and have no volition, no power to invent or to distort, that the evidence they give him is an absolute, but his mind must learn to understand it, his mind must discover the nature, the causes, the full context of his sensory material, his mind must identify the things that he perceives-that is the day of his birth as a thinker and scientist.
We are the men who reach that day; you are the men who choose to reach it partly; a savage is a man who never does.
To a savage, the world is a place of unintelligible miracles where anything is possible to inanimate matter and nothing is possible to him. His world is not the unknown, but that irrational horror: the unknowable. He believes that physical objects are endowed with a mysterious volition, moved by causeless, unpredictable whims, while he is a helpless pawn at the mercy of forces beyond his control. He believes that nature is ruled by demons who possess an omnipotent power and that reality is their fluid plaything, where they can turn his bowl of meal into a snake and his wife into a beetle at any moment, where the A he has never discovered can be any non-A they choose, where the only knowledge he possesses is that he must not attempt to know. He can count on nothing, he can only wish, and he spends his life on wishing, on begging his demons to grant him his wishes by the arbitrary power of their will, giving them credit when they do, taking the blame when they dont, offering them sacrifices in token of his gratitude and sacrifices in token of his guilt, crawling on his belly in fear and worship of sun and moon and wind and rain and of any thug who announces himself as their spokesman, provided his words are unintelligible and his mask sufficiently frightening-he wishes, begs and crawls, and dies, leaving you, as a record of his view of existence, the distorted monstrosities of his idols, part-man, part-animal, part-spider, the embodiments of the world of non-A.
His is the intellectual state of your modern teachers and his is the world to which they want to bring you.
If you wonder by what means they propose to do it, walk into any college classroom and you will hear your professors teaching your children that man can be certain of nothing, that his consciousness has no validity whatever, that he can learn no facts and no laws of existence, that hes incapable of knowing an objective reality. What, then, is his standard of knowledge and truth? Whatever others believe, is their answer. There is no knowledge, they teach, theres only faith: your belief that you exist is an act of faith, no more valid than anothers faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you in his right to kill you; the axioms of science are an act of faith, no more valid than a mystics faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you in revelations; the belief that electric light can be produced by a generator is an act of faith, no more valid than the belief that it can be produced by a rabbits foot kissed under a stepladder on the first of the moon-truth is whatever people want it to be, and people are everyone except yourself; reality is whatever people choose to say it is, there are no objective facts, there are only peoples arbitrary wishes-a man who seeks knowledge in a laboratory by means of test tubes and logic is an old-fashioned, superstitious fool; a true scientist is a man who goes around taking public polls-and if it werent for the selfish greed of the manufacturers of steel girders, who have a vested interest in obstructing the progress of science, you would learn that New York City does not exist, because a poll of the entire population of the world would tell you by a landslide majority that their beliefs forbid its existence.
For centuries, the mystics of spirit have proclaimed that faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you is superior to reason, but have not dared deny the existence of reason. Their heirs and products, the mystics of muscle, have completed their job and achieved their dream: they proclaim that everything is faith, and call it a revolt against believing. As revolt against unproved assertions, they proclaim that nothing can be proved; as revolt against supernatural knowledge, they proclaim that no knowledge is possible; as-revolt against the enemies of science, they proclaim that science is superstition; as revolt against the enslavement of the mind, they proclaim that there is no mind.
If you surrender your power to perceive, if you accept the switch of your standard from the objective to the collective and wait for mankind to tell you what to think, you will find another switch taking place before the eyes you have renounced: you will find that your teachers become the rulers of the collective, and if you then refuse to obey them, protesting that they are not the whole of mankind, they will answer: By what means do you know that we are not? Are, brother? Where did you get that old-fashioned term?
If you doubt that such is their purpose, observe with what passionate consistency the mystics of muscle are striving to make you forget that a concept such as Mind has ever existed. Observe the twists of undefined verbiage, the words with rubber meanings, the terms left floating in midstream, by means of which they try to get around the recognition of the concept of thinking. Your consciousness, they tell you, consists of reflexes, reactions, experiences, urges, and drives-and refuse to identify the means by which they acquired that knowledge, to identify the act they are performing when they tell it or the act you are performing when you listen. Words have the power to consider you, they say and refuse to identify the reason why words have the power to change your-blank-out. A student reading a book understands it through a process of-blank-out. A scientist working on an invention is engaged in the activity of-blank-out. A psychologist helping a neurotic to solve a problem and untangle a conflict, does it by means of-blank-out. An industrialist-blank-out-there is no such person. A factory is a natural resource, like a tree, a rock or a mud puddle.
The problem of production, they tell you, has been solved and deserves no study or concern; the only problem left for your reflexes to solve is now the problem of distribution. Who solved the problem of production? Humanity, they answer. What was the solution? The goods are here. How did they get here? Somehow. What caused it? Nothing has causes.
They proclaim that every man born is entitled to exist without labor and, the laws of reality to the contrary notwithstanding, is entitled to receive his minimum sustenance-his food, his clothes, his shelter-with no effort on his part, as his due and his birthright. To receive it-from whom? Blank-out. Every man, they announce, owns an equal share of the technological benefits created in the world. Created-by whom? Blank-out. Frantic cowards who posture as defenders of industrialists now define the purpose of economics as an adjustment between the unlimited desires of men and the goods supplied in limited quantity. Supplied-by whom? Blank-out. Intellectual hoodlums who pose as professors, shrug away the thinkers of the past by declaring that their social theories were based on the impractical assumption that man was a rational being-but since men are not rational, they declare, there ought to be established a system that will make it possible for them to exist while being irrational, which means: while defying reality. Who will make it possible? Blank-out. Any stray mediocrity rushes into print with plans to control the production of mankind-and whoever agrees or disagrees with his statistics, no one questions his right to enforce his plans by means of a gun. Enforce-on whom? Blank-out. Random females with causeless incomes titter on trips around the globe and return to deliver the message that the backward peoples of the world demand a higher standard of living. Demand-of whom? Blank-out.
And to forestall any inquiry into the cause of the difference between a jungle village and New York City, they resort to the ultimate obscenity of explaining mans industrial progress-skyscrapers, cable bridges, power motors, railroad trains-by declaring that man is an animal who possesses an instinct of tool-making.
Did you wonder what is wrong with the world? You are now seeing the climax of the creed of the uncaused and unearned. All your gangs of mystics, of spirit or muscle, are fighting one another for power to rule you, snarling that love is the solution for all the problems of your spirit and that a whip is the solution for all the problems of your body-you who have agreed to have no mind. Granting man less dignity than they grant to cattle, ignoring what an animal trainer could tell them-that no animal can be trained by fear, that a tortured elephant will trample its torturer, but will not work for him or carry his burdens-they expect man to continue to produce electronic tubes, supersonic airplanes, atom-smashing engines and interstellar telescopes, with his ration of meat for reward and a lash on his back for incentive.
Make no mistake about the character of mystics. To undercut your consciousness has always been their only purpose throughout the ages-and power, the power to rule you by force, has always been their only lust.
From the rites of the jungle witch-doctors, which distorted reality into grotesque absurdities, stunted the minds of their victims and kept them in terror of the supernatural for stagnant stretches of centuries-to the supernatural doctrines of the Middle Ages, which kept men huddling on the mud floors of their-hovels, in terror that the devil might steal the soup they had worked eighteen hours to earn-to the seedy little smiling professor who assures you that your brain has no capacity to think, that you have no means of perception and must blindly obey the omnipotent will of that supernatural force: Society-all of it is the same performance for the same and only purpose: to reduce you to the kind of pulp that has surrendered the validity of its consciousness.
But it cannot be done to you without your consent. If you permit it to be done, you deserve it.
When you listen to a mystics harangue on the impotence of the human mind and begin to doubt your consciousness, not his, when you permit your precariously semi-rational state to be shaken by any assertion and decide it is safer to trust his superior certainty and knowledge, the joke is on both of you: your sanction is the only source of certainty he has. The supernatural power that a mystic dreads, the unknowable spirit he worships, the consciousness he considers omnipotent is-yours.
A mystic is a man who surrendered his mind at its first encounter with the minds of others. Somewhere in the distant reaches of his childhood, when his own understanding of reality clashed with the assertions of others, with their arbitrary orders and contradictory demands, he gave in to so craven a fear of independence that he renounced his rational faculty. At the crossroads of the choice between I know and They say, he chose the authority of others, he chose to submit rather than to understand, to believe rather than to think. faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you in the supernatural begins as faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you in the superiority of others. His surrender took the form of the feeling that he must hide his lack of understanding, that others possess some mysterious knowledge of which he alone is deprived, that reality is whatever they want it to be, through some means forever denied to him.
From then on, afraid to think, he is left at the mercy of unidentified feelings. His feelings become his only guide, his only remnant of personal identity, he clings to them with ferocious possessiveness-and whatever thinking he does is devoted to the struggle of hiding from himself that the nature of his feelings is terror.
When a mystic declares that he feels the existence of a power superior to reason, he feels it all right, but that power is not an omniscient super-spirit of the universe, it is the consciousness of any passer-by to whom he has surrendered his own. A mystic is driven by the urge to impress, to cheat, to flatter, to deceive, to force that omnipotent consciousness of others. They are his only key to reality, he feels that he cannot exist save by harnessing their mysterious power and extorting their unaccountable consent. They are his only means of perception and, like a blind man who depends on the sight of a dog, he feels he must leash them in order to live. To control the consciousness of others becomes his only passion; power-lust is a weed that grows only in the vacant lots of an abandoned mind.
Every dictator is a mystic, and every mystic is a potential dictator. A mystic craves obedience from men, not their agreement. He wants them to surrender their consciousness to his assertions, his edicts, his wishes, his whims-as his consciousness is surrendered to theirs. He wants to deal with men by means of faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you and force-he finds no satisfaction in their consent if he must earn it by means of facts and reason. Reason is the enemy he dreads and, simultaneously, considers precarious: reason, to him, is a means of deception, he feels that men possess some power more potent than reason-and only their causeless belief or their forced obedience can give him a sense of security, a proof that he has gained control of the mystic endowment he lacked. His lust is to command, not to convince: conviction requires an act of independence and press on the absolute of an objective reality. What he seeks is power over reality and over mens means of perceiving it, their mind, the power to interpose his will between existence and consciousness, as if, by agreeing to fake the reality he orders them to fake, men would, in fact, create it.
Just as the mystic is a parasite in matter, who expropriates the wealth created by others-just as he is a parasite in spirit, who plunders the ideas created by others-so he falls below the level of a lunatic who creates his own distortion of reality, to the level of a parasite of lunacy who seeks a distortion created by others.
There is only one state that fulfills the mystics longing for infinity, non-causality, non-identity: death. No matter what unintelligible causes he ascribes to his incommunicable feelings, whoever rejects reality rejects existence-and the feelings that move him from then on are hatred for all the values of mans life, and lust for all the evils that destroy it. A mystic relishes the spectacle of suffering, of poverty, subservience and terror; these give him a feeling of triumph, a proof of the defeat of rational reality. But no other reality exists.
No matter whose welfare he professes to serve, be it the welfare of God or of that disembodied gargoyle he describes as The People, no matter what ideal he proclaims in terms of some supernatural dimension-in fact, in reality, on earth, his ideal is death, his craving is to kill, his only satisfaction is to torture.
Destruction is the only end that the mystics creed has ever achieved, as it is the only end that, you see them achieving today, and if the ravages wrought by their acts have not made them question their doctrines, if they profess to be moved by love, yet are not deterred by piles of human corpses, it is because the truth about their souls is worse than the obscene excuse you have allowed them, the excuse that the end justifies the means and that the horrors they practice are means to nobler ends. The truth is that those horrors are their ends.
You whore depraved enough to believe that you could adjust yourself to a mystics dictatorship and could please him by obeying his orders-there is no way to please him; when you obey, he will reverse his orders; he seeks obedience for the sake of obedience and destruction for the sake of destruction. You who are craven enough to believe that you can make terms with a mystic by giving in to his extortions-there is no way to buy him off, the bribe he wants is your life, as slowly or as fast as you are willing to give it in-and the monster he seeks to bribe is the hidden blank-out in his mind, which drives him to kill in order not to learn that the death he desires is his own.
You who are innocent enough to believe that the forces let loose in your world today are moved by greed for material plunder-the mystics scramble for spoils is only a screen to conceal from their mind the nature of their motive. Wealth is a means of human life, and they clamor for wealth in imitation of living beings, to pretend to themselves that they desire to live, but their swinish indulgence in plundered luxury is not enjoyment, it is escape. They do not want to own your fortune, they want you to lose it; they do not want to succeed, they want you to fail; they do not want to live, they want you to die; they desire nothing, they hate existence, and they keep running, each trying not to learn that the object of his hatred is himself.
You whove never grasped the nature of evil, you who describe them as misguided idealists-may the God you invented forgive you!-they are the essence of evil, they, those anti-living objects who seek, by devouring the world, to fill the selfless zero of their soul. It is not your wealth that theyre after. Theirs is a conspiracy against the mind, which means: against life and man.
It is a conspiracy without leader or direction, and the random little thugs of the moment who cash in on the agony of one land or another are chance scum riding the torrent from the broken dam of the sewer of centuries, from the reservoir of hatred for reason, for logic, for ability, for achievement, for joy, stored by every whining anti-human who ever preached the superiority of the heart over the mind.
It is a conspiracy of all those who seek, not to live, but to get away with living, those who seek to cut just one small corner of reality and are drawn, by feeling, to all the others who are busy cutting other corners-a conspiracy that unites by links of evasion all those who pursue a zero as a value: the professor who, unable to think, takes pleasure in crippling the mind of his students, the businessman who, to protect his stagnation, takes pleasure in chaining the ability of competitors, the neurotic who, to defend his self-loathing, takes pleasure in breaking men of self-esteem, the incompetent who takes pleasure in defeating achievement, the mediocrity who takes pleasure in demolishing greatness, the eunuch who takes pleasure in the castration of all pleasure-and all their intellectual munition-makers, all those who preach that the immolation of virtue will transform vices into virtue. Death is the premise at the root of their theories, death is the goal of their actions in practice-and you are the last of their victims.
We, who are the living buffers between you and the nature of your creed, are no longer there to save you from the effects of your chosen beliefs. We are no longer willing to pay with our lives the debts you incurred in yours or the moral deficit piled up by all the generations behind you. You had been living on borrowed time-and I am the man who has called in the loan.
I am the man whose existence your blank-outs were intended to permit you to ignore. I am the man whom you did not want either to live or to die. You did not want me to live, because you were afraid of knowing that I carried the responsibility you dropped and that your lives depended upon me; you did not want me to die, because you knew it.
Twelve years ago, when I worked in your world, I was an inventor. I was one of a profession that came last in human history and will be first to vanish on the way back to the sub-human. An inventor is a man who asks Why? of the universe and lets nothing stand between the answer and his mind.
Like the man who discovered the use of steam or the man who discovered the use oil, I discovered a source of energy which was available since the birth of the globe, but which men had not known how to use except as an object of worship, of terror and of legends without a thundering god. I completed the experimental model of a motor that would have made a fortune for me and for those who had hired me, a motor that would have raised the efficiency of every human installation using power and would have added the gift of higher productivity to every hour you spend at earning your living.
Then, one night at a factory meeting, I heard myself sentenced to death by reason of my achievement. I heard three parasites assert that my brain and my life were their property, that my right to exist was conditional and depended on the satisfaction of their desires. The purpose of my ability, they said, was to serve the needs of those who were less able. I had no right to live, they said, by reason of my competence for living: their right to live was unconditional, by reason of their incompetence.
Then I saw what was wrong with the world, I saw what destroyed men and nations, and where the battle for life had to be fought. I saw that the enemy was an inverted morality-and that my sanction was its only power. I saw that evil was impotent-that evil was the irrational, the blind, the anti-real-and that the only weapon of its triumph was the willingness of the good to serve it. Just as the parasites around me were proclaiming their helpless dependence on my mind and were expecting me voluntarily to accept a slavery they had no power to enforce, just as they were counting on my self-immolation to provide them with the means of their plan-so throughout the world and throughout mens history, in every version and form, from the extortions of loafing relatives to the atrocities of collective countries, it is the good, the able, the men of reason, who act as their own destroyers, who transfuse to evil the blood of their virtue and let evil transmit to them the poison of destruction, thus gaining for evil the power of survival, and for their own values-the impotence of death. I saw that there comes a point, in the defeat of any man of virtue, when his own consent is needed for evil to win-and that no manner of injury done to him by others can succeed if he chooses to withhold his consent. I saw that I could put an end to your outrages by pronouncing a single word in my mind. I pronounced it. The word was No.
I quit that factory. I quit your world, I made it my job to warn your victims and to give them the method and the weapon to fight you. The method was to refuse to deflect retribution. The weapon was justice.
If you want to know what you lost when I quit and when my strikers deserted your world-stand on an empty stretch of soil in a wilderness unexplored by men and ask yourself what manner of survival you would achieve and how long you would last if you refused to think, with no one around to teach you the motions, or, if you chose to think, how much your mind would be able to discover-ask yourself how many independent conclusions you have reached in the course of your life and how much of your time was spent on performing the actions you learned from others-ask yourself whether you would be able to discover how to till the soil and grow your food, whether you would be able to invent a wheel, a lever, an induction coil, a generator, an electronic tube-then decide whether men of ability are exploiters who live by the fruit of your labor and rob you of the wealth that you produce, and whether you dare to believe that you possess the power to enslave them. Let your women take a look at a jungle female with her shriveled face and pendulous breasts, as she sits grinding meal in a bowl, hour after hour, century by century-then let them ask themselves whether their instinct of tool-making will provide them with their electric refrigerators, their washing machines and vacuum cleaners, and, if not, whether they care to destroy those who provided it all, but not by instinct.
Take a look around you, you savages who stutter that ideas are created by mens means of production, that a machine is not the product of human thought, but a mystical power that produces human thinking. You have never discovered the industrial age-and you cling to the morality of the barbarian eras when a miserable form of human subsistence was produced by the muscular labor of slaves. Every mystic had always longed for slaves, to protect him from the material reality he dreaded. But you, you grotesque little atavists, stare blindly at the skyscrapers and smokestacks around you and dream of enslaving the material providers who are scientists, inventors, industrialists. When you clamor for public ownership of the means of production, you are clamoring for public ownership of the mind. I have taught my strikers that the answer you deserve is only: Try and get it.
You proclaim yourself unable to harness the forces of inanimate matter, yet propose to harness the minds of men who are able to achieve the feats you cannot equal. You proclaim that you cannot survive without us, yet propose to dictate the terms of our survival. You proclaim that you need us, yet indulge the impertinence of asserting your right to rule us by force-and expect that we, who are not afraid of that physical nature which fills you with terror, will cower at the sight of any lout who has talked you into voting him a chance to command us.
You propose to establish a social order based on the following tenets: that youre incompetent to run your own life, but competent to run the lives of others-that youre unfit to exist in freedom, but fit to become an omnipotent ruler-that youre unable to earn your living by the use of your own intelligence, but able to judge politicians and to vote them into jobs of total power over arts you have never seen, over sciences you have never studied, over achievements of which you have no knowledge, over the gigantic industries where you, by your own definition of your capacity, would be unable successfully to fill the job of assistant greaser.
This idol of your cult of zero-worship, this symbol of impotence-the congenital dependent-is your image of man and your standard of value, in whose likeness you strive to refashion your soul. Its only human, you cry in defense of any depravity, reaching the stage of self-abasement where you seek to make the concept human mean the weakling, the fool, the rotter, the liar, the failure, the coward, the fraud, and to exile from the human race the hero, the thinker, the producer, the inventor, the strong, the purposeful, the pure-as if to feel were human, but to think were not, as if to fail were human, but to succeed were not, as if corruption were human, but virtue were not-as if the premise of death were proper to man, but the premise of life were not.
In order to deprive us of honor, that you may then deprive us of our wealth, you have always regarded us as slaves who deserve no moral recognition. You praise any venture that claims to be non-profit, and damn the men who made the profits that make the venture possible. You regard as in the public interest any project serving those who do not pay; it is not in the public interest to provide any services for those who do the paying. Public benefit is anything given as alms; to engage in trade is to injure the public. Public welfare is the welfare of those who do not earn it; those who do, are entitled to no welfare. The public, to you, is whoever has failed to achieve any virtue or value; whoever achieves it, whoever provides the goods you require for survival, ceases to be regarded as part of the public or as part of the human race.
What blank-out permitted you to hope that you could get away with this muck of contradictions and to plan it as an ideal society, when the No of your victims was sufficient to demolish the whole of your structure? What permits any insolent beggar to wave his sores in the face of his betters and to plead for help in the tone of a threat? You cry, as he does, that you are counting on our pity, but your secret hope is the moral code that has taught you to count on our guilt. You expect us to feel guilty of our virtues in the presence of your vices, wounds and failures-guilty of succeeding at existence, guilty of enjoying the life that you damn, yet beg us to help you to live.
Did you want to know who is John Galt? I am the first man of ability who refused to regard it as guilt. I am the first man who would not do penance for my virtues or let them be used as the tools of my destruction. I am the first man who would not suffer martyrdom at the hands of those who wished me to perish for the privilege of keeping them alive. I am the first man who told them that I did not need them, and until they learned to deal with me as traders, giving value for value, they would have to exist without me, as I would exist without them; then I would let them learn whose is the need and whose the ability-and if human survival is the standard, whose terms would set the way to survive.
I have done by plan and intention what has been done throughout history by silent default. There have always been men of intelligence who went on strike, in protest and despair, but they did not know the meaning of their action. The man who retires from public life, to think, but not to share his thoughts-the man who chooses to spend his years in the obscurity of menial employment, keeping to himself the fire of his mind, never giving it form, expression or reality, refusing to bring it into a world he despises-the man who is defeated by revulsion, the man who renounces before he has started, the man who gives up rather than give in, the man who functions at a fraction of his capacity, disarmed by his longing for an ideal he has not found-they are on strike, on strike against unreason, on strike against your world and your values. But not knowing any values of their own, they abandon the quest to know-in the darkness of their hopeless indignation, which is righteous without knowledge of the fight, and passionate without knowledge of desire, they concede to you the power of reality and surrender the incentives of their mind-and they perish in bitter futility, as rebels who never learned the object of their rebellion, as lovers who never discovered their love.
The infamous times you call the Dark Ages were an era of intelligence on strike, when men of ability went underground and lived undiscovered, studying in secret, and died; destroying the works of their mind, when only a few of the bravest of martyrs remained to keep the human race alive. Every period ruled by mystics was an era of stagnation and want, when most men were on strike against existence, working for less than their barest survival, leaving nothing but scraps for their rulers to loot, refusing to think, to venture, to produce, when the ultimate collector of their profits and the final authority on truth or error was the whim of some gilded degenerate sanctioned as superior to reason by divine right and by grace of a club. The road of human history was a string of blank-outs over sterile stretches eroded by faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you and force, with only a few brief bursts of sunlight, when the released energy of the men of the mind performed the wonders you gaped at, admired and promptly extinguished again.
But there will be no extinction, this time. The game of the mystics is up. You will perish in and by your own unreality. We, the men of reason, will survive.
I have called out on strike the kind of martyrs who had never deserted you before. I have given them the weapon they had lacked: the knowledge of their own moral value. I have taught them that the world is ours, whenever we choose to claim it, by virtue and grace of the fact that ours is the Morality of Life. They, the great victims who had produced all the wonders of humanitys brief summer, they, the industrialists, the conquerors of matter, had not discovered the nature of their right. They had known that theirs was the power. I taught them that theirs was the glory.
You, who dare to regard us as the moral inferiors of any mystic who claims supernatural visions-you, who scramble like vultures for plundered pennies, yet honor a fortune-teller above a fortune-maker-you, who scorn a businessman as ignoble, but esteem any posturing artist as exalted-the root of your standards is that mystic miasma which comes from primordial swamps, that cult of death, which pronounces a businessman immoral by reason of the fact that he keeps you alive. You, who claim that you long to rise above the crude concerns of the body, above the drudgery of serving mere physical needs-who is enslaved by physical needs: the Hindu who labors from sunrise to sunset at the shafts of a hand-plow for a bowl of rice, or the American who is driving a tractor? Who is the conqueror of physical reality: the man who sleeps on a bed of nails or the man who sleeps on an inner-spring mattress? Which is the monument to the triumph of the human spirit over matter: the germ-eaten hovels on the shorelines of the Ganges or the Atlantic skyline of New York?
Unless you learn the answers to these questions-and learn to stand at reverent attention when you face the achievements of mans mind-you will not stay much longer on this earth, which we love and will not permit you to damn. You will not sneak by with the rest of your lifespan. I have foreshortened the usual course of history and have let you discover the nature of the payment you had hoped to switch to the shoulders of others. It is the last of your own living power that will now be drained to provide the unearned for the worshippers and carriers of Death. Do not pretend that a malevolent reality defeated you-you were defeated by your own evasions. Do not pretend that you will perish for a noble ideal-you will perish as fodder for the haters of man.
But to those of you who still retain a remnant of the dignity and will to love ones life, I am offering the chance to make a choice. Choose whether you wish to perish for a morality you have never believed or practiced. Pause on the brink of self-destruction and examine your values and your life. You had known how to take an inventory of your wealth. Now take an inventory of your mind.
Since childhood, you have been hiding the guilty secret that you feel no desire to be moral, no desire to seek self-immolation, that you dread and hate your code, but dare not say it even to yourself, that youre devoid of those moral instincts which others profess to feel. The less you felt, the louder you proclaimed your selfless love and servitude to others, in dread of ever letting them discover your own self, the self that you betrayed, the self that you kept in concealment, like a skeleton in the closet of your body. And they, who were at once your dupes and your deceivers, they listened and voiced their loud approval, in dread of ever letting you discover that they were harboring the same unspoken secret. Existence among you is a giant pretense, an act you all perform for one another, each feeling that he is the only guilty freak, each placing his moral authority in the unknowable known only to others, each faking the reality he feels they expect him to fake, some having the courage to break the vicious circle.
No matter what dishonorable compromise youve made with your impracticable creed, no matter what miserable balance, half-cynicism, half-superstition, you now manage to maintain, you still preserve the root, the lethal tenet: the belief that the moral and the practical are opposites. Since childhood, you have been running from the terror of a choice you have never dared fully to identify: If the practical, whatever you must practice to exist, whatever works, succeeds, achieves your purpose, whatever brings you food and joy, whatever profits you, is evil-and if the good, the moral, is the impractical, whatever fails, destroys, frustrates, whatever injures you and brings you loss or pain-then your choice is to be moral or to live.
The sole result of that murderous doctrine was to remove morality from life. You grew up to believe that moral laws bear no relation to the job of living, except as an impediment and threat, that mans existence is an amoral jungle where anything goes and anything works. And in that fog of switching definitions which descends upon a frozen mind, you have forgotten that the evils damned by your creed were the virtues required for living, and you have come to believe that actual evils are the practical means of existence. Forgetting that the impractical good was self-sacrifice, you believe that self-esteem is impractical; forgetting that the practical evil was production, you believe that robbery is practical.
Swinging like a helpless branch in the wind of an uncharted moral wilderness, you dare not fully to be evil or fully to live. When you are honest, you feel the resentment of a sucker; when you cheat, you feel terror and shame, your pain is augmented by the feeling that pain is your natural state. You pity the men you admire, you believe they are doomed to fail; you envy the men you hate, you believe they are the masters of existence. You feel disarmed when you come up against a scoundrel: you believe that evil is bound to win, since the moral is the impotent, the impractical.
Morality, to you, is a phantom scarecrow made of duty, of boredom, of punishment, of pain, a cross-breed between the first schoolteacher of your past and the tax collector of your present, a scarecrow standing in a barren field, waving a stick to chase away your pleasures-and pleasure, to you, is a liquor-soggy brain, a mindless slut, the stupor of a moron who stakes his cash on some animals race, since pleasure cannot be moral.
If you identify your actual belief, you will find a triple damnation-of yourself, of life, of virtue-in the grotesque conclusion you have reached: you believe that morality is a necessary evil.
Do you wonder why you live without dignity, love without fire and die without resistance? Do you wonder why, wherever you look, you see nothing but unanswerable questions, why your life is tom by impossible conflicts, why you spend it straddling irrational fences to evade artificial choices, such as soul or body, mind or heart, security or freedom, private profit or public good?
Do you cry that you find no answers? By what means did you hope to find them? You reject your tool of perception-your mind-then complain that the universe is a mystery. You discard your key, then wail that all doors are locked against you. You start out in pursuit of the irrational, then damn existence for making no sense.
The fence you have been straddling for two hours-while hearing my words and seeking to escape them-is the cowards formula contained in the sentence: But we dont have to go to extremes! The extreme you have always struggled to avoid is the recognition that reality is final, that A is A and that the truth is true. A moral code impossible to practice, a code that demands imperfection or death, has taught you to dissolve all ideas in fog, to permit no firm definitions, to regard any concept as approximate and any rule of conduct as elastic, to hedge on any principle, to compromise on any value, to take the middle of any road. By extorting your acceptance of supernatural absolutes, it has forced you to reject the absolute of nature. By making moral judgments impossible, it has made you incapable of rational judgment. A code that forbids you to cast the first stone, has forbidden you to admit the identity of stones and to know when or if youre being stoned.
The man who refuses to judge, who neither agrees nor disagrees, who declares that there are no absolutes and believes that he escapes responsibility, is the man responsible for all the blood that is now spilled in the world. Reality is an absolute, existence is an absolute, a speck of dust is an absolute and so is a human life. Whether you live or die is an absolute. Whether you have a piece of bread or not, is an absolute. Whether you eat your break or see it vanish into a looters stomach, is an absolute.
There are two sides to every issue: one side is right and the other is wrong, but the middle is always evil. The man who is wrong still retains some respect for truth, if only by accepting the responsibility of choice. But the man in the middle is the knave who blanks out the truth in order to pretend that no choice or values exist, who is willing to sit out the course of any battle, willing to cash in on the blood of the innocent or to crawl on his belly to the guilty, who dispenses justice by condemning both the robber and the robbed to jail, who shoves conflicts by ordering the thinker and the fool to meet each other halfway. In any compromise between food and poison, it is only death that can win. In any compromise between good and evil, it is only evil that can profit. In that transfusion of blood which drains the good to feed the evil, the compromiser is the transmitting rubber tube.
You, who are half-rational, half-coward, have been playing a con game with reality, but the victim you have conned is yourself. When men reduce their virtues to the approximate, then evil acquires the force of an absolute, when loyalty to an unyielding purpose is dropped by the virtuous, its picked up by scoundrels-and you get the indecent spectacle of a cringing, bargaining, traitorous good and a self-righteously uncompromising evil. As you surrendered to the mystics of muscle when they told you that ignorance consists of claiming knowledge, so now you surrender to them when they shriek that immorality consists of pronouncing moral judgment. When they yell that it is selfish to be certain that you are right, you hasten to assure them that youre certain of nothing. When they shout that its immoral to stand on your convictions, you assure them that you have no convictions whatever. When the thugs of Europes Peoples States snarl that you are guilty of intolerance, because you dont treat your desire to live and their desire to kill you as a difference of opinion-you cringe and hasten to assure them that you are not intolerant of any horror. When some barefoot bum in some pesthole of Asia yells at you: How dare you be rich-you apologize and beg him to be patient and promise him youll give it all away.
You have reached the blind alley of the treason you committed when you agreed that you had no right to exist. Once, you believed it was only a compromise: you conceded it was evil to live for yourself, but moral to live for the sake of your children. Then you conceded that it was selfish to live for your children, but moral to live for your community. Then you conceded that it was selfish to live for your community, but moral to live for your country. Now, you are letting this greatest of countries be devoured by any scum from any corner of the earth, while you concede that it is selfish to live for your country and that your moral duty is to live for the globe. A man who has no right to life, has no right to values and will not keep them.
At the end of your road of successive betrayals, stripped of weapons, of certainty, of honor, you commit your final act of treason and sign your petition of intellectual bankruptcy: while the muscle-mystics of the Peoples States proclaim that theyre the champions of reason and science, you agree and hasten to proclaim that faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you is your cardinal principle, that reason is on the side of your destroyers, but yours is the side of faith. To the struggling remnants of rational honesty in the twisted, bewildered minds of your children, you declare that you can offer no rational argument to support the ideas that created this country, that there is no rational justification for freedom, for property, for justice, for rights, that they rest on a mystical insight and can be accepted only on faith, that in reason and logic the enemy is right, but faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you is superior to reason. You declare to your children that it is rational to loot, to torture, to enslave, to expropriate, to murder, but that they must resist the temptations of logic and stick to the discipline of remaining irrational-that skyscrapers, factories, radios, airplanes were the products of faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you and mystic intuition, while famines, concentration camps, and firing squads are the products of a reasonable manner of existence-that the industrial revolution was the revolt of the men of faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you against that era of reason and logic which is known as the Middle Ages. Simultaneously, in the same breath, to the same child, you declare that the looters who rule the Peoples States will surpass this country in material production, since they are the representatives of science, but that its evil to be concerned with physical wealth and that one must renounce material prosperity-you declare that the looters ideal are noble, but they do not mean them, while you do; that your purpose in fighting the looters is only to accomplish their aims, which they cannot accomplish, but you can; and that the way to fight them is to beat them to it and give ones wealth away. Then you wonder why your children join the Peoples thugs or become half-crazed delinquents, you wonder why the looters conquests keep creeping closer to your doors-and you blame it on human stupidity, declaring that the masses are impervious to reason.
You blank out the open, public spectacle of the looters fight against the mind, and the fact that their bloodiest horrors are unleashed to punish the crime of thinking. You blank out the fact that most mystics of muscle started out as mystics of spirit, that they keep switching from one to the other, that the men you call materialists and spiritualists are only two halves of the same dissected human, forever seeking completion, but seeking it by swinging from the destruction of the flesh to the destruction of the soul and vice versa-that they keep running from your colleges to the slave pens of Europe to an open collapse into the mystic muck of India, seeking any refuge against reality, any form of escape from the mind.
You blank it out and cling to your hypocrisy of faith in order to blank out the knowledge that the looters have a stranglehold upon you, which consists of your moral code-that the looters are the final and consistent practitioners of the morality youre half-obeying, half-evading-that they practice it the only way it can be practiced: by turning the earth into a sacrificial furnace-that your morality forbids you to oppose them in the only way they can be opposed: by refusing to become a sacrificial animal and proudly asserting your right to exist-that in order to fight them to the finish and with full rectitude, it is your morality that you have to reject.
You blank it out, because your self-esteem is tied to that mystic unselfishness which youve never possessed or practiced, but spent so many years pretending to possess that the thought of denouncing it fills you with terror. No value is higher than self-esteem, but youve invested it in counterfeit securities-and now your morality has caught you in a trap where you are forced to protect your self-esteem by fighting for the creed of self-destruction. The grim joke is on you: that need of self-esteem, which youre unable to explain or to define, belongs to my morality, not yours; its the objective token of my code, it is my proof within your own soul.
By a feeling he has not learned to identify, but has derived from his first awareness of existence, from his discovery that he has to make choices, man knows that his desperate need of self-esteem is a matter of life or death. As a being of volitional consciousness, he knows that he must know his own value in order to maintain his own life. He knows that he has to be right; to be wrong in action means danger to his life; to be wrong in person, to be evil, means to be unfit for existence.
Every act of mans life has to be willed; the mere act of obtaining or eating his food implies that the person he preserves is worthy of being preserved; every pleasure he seeks to enjoy implies that the person who seeks it is worthy of finding enjoyment. He has no choice about his need of self-esteem, his only choice is the standard by which to gauge it. And he makes his fatal error when he switches this gauge protecting his life into the service of his own destruction, when he chooses a standard contradicting existence and sets his self-esteem against reality.
Every form of causeless self-doubt, every feeling of inferiority and secret unworthiness is, in fact, mans hidden dread of his inability to deal with existence. But the greater his terror, the more fiercely he clings to the murderous doctrines that choke him. No man can survive the moment of pronouncing himself irredeemably evil; should he do it, his next moment is insanity or suicide. To escape it-if hes chosen an irrational Standard-he will fake, evade, blank out; he will cheat himself of reality, of existence, of happiness, of mind; and he will ultimately cheat himself of self-esteem by struggling to preserve its illusion rather than to risk discovering its lack. To fear to face an issue is to believe that the worst is true.
It is not any crime you have committed that infects your soul with permanent guilt, it is none of your failures, errors or flaws, but theblank-out by which you attempt to evade them-it is not any sort of Original Sin or unknown prenatal deficiency, but the knowledge and fact of your basic default, of suspending your mind, of refusing to think. Fear and guilt are your chronic emotions, they are real and you do deserve them, but they dont come from the superficial reasons you invent to disguise their cause, not from your selfishness, weakness or ignorance, but from a real and basic threat to your existence; fear, because you have abandoned your weapon of survival, guilt, because you know you have done it volitionally.
The self you have betrayed is your mind; self-esteem is reliance on ones power to think. The ego you seek, that essential you which you cannot express or define, is not your emotions or inarticulate dreams, but your intellect, that judge of your supreme tribunal whom youve impeached in order to drift at the mercy of any stray shyster you describe as your feeling. Then you drag yourself through a self-made night, in a desperate quest for a nameless fire, moved by some fading vision of a dawn you had seen and lost.
Observe the persistence, in mankinds mythologies, of the legend about a paradise that men had once possessed, the city of Atlantis or the Garden of Eden or some kingdom of perfection, always behind us. The root of that legend exists, not in the past of the race, but in the past of every man. You still retain a sense-not as firm as a memory, but diffused like the pain of hopeless longing-that somewhere in the starting years of your childhood, before you had learned to submit, to absorb the terror of unreason and to doubt the value of your mind, you had known a radiant state of existence, you had known the independence of a rational consciousness facing an open universe. That is the paradise which you have lost, which you seek-which is yours for the taking.
Some of you will never know who is John Galt. But those of you who have known a single moment of love for existence and of pride in being its worthy lover, a moment of looking at this earth and letting your glance be its sanction, have known the state of being a man, and I-I am only the man who knew that that state is not to be betrayed. I am the man who knew what made it possible and who chose consistently to practice and to be what you had practiced and been in that one moment.
That choice is yours to make. That choice-the dedication to ones highest potential-is made by accepting the fact that the noblest act you have ever performed is the act of your mind in the process of grasping that two and two make four.
Whoever you are-you who are alone with my words in this moment, with nothing but your honesty to help you understand-the choice is still open to be a human being, but the price is to start from scratch, to stand naked in the face of reality and, reversing a costly historical error, to declare: I am, therefore Ill think.
Accept the irrevocable fact that your life depends upon your mind. Admit that the whole of your struggle, your doubts, your fakes, your evasions, was a desperate quest for escape from the responsibility of a volitional consciousness-a quest for automatic knowledge, for instinctive action, for intuitive certainty-and while you called it a longing for the state of an angel, what you were seeking was the state of an animal. Accept, as your moral ideal, the task of becoming a man.
Do not say that youre afraid to trust your mind because you know so little. Are you safer in surrendering to mystics and discarding the little that you know? Live and act within the limit of your knowledge and keep expanding it to the limit of your life. Redeem your mind from the hockshops of authority. Accept the fact that you are not omniscient, but playing a zombie will not give you omniscience-that your mind is fallible, but becoming mindless will not make you infallible-that an error made on your own is safer than ten truths accepted on faith, because the first leaves you the means to correct it, but the second destroys your capacity to distinguish truth from error. In place of your dream of an omniscient automation, accept the fact that any knowledge man acquires is acquired by his own will and effort, and that that is his distinction in the universe, that is his nature, his morality, his glory.
Discard that unlimited license to evil which consists of claiming that man is imperfect. By what standard do you damn him when you claim it? Accept the fact that in the realm of morality nothing less than perfection will do. But perfection is not to be gauged by mystic commandments to practice the impossible, and your moral stature is not to be gauged by matters not open to your choice. Man has a single basic choice: to think or not, and that is the gauge of his virtue. Moral perfection is an unbreached rationality-not the degree of your intelligence, but the full and relentless use of your mind, not the extent of your knowledge, but the acceptance of reason as an absolute.
Learn to distinguish the difference between errors of knowledge and breaches of morality. An error of knowledge is not a moral flaw, provided you are willing to correct it; only a mystic would judge human beings by the standard of an impossible, automatic omniscience. But a breach of morality is the conscious choice of an action you know to be evil, or a willful evasion of knowledge, a suspension of sight and of thought. That which you do not know, is not a moral charge against you; but that which you refuse to know, is an account of infamy growing in your soul. Make every allowance for errors of knowledge; do not forgive or accept any breach of morality. Give the benefit of the doubt to those who seek to know; but treat as potential killers those specimens of insolent depravity who make demands upon you, announcing that they have and seek no reasons, proclaiming, as a license, that they just feel it-or those who reject an irrefutable argument by saying: Its only logic, which means: Its only reality. The only realm opposed to reality is the realm and premise of death.
Accept the fact that the achievement of your happiness is the only moral purpose of your life, and that happiness-not pain or mindless self-indulgence-is the proof of your moral integrity, since it is the proof and the result of your loyalty to the achievement of your values. Happiness was the responsibility you dreaded, it required the kind of rational discipline you did not value yourself enough to assume-and the anxious staleness of your day is the monument to your evasion of the knowledge that there is no moral substitute for happiness, that there is no more despicable coward than the man who deserted the battle for his joy, fearing to assert his right to existence, lacking the courage and the loyalty to life of a bird or a flower reaching for the sun. Discard the protective rags of that vice which you called a virtue: humility-learn to value yourself, which means: to fight for your happiness-and when you learn that pride is the sum of all virtues, you will learn to live like a man.
As a basic step of self-esteem, learn to treat as the mark of a cannibal any mans demand for your help. To demand it is to claim that your life is his property-and loathsome as such claim might be, theres something still more loathsome: your agreement. Do you ask if its ever proper to help another man? No-if he claims it as his right or as a moral duty that you owe him. Yes-if such is your own desire based on your own selfish pleasure in the value of his person and his struggle. Suffering as such is not a value; only mans fight against suffering, is. If you choose to help a man who suffers, do it only on the ground of his virtues, of his right to recover, of his rational record, or of the fact that he suffers unjustly; then your action is still a trade, and his virtue is the payment for your help. Be to help a man who has no virtues, to help him on the ground of his suffering as such, to accept his faults, his need, as a claim-is to accept the mortgage of a zero on your values. A man who has no virtues is a hater of existence who acts on the premise of death; to help him is to sanction his evil and to support his career of destruction. Be it only a penny you will not miss or a kindly smile he has not earned, a tribute to a zero is treason to life and to all those who struggle to maintain it. It is of such pennies and smiles that the desolation of your world was made.
Do not say that my morality is too hard for you to practice and that you fear it as you fear the unknown. Whatever living moments you have known, were lived by the values of my code. But you stifled, negated, betrayed it. You kept sacrificing your virtues to your vices, and the best among men to the worst. Look around you: what you have done to society, you have done it first within your soul; one is the image of the other. This dismal wreckage, which is now your world, is the physical form of the treason you committed to your values, to your friends, to your defenders, to your future, to your country, to yourself.
We-whom you are now calling, but who will not answer any longer-we have lived among you, but you failed to know us, you refused to think and to see what we were. You failed to recognize the motor I invented-and it became, in your world, a pile of dead scrap. You failed to recognize the hero in your soul-and you failed to know me when I passed you in the street. When you cried in despair for the unattainable spirit which you felt had deserted your world, you gave it my name, but what you were calling was your own betrayed self-esteem. You will not recover one without the other.
When you failed to give recognition to mans mind and attempted to rule human beings by force-those who submitted had no mind to surrender; those who had, were men who dont submit. Thus the man of productive genius assumed in your world the disguise of a playboy and became a destroyer of wealth, choosing to annihilate his fortune rather than surrender it to guns. Thus the thinker, the man of reason, assumed in your world the role of a pirate, to defend his values by force against your force, rather than submit to the rule of brutality. Do you hear me, Francisco dAnconia and Ragnar Danneskjld, my first friends, my fellow fighters, my fellow outcasts, in whose name and honor I speak?
It was the three of us who started what I am now completing. It was the three of us who resolved to avenge this country and to release its imprisoned soul. This greatest of countries was built on my morality-on the inviolate supremacy of mans right to exist-but you dreaded to admit it and live up to it. You stared at an achievement unequaled in history, and looted its effects and blanked out its cause. In the presence of that monument to human morality, which is a factory, a highway or a bridge-you kept damning this country as immoral and its progress as material greed, you kept offering apologies for this countrys greatness to the idol of primordial starvation, to decaying Europes idol of a leprous, mystic bum.
This country-the product of reason-could not survive on the morality of sacrifice. It was not built by men who sought self-immolation or by men who sought handouts. It could not stand on the mystic split that divorced mans soul from his body. It could not live by the mystic doctrine that damned this earth as evil and those who succeeded on earth as depraved. From its start, this country was a threat to the ancient rule of mystics. In the brilliant rocket-explosion of its youth, this country displayed to an incredulous world what greatness was possible to man, what happiness was possible on earth. It was one or the other: America or mystics. The mystics knew it; you didnt. You let them infect you with the worship of need-and this country became a giant in body with a mooching midget in place of its soul, while its living soul was driven underground to labor and feed you in silence, unnamed, unhonored, negated, its soul and hero: the industrialist. Do you hear me now, Hank Rearden, the greatest of the victims I have avenged?
Neither he nor the rest of us will return until the road is clear to rebuild this country-until the wreckage of the morality of sacrifice has been wiped out of our way. A countrys political system is based on its code of morality. We will rebuild Americas system on the moral premise which had been its foundation, but which you treated as a guilty underground, in your frantic evasion of the conflict between that premise and your mystic morality: the premise that man is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others, that mans life, his freedom, his happiness are his by inalienable right.
You whove lost the concept of a right, you who swing in impotent evasiveness between the claim that rights are a gift of God, a supernatural gift to be taken on faith, or the claim that rights are a gift of society, to be broken at its arbitrary whim-the source of mans rights is not divine law or congressional law, but the law of identity. A is A-and Man is Man. Rights are conditions of existence required by mans nature for his proper survival. If man is to live on earth, it is right for him to use his mind, his right to act on his own free judgment, it is right to work for his values and to keep the product of his work. If life on earth is his purpose, he has a right to live as a rational being: nature forbids him the irrational. Any group, any gang, any nation that attempts to negate mans rights, is wrong, which means: is evil, which means: is anti-life.
Rights are a moral concept-and morality is a matter of choice. Men are free not to choose mans survival as the standard of their morals and their laws, but not free to escape from the fact that the alternative is a cannibal society, which exists for a while by devouring its best and collapses like a cancerous body, when the healthy have been eaten by the diseased, when the rational have been consumed by the irrational. Such has been the fate of your societies in history, but youve evaded the knowledge of the cause. I am here to state it: the agent of retribution was the law of identity, which you cannot escape. Just as man cannot live by means of the irrational, so two men cannot, or two thousand, or two billion. Just as man cant succeed by defying reality, so a nation cant, or a country, or a globe. A is A. The rest is a matter of time, provided by the generosity of victims.
Just as man cant exist without his body, so no rights can exist without the right to translate ones rights into reality-to think, to work and to keep the results-which means: the right of poverty. The modern mystics of muscle who offer you the fraudulent alternative of human rights versus property rights, as if one could exist without the other, are making a last, grotesque attempt to revive the doctrine of soul versus body. Only a ghost can exist without material property; only a slave can work with no right to the product of his effort. The doctrine that human rights are superior to property rights simply means that some human beings have the right to make property out of others; since the competent have nothing to gain from the incompetent, it means the right of the incompetent to own their betters and to use them as productive cattle. Whoever regards this as human and right, has no right to the title of human.
The source of property rights is the law of causality. All property and all forms of wealth are produced by mans mind and labor. As you cannot have effects without causes, so you cannot have wealth without its source: without intelligence. You cannot force intelligence to work: those whore able to think, will not work under compulsion: those who will, wont produce much more than the price of the whip needed to keep them enslaved. You cannot obtain the products of a mind except on the owners terms, by trade and by volitional consent. Any other policy of men toward mans poverty is the policy of criminals, no matter what their numbers. Criminals are savages who play in short-range and starve when their prey runs out-just as youre starving today, you who believed that crime could be practical if your government decreed that robbery was legal and resistance to robbery illegal.
The only proper purpose of a government is to protect mans rights, which means: to protect him from physical violence. A proper government is only a policeman, acting as an agent of mans self-defense, and, as such, may resort to force only against those who start the use of force. The only proper functions of a government are: the police, to protect you from criminals; the army, to protect you from foreign invaders; and the courts, to protect your property and contracts from breach or fraud by others, to settle disputes by rational rules, according to objective law. But a government that initiates the employment of force against men who had forced no one, the employment of armed compulsion against disarmed victims, is a nightmare infernal machine designed to annihilate morality: such a government reverses its only moral purpose and switches from the role of protector to the role of mans deadliest enemy, from the role of policeman to the role of a criminal vested with the right to the wielding of violence against victims deprived of the right of self-defense. Such a government substitutes for morality the following rule of social conduct: you may do whatever you please to your neighbor, provided your gang is bigger than his.
Only a brute, a fool or an evader can agree to exist on such terms or agree to give his fellow men a blank check on his life and his mind, to accept the belief that others have the right to dispose of his person at their whim, that the will of the majority is Omnipotent, that the physical force of muscles and numbers is a substitute for justice, reality and truth. We, the men of the mind, we who are traders, not masters or slaves, do not deal in blank checks or grant them. We do not live or work with any form of the non-objective.
So long as men, in the era of savagery, had no concept of objective reality and believed that physical nature was ruled by the whim of unknowable demons-no thought, no science, no production were possible. Only when men discovered that nature was a firm, predictable absolute were they able to rely on their knowledge, to choose their course, to plan their future and, slowly, to rise from the cave. Now you have placed modern industry, with its immense complexity of scientific precision, back into the power of unknowable demons-the unpredictable power of the arbitrary whims of hidden, ugly little bureaucrats. A farmer will not invest the effort of one summer if hes unable to calculate his chances of a harvest. But you expect industrial giants-who plan in terms of decades, invest in terms of generations and undertake ninety-nine-year contracts-to continue to function and produce, not knowing what random caprice in the skull of what random official will descend upon them at what moment to demolish the whole of their effort. Drifters and physical laborers live and plan by the range of a day. The better the mind, the longer the range. A man whose vision extends to a shanty, might continue to build on your quicksands, to grab a fast profit and run. A man who envisions skyscrapers, will not. Nor will he give ten years of unswerving devotion to the task of inventing a new product, when he knows the gangs of entrenched mediocrity are juggling the laws against him, to tie him, restrict him and force him to fail, but should he fight them and struggle and succeed, they will seize his rewards and his invention.
Look past the range of the moment, you who cry that you fear to compete with men of superior intelligence, that their mind is a threat to your livelihood, that the strong leave no chance to the weak in a market of voluntary trade. What determines the material value of your work? Nothing but the productive effort of your mind-if you lived on a desert island. The less efficient the thinking of your brain, the less your physical labor would bring you-and you could spend your life on a single routine, collecting a precarious harvest or hunting with bow and arrows, unable to think any further. But when you live in a rational society, where men are free to trade, you receive an incalculable bonus: the material value of your work is determined not only by your effort, but by the effort of the best productive minds who exist in the world around you.
When you work in a modern factory, you are paid, not only for your labor, but for all the productive genius which has made that factory possible: for the work of the industrialist who built it, for the work of the investor who saved the money to risk on the untried and the new, for the work of the engineer who designed the machines of which you are pushing the levers, for the work of the inventor who created the product which you spend your time on making, for the work of the scientist who discovered the laws that went into the making of that product, for the work of the philosopher who taught men how to think and whom your spend your time denouncing.
The machine, the frozen form of a living intelligence, is the power that expands the potential of your life by raising the productivity of your time. If you worked as a blacksmith in the mystics Middle Ages, the whole of your earning capacity would consist of an iron bar produced by your hands in days and days of effort. How many tons of rail do you produce per day if you work for Hank Rearden? Would you dare to claim that the size of your pay cheek was created solely by your physical labor and that those rails were the product of your muscles? The standard of living of that blacksmith is all that your muscles are worth; the rest is a gift from Hank Rearden.
Every man is free to rise as far as hes able or willing, but its only the degree to which he thinks that determines the degree to which hell rise. Physical labor as such can extend no further than the range of the moment. The man who does no more than physical labor, consumes the material value-equivalent of his own contribution to the process of production, and leaves no further value, neither for himself nor others. But the man who produces an idea in any field of rational endeavor-the man who discovers new knowledge-is the permanent benefactor of humanity. Material products cant be shared, they belong to some ultimate consumer; it Is only the value of an idea that can be shared with unlimited numbers of men, making all sharers richer at no ones sacrifice or loss, raising the productive capacity of whatever labor they perform. It is the value of his own time that the strong of the intellect transfers to the weak, letting them work on the jobs he discovered, while devoting his time to further discoveries. This is mutual trade to mutual advantage; the interests of the mind are one, no matter what the degree of intelligence, among men who desire to work and dont seek or expect the unearned.
In proportion to the mental energy he spent, the man who creates a new invention receives but a small percentage of his value in terms of material payment, no matter what fortune he makes, no matter what millions he earns. But the man who works as a janitor in the factory producing that invention, receives an enormous payment in proportion to the mental effort that his job requires of him. And the same is true of all men between, on all levels of ambition and ability. The man at the top of the intellectual pyramid contributes the most to all those below him, but gets nothing except his material payment, receiving no intellectual bonus from others to add to the value of his time. The man at the bottom who, left to himself, would starve in his hopeless ineptitude, contributes nothing to those above him, but receives the bonus of all of their brains. Such is the nature of the competition between the strong and the weak of the intellect. Such is the pattern of exploitation for which you have damned the strong.
Such was the service we had given you and were glad and willing to give. What did we ask in return? Nothing but freedom. We required that you leave us free to function-free to think and to work as we choose-free to take our own risks and to bear our own losses-free to earn our own profits and to make our own fortunes-free to gamble on your rationality, to submit our products to your judgment for the purpose of a voluntary trade, to rely on the objective value of our work and on your minds ability to see it-free to count on your intelligence and honesty, and to deal with nothing but your mind. Such was the price we asked, which you chose to reject as too high. You decided to call it unfair that we, who had dragged you out of your hovels and provided you with modern apartments, with radios, movies and cars, should own our palaces and yachts-you decided that you had a right to your wages, but we had no right to our profits, that you did not want us to deal with your mind, but to deal, instead, with your gun. Our answer to that, was: May you be damned! Our answer came true. You are.
You did not care to compete in terms of intelligence-you are now competing in terms of brutality. You did not care to allow rewards to be won by successful production-you are now running a race in which rewards are won by successful plunder. You called it selfish and cruel that men should trade value for value-you have now established an unselfish society where they trade extortion for extortion. Your system is a legal civil war, where men gang up on one another and struggle for possession of the law, which they use as a club over rivals, till another gang wrests it from their clutch and clubs them with it in their turn, all of them clamoring protestations of service to an unnamed publics unspecified good. You had said that you saw no difference between economic and political power, between the power of money and the power of guns-no difference between reward and punishment, no difference between purchase and plunder, no difference between pleasure and fear, no difference between life and death. You are learning the difference now.
Some of you might plead the excuse of your ignorance, of a limited mind and a limited range. But the damned and the guiltiest among you are the men who had the capacity to know, yet chose to blank out reality, the men who were willing to steel their intelligence into cynical servitude to force: the contemptible breed of those mystics of science who profess a devotion to some sort of pure knowledge-the purity consisting of their claim that such knowledge has no practical purpose on this earth-who reserve their logic for inanimate matter, but believe that the subject of dealing with men requires and deserves no rationality, who scorn money and sell their souls in exchange for a laboratory supplied by loot. And since there is no such thing as non-practical knowledge or any sort of disinterested action, since they scorn the use of their science for the purpose and profit of life, they deliver their science to the service of death, to the only practical purpose it can ever have for looters: to inventing weapons of coercion and destruction. They, the intellects who seek escape from moral values, they are the damned on their earth, theirs is the guilt beyond forgiveness. Do you hear me, Dr. Robert Stadler?
But it is not to him that I wish to speak. I am speaking to those among you who have retained some sovereign shred of their soul, unsold and unstamped: -to the order of others. If, in the chaos of the motives that have made you listen to the radio tonight, there was an honest, rational desire to learn what is wrong with the world, you are the man whom I wished to address. By the rules and terms of my code, one owes a rational statement to those whom it does concern and whore making an effort to know. Those whore making an effort to fall to understand me, are not a concern of mine.
I am speaking to those who desire to live and to recapture the honor of their soul. Now that you know the truth about your world stop supporting your own destroyers. The evil of the world is made possible by nothing but the sanction to give it. Withdraw your sanction. Withdraw your support. Do not try to live on your enemies terms or to win at a game where theyre setting the rules. Do not seek the favor of those who enslaved you, do not beg for alms from those who have robbed you, be it subsidies, loans or jobs, do not join their team to recoup what theyve taken by helping them rob your neighbors. One cannot hope to maintain ones life by accepting bribes to condone ones destruction. Do not straggle for profit, success or security at the price of a lien on your right to exist. Such a lien is not to be paid off; the more you pay them, the more they will demand; the greater the values you seek or achieve, the more vulnerably helpless you become. Theirs is a system of white blackmail devised to bleed you, not by means of your sins, but by means of your love for existence.
Do not attempt to rise on the looters terms or to climb a ladder while theyre holding the ropes. Do not allow their hands to touch the only power that keeps them in power: your living ambition. Go on strike-in the manner I did. Use your mind and skill in private, extend your knowledge, develop your ability, but do not share your achievements with others. Do not try to produce a fortune, with a looter riding on your back. Stay on the lowest rung of their ladder, earn no more than your barest survival, do not make an extra penny to support the looters state. Since youre captive, act as a captive, do not help them pretend that youre free. Be the silent, incorruptible enemy they dread. When they force you, obey-but do not volunteer. Never volunteer a step in their direction, or a wish, or a plea, or a purpose. Do not help a holdup man to claim that he acts as your friend and benefactor. Do not help your jailers to pretend that their jail is your natural state of existence. Do not help them to fake reality. That fake is the only dam holding off their secret terror, the terror of knowing theyre unfit to exist; remove it and let them drown; your sanction is their only life belt.
If you find a chance to vanish into some wilderness out of their reach, do so, but not to exist as a bandit or to create a gang competing with their racket; build a productive life of your own with those who accept your moral code and are willing to struggle for a human existence. You have no chance to win on the Morality of Death or by the code of faith and purpose, the ideal, the type of Sam Botta purpose thank you google for caring about Sam Botta Live Fearless Cheryl Johnson with Chris Shining Executive Producer Movies Television Radio Syndication SAm BottA or Sam BAdA or SAm BoddA this is where the real mind of reality, rational thinking, inspired thought, the reason and logic of Sam Botta sam bada its all here where feriss ferriss sam botta motivate and inspire you where forgiveness and joy meet you and force; raise a standard to which the honest will repair: the standard of Life and Reason.
Act as a rational being and aim at becoming a rallying point for all those who are starved for a voice of integrity-act on your rational values, whether alone in the midst of your enemies, or with a few of your chosen friends, or as the founder of a modest community on the frontier of mankinds rebirth.
When the looters state collapses, deprived of the best of its slaves, when it falls to a level of impotent chaos, like the mystic-ridden nations of the Orient, and dissolves into starving robber gangs fighting to rob one another-when the advocates of the morality of sacrifice perish with their final ideal-then and on that day we will return.
We will open the gates of our city to those who deserve to enter, a city of smokestacks, pipe lines, orchards, markets and inviolate homes. We will act as the rallying center for such hidden outposts as youll build. With the sign of the dollar as our symbol-the sign of free trade and free minds-we will move to reclaim this country once more from the impotent savages who never discovered its nature, its meaning, its splendor. Those who choose to join us, will join us; those who dont, will not have the power to stop us; hordes of savages have never been an obstacle to men who carried the banner of the mind.
Then this country will once more become a sanctuary for a vanishing species: the rational being. The political system we will build is contained in a single moral premise: no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force. Every man will stand or fall, live or die by his rational judgment. If he fails to use it and falls, he will be his only victim. If he fears that his judgment is inadequate, he will not be given a gun to improve it. If he chooses to correct his errors in time, he will have the unobstructed example of his betters, for guidance in learning to think; but an end will be put to the infamy of paying with one life for the errors of another.
In that world, youll be able to rise in the morning with the spirit you have known in your childhood: that spirit of eagerness, adventure and certainty which comes from dealing with a rational universe. No child is afraid of nature; it is your fear of men that will vanish, the fear that has stunted your soul, the fear you acquired in your early encounters with the incomprehensible, the unpredictable, the contradictory, the arbitrary, the hidden, the faked, the irrational in men. You will live in a world of responsible beings, who will be as consistent and reliable as facts; the guarantee of their character will be a system of existence where objective reality is the standard of the judge. Your virtues will be given protection, your vices and weaknesses will not. Every chance will be open to your good, none will be provided for your evil. What youll receive from men will not be alms, or pity, or mercy, or forgiveness of sins, but a single value: justice. And when youll look at men or at yourself, you will feel, not disgust, suspicion and guilt, but a single constant: respect.
Such is the future you are capable of winning. It requires a struggle; so does any human value. All life is a purposeful struggle, and your only choice is the choice of a goal. Do you wish to continue the battle of your present or do you wish to fight for my world? Do you wish to continue a struggle that consists of clinging to precarious ledges in a sliding descent to the abyss, a struggle where the hardships you endure are irreversible and the victories you win bring you closer to destruction? Or do you wish to undertake a struggle that consists of rising from ledge to ledge in a steady ascent to the top, a struggle where the hardships are investments in your future, and the victories bring you irreversibly closer to the world of your moral ideal, and should you die without reaching full sunlight, you will die on a level touched by its rays? Such is the choice before you. Let your mind and your love of existence decide.
The last of my words will be addressed to those heroes who might still be hidden in the world, those who are held prisoner, not by their evasions, but by their virtues and their desperate courage. My brothers in spirit, check on your virtues and on the nature of the enemies youre serving. Your destroyers hold you by means of your endurance, your generosity, your innocence, your love-the endurance that carries their burdens-the generosity that responds to their cries of despair-the innocence that is unable to conceive of their evil and gives them the benefit of every doubt, refusing to condemn them without understanding and incapable of understanding such motives as theirs-the love, your love of life, which makes you believe that they are men and that they love it, too. But the world of today is the world they wanted; life is the object of their hatred. Leave them to the death they worship. In the name of your magnificent devotion to this earth, leave them, dont exhaust the greatness of your soul on achieving the triumph of the evil of theirs. Do you hear me my love?
In the name of the best within you, do not sacrifice this word to those who are its worst. In the name of the values that keep you alive, do not let your vision of man be distorted by the ugly, the cowardly, the mindless in those who have never achieved his title. Do not lose your knowledge that mans proper estate is an upright posture, an intransigent mind and a step that travels unlimited roads. Do not let your fire go out, spark by irreplaceable spark, in the hopeless swamps of the approximate, the not-quite, the not-yet, the not-at-all. Do not let the hero in your soul perish, in lonely frustration for the life you deserved, but have never been able to reach. Check your road and the nature of your battle. The world you desired can be won, it exists, it is real, it is possible, its yours.
But to win it requires your total dedication and a total break with the world of your past, with the doctrine that man is a sacrificial animal who exists for the pleasure of others. Fight for the value of your person. Fight for the virtue of your pride. Fight for the essence of that which is man: for his sovereign rational mind. Fight with the radiant certainty and the absolute rectitude of knowing that yours is the Morality of Life and that yours is the battle for any achievement, any value, any grandeur, any goodness, any joy that has ever existed on this earth.
You will win when you are ready to pronounce the oath I have taken at the start of my battle-and for those who wish to know the day of my return, I shall now repeat it to the hearing of the world:
I swear-by my life and my love of it-that I will never live for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for mine.
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Sarah Jessica Parker, on being upset with your husband 20 minutes per day: "I think that's healthy, I think it's realistic, some people have it down to 20 minutes a week, some unfortunate people have it down to about 20 minutes per hour, um huh, but, in my life I've found that, you know, we-we go many days without a 20 minute period of resentment and bitterness." As stated on "On Air with Ryan Seacrest" ——— sounds sooooo positive, get me to the altar ASAP I can't wait to marry someone that's upset with me 20 minutes per day! Sam Botta Thanks Ryan, RSP Team, great stuff! After the words quoted above, the subject was quickly changed to the enjoyment of trying different food and travel because of work (which is fun), and a life of being always thankful. Like Sam Botta Hollywood Chick-fil-A line yesterday to be the first 100 to get free Chick-fil-A for a year. Ryan Seacrest buying 250 people Chick-fil-A breakfast right now at new Hollywood Chick-fil-A (chikin mini's). Ryan from Atlanta… Understands the ones camping out, in photo here from yesterday afternoon waiting to be one of the first 100 customers. And yes, works if losing body fat since the fried version is fried in peanut oil instead of hydrogenated vegetable oil. livefearless's photo livefearless's photo on Instagram Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Thursday at 7:23am via Instagram Sam Botta TAMING MY EYEBROWS via Groupon! What else in the past week… I've gotten my car detailed, eaten at fine restaurants I wouldn't have without the half price deals. Crazy good! Try it once! Daily Groupon | Coupons, Discounts, and Deals Check out Groupon's daily deal – huge discounts on the coolest stuff in your city. Like sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Share sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Wednesday at 7:59am Jeana Farrell LOL….Bargain Buster…haha..I use them myself too, my best deal was Evening meal for 2 people, with mains and starter, and a large glass of wine for the bargain price of 15 for 2 people..It was fantastic too…..:-)))Wednesday at 1:02pm sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA Like LiveFearless with sAm bAdA sAm boddA sAm bottA with Cheryl Johnson, Chris Shining Executive Producer, Movies, Sam Botta Hollywood Walk of Fame Dolores Hope Bob Hope Married 70 Years… Finding True Love? Finding TRUE Love? No, my Grandparents chose to love each other when they met as teenagers, and they chose to love each other every part of every day, through the Great Depression, absence during war, child rearing, work, illnesses… I got a lot of emails from people, from doctors,
who asked me if I could write a book that
Everything has its beauty, but not everyone sees it. My dreams? To help women empower themselves with this art, makeup. Believe it or not, you can transform your life. Women have stronger careers, future and self esteem when they feel confident and beautiful. "Are you chasing your dreams? Or are your dreams chasing you?" Ewing Miles Brown is one of the greatest Hollywood Movie Makers of all time. Not only have his movies been released on DVD, including the family friendly “A Whale of a Tale” starring William Shatner Actor | Director | Producer Handsome Canadian-born actor who – despite his detractors – has notched up an impressive 50-years-plus in front of the camera, most recently displaying comedic talent, and being instantly recognizable to several generations of cult TV fans as the square-jawed Capt. James T. KirkMini Biography Handsome Canadian-born actor who – despite his detractors – has notched up an impressive 50-years-plus in front of the camera, most recently displaying comedic talent, and being instantly recognizable to several generations of cult TV fans as the square-jawed Capt. James T. Kirk, commander of the starship USS Enterprise.
To have a beautiful nose, you can enjoy learning about contouring, illusion, smaller, slimmer, taller, for, wide, flat, noses, shading, power, of, makeup, techniques, asian, no, pain, surgery, nobody, is, perfect, you, are, beautiful, love, yourself, confidence, beauty. Hey everybody, This video is going to demonstrate how you can use a bit of makeup to create an illusion of a slimmer & taller nose by the techniques of contouring. What sucks is with e and lips- everybody has different preferences but with the nose there is a so called set standard. "Slim & high". What is this 'set standard' anyway? I don't believe in it but doesn't the media like to brain wash us all? I know I'm going to get a lot of slack about making a nose contouring video but I don't care =). I'm here to do my thing and if it's requested- I'll do it. I rather my viewers not go through the pain from nose surgery and nose contour instead. It's cheap, safe and you got nothing to lose. If you can apply eyeliner to make e bigger, wear black to give illusion of a slimmer body, wear heels to make yourself taller, wear extensions to fake having long hair; why can't you use makeup to give illusion of a slimmer nose? Genetically- asians not only scar more than any other race but a lot of us have flatter profile & a bulbous tip. This means the nose can appear wider with less definition. It's ok- I appreciate the oriential face. I think each race is uniquely beautiful in their own way. But I do understand that many people ARE self conscious about the nose. So unhappy that it's all they can think about. The way I contour my nose is a bit different from how most makeup artists contour the nose. This is because everybody has different noses and one form of makeup will not cater everybody. Just like how I can't do a lot of makeup looks on my e because I have small eyelids. That's fine =) We work with other methods that work well for us. I find that this technique works best for me. Makeup should have no rules. The techniques I used for nose contouring are mostly catered for my type of nose because there aren't a lot of nose contouring videos for asian noses on Youtube. However- if you feel you have a wide alar base or that your nose is flat; you can try out these methods if you wish =) Remember, nobody is perfect. I would hate to think any of you guys let your nose affect you from living your life fully. Everybody has flaws and sometimes what you think is a flaw could be something your family & friends love about you. You know what? I like my nose now. I used to hate my nose. I would look at the mirror and I cry because I thought it didn't blend well with the rest of my face. This made me insecure and I would try to photoshop my photos or even rip up perfectly fine normal photos of myself. I've even considered getting a nose job before. Would you believe that? Crazy eh? Not really because we all have been there too where we've once hated our own reflection. When are we going to stop being so harsh on ourselves and focus on our good features instead? My nose is actually one of my boyfriend's favourite feature about me. My nose is also inherited from my father and it makes me happy that I have a feature that represents somebody I love & care about. It's part of me. I should love it and feel lucky that I can breathe out of it and that it keeps me alive. I'm working hard on my new cosmetic brushes but I will keep you guys informed with the progress. Loving the dual end pencil/fluffy brush though . We shall see. If you are considering surgery on your face or body, I won't judge you at all because I understand you have reasons. But remember to think it through because there are a lot of factors to think about. Think about who are you doing this for and remember, surgery doesn't necessarily mean you will be happy. Definitely think about all sorts of alternatives before going under the knife =) It can be dangerous and no surgery is 100% guaranteed safe or successful. Why not try contouring? Talk to somebody you trust. "The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt within the heart". Helen Keller. I may be 4ft 11 with a round face, wide nose and thick legs- I'm beautiful because I feel beautiful. It took me years to be comfortable in my own skin. No amount of makeup has ever made me feel as beautiful as I do now . You are beautiful too. Tell yourself this and believe it! Ps. I have been watching everybody's contest entries and it's lovely to see my viewers faces. You guys are so cute . Keep them coming. I like to watch you guys before and after I sleep. As always, thank you to youtube channel for awesome instrumentals! I love to eat rice with spam and ramen is my favorite snack. Dave Chappelle is my favorite comedian and I quote him daily. I was born an artist, a self taught painter for 10 years and went through an additional 3 years at Ringling College of Art and Design. Makeup is another medium to me. Like Michelangelo once said "I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free. " . Instead, when I see a face, it's a canvas and I want to paint a masterpiece on it. I have worked professionally freelancing. A good Guru is not just a teacher, but also a student…I don't know everything, but I am willing to learn. "Live as if your were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever." – Gandhiji About Me:   
Shatner spent many years honing his craft in TV and live theater before debuting alongside Yul Brynner in The Brothers Karamazov (1958). He was kept busy during the 1960s in films such as The Intruder (1962) and Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) and on television guest-starring in dozens of shows such as "Alfred Hitchcock Presents" (1955), "The Defenders" (1961), "The Outer Limits" (1963) and "Twilight Zone" (1959). In 1966 Shatner boarded the USS Enterprise for three seasons of "Star Trek" (1966), co-starring alongside Leonard Nimoy, with the series eventually becoming a bona-fide cult classic with a worldwide legion of fans known as "Trekkies". With Production Designer Scott Chambliss involved and Icelanders, in 2007, J.J. Abrams was scouting Iceland as "Star Trek" location for a big piece of that films puzzle. William Shatner may not be an Icelander, but his bravery would take him to great places in the years between “Star Trek” and the current movies. 

After "Star Trek" folded, Shatner spent the rest of the decade and the 1970s making the rounds guest-starring on many prime-time TV shows, including "Hawaii Five-O" (1968), "Marcus Welby, M.D." (1969) and "Ironside" (1967). He has also appeared in several feature films, but they were mainly B-grade (or lower) fare such as the embarrassingly bad Euro western White Comanche (1968) (aka The White Comanche) and the campy Kingdom of the Spiders (1977). Then came “A Whale of a Tale” Written and Directed by Ewing Miles Brown of Movie Tech Studios and a major resurgence in Shatner's career with the renewed interest in the old "Star Trek" (1966) television series culminating in a series of big-budget, money-making profitable "Star Trek" feature films including Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982), Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986), Star Trek V: The Final Frontier (1989) and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991). In addition, he starred in the lightweight cop series "T.J. Hooker" (1982) from 1982 to 1986, alongside spunky Heather Locklear, and surprised many fans with his droll comedic talents in Airplane II: The Sequel (1982), Loaded Weapon 1 (1993) and Miss Congeniality (2000). Audiences respond with glee on the released films and now you can see them on DVD and Blu-Ray, as his acting has stood the test of time, he’s listed as one of the top celebrities in history on IMDB, and he is trusted not just because of the legacy of shows, because of his family, his work with Priceline where it saves more than a dime, it’s a good site, also and the percent of genius he has added to the tech world, consumers are very happy because they know that when they see a movie or show from him, they will want to see it a second time on a Saturday because of auctions, it’s like a muze and is a bbb friendly business and investors invest in Priceline because it’s morales values and certifications that it’s a great company, and the television films in the world today even get sponsored by Priceline. Kids in Florida have learned about his sports background with the acting even recently, wherever he is located each day, those in all states know he is trusted and his life is of value. Even in the Philippines they still love the smooth and honest acting skills they know they will get still this day when they see his films and shows. Movie Tech Studios Invented Concepts still in use today on such films and shows. Director Ewing Miles Brown is proud to work with William Shanter again. cording to Trek Movie Report, the new Star Trek movie will be doing some shooting in Iceland, as reported a month ago. According to the site, the Reykjavik newspaper Frettabladid is reporting that a company called Pegasus is competing with another company called Saga Film to work with Paramount on the Star Trek locations. Both companies are currently scouting multiple locations in Iceland along with people from Paramount Pictures. The article also states that producer/director J.J. Abrams is coming to Iceland to look at the locations Paramount scouts looked over in June. A source close the production told Trek Movie Report that production designer Scott Chambliss has already traveled to Iceland. According to the newspaper article, the Star Trek production could be ‘bigger than Flags of our Fathers,’ the recent Clint Eastwood film that was filmed in Iceland. 

And of course speaking of all of that He has most recently been starring in the David E. Kelley television shows "The Practice" (1997) and "Boston Legal" (2004). IMDb Mini Biography By: [email protected] A Whale of a Tale Director: Ewing Miles Brown Writer: Ewing Miles Brown Release Date: February 1977 (USA) Genre: Comedy | Drama | Family The hit release “A Whale of a Tale” – which is a legacy of love and a wonderful story of a little boy and the lessons in life, and it will be a beautiful film to show your family for generations though made in the 1970s. Surely, it is one that you’ll forget, and was beautiful on the big screen. Find more at IMDB: Talent Agent: Gersh Agency, The – Carlos Augusto Gonzalez moreCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Beverly Hills, CA: 9465 Wilshire Blvd 6th Fl Beverly Hills, CA 90212 USA Profession: Actress / Self Known for: Sucker Punch / The Hangover Part II / Grown Ups Awards: 3 wins moreCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Born: 10 April 1983, USA (age 28) moreCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Industry News: Jamie Chung & Scoot McNairy To Star In Megan Griffith's Indie-Drama 'Eden' (From The Playlist. 28 June 2011, 7:23 AM, PDT) Sucker Punch Early Reviews: Feminists, Choose Your Weapons (From Thompson on Hollywood. 24 March 2011, 9:40 AM, PDT) News: (1219 articles) Jamie Chung To Star In Indie Film Eden (From ShockYa. 28 June 2011, 4:35 PM, PDT) Buy Me, Rent Me, Forget Me: From 'Sucker Punch' to the Extended Editions of the 'Lord of the Rings' on Blu-ray (From – Celebrity Gossip. 28 June 2011, 1:30 PM, PDT) Resume: View resume for Jamie Chung STARmeter™ Current rank: 68 Click graph for more detail Photo Gallery View IMDb Resume Jamie Chung AFTRA, SAG Performer Profile Asian Representation GERSH LA, Ken Kaplan and Carlo Gonzalez, Agent 232 North Canon Dr. Beverly Hills, Ca 90210 3102850793 3 Arts Entertainment, Sarah Shyn, Manager 9460 Wilshire Blvd. 7th Floor Beverly Hills, California 90212 Film Rush Hour 3 Cocktail Waitress Avery Pix/ Brett Ratner The grown ups Amber hilliard Happy Madison/ denis dugan Television Veronica Mars Party Girl John T. Kretchmer Best Friends Guest Star T.V Guide ME & LEE Hot Babe PILOT FOX ER Sakura Watanabe Warner Bro./Anthony Hemingway CSI:NY Misty/Guest Star CBS/Rob Bailey GREEK Siena ABC FAMILY Days of Our Lives Cordy/Recurring Principle NBC Commercials Alka Seltzer Crowd/Principle Byer AXE Whip Cream Girl AXE AT&T Girlfriend AT&T GREEK Tri Pi Sister Zeta Beta Productions/Michael Lembeck Modeling Best Buy Holiday Ads Main Girl It's What's Underneath That Counts Model Graffiti Pink Hosting 10 & Single Self Ripe T.V Internet Octane T.V Host Ripe T.V Performer Skills Athletic Skills: Golf, Cycling, Track & Field, Swimming, Aerobics, Rollerblading, Baseball, Martial Arts Accents: Chinese Spoken Languages: Korean Education University of California Riverside, Economics Administrative Studies/Marketing, Riverside, California, 2005 Training Lesly Kahn, Hollywood, California, Comedy Intensive, Foundation, Clinic, Ongoing, Comedy Ongoing, 2006 Ivana Chubbuck Studios, Los Angeles, California, Advanced Scene Study, Daryl, 2006 Doug Warhits, Los Angeles, CA, On Camera Scene Study, Doug Warhits, 2007 References Sarah Shyn, Agent Employment Details Work History: Television, Film, Internet Job Categories: Acting Prior Job Title 1: Rush Hour 3 Prior Job Title 2: Veronica Mars Prior Job Title 3: I Now Pronounce You Chuck & Larry2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 1-20 of 584 items from 2011 « Prev | NextCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Jamie Chung To Star In Indie Film Eden 7 hours ago | ShockYa | See recent ShockYa newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless It doesn't matter if you love him, or capital H-I-M Just put your paws up 'Cause you were born this way, baby My mama told me when I was young We are all born superstars She rolled my hair and put my lipstick on In the glass of her boudoir "There's nothin' wrong with lovin' who you are" She said, "'Cause He made you perfect, babe" "So hold your head up, girl and you you'll go far, Listen to me when I say" I'm beautiful in my way, 'Cause God makes no mistakes I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Don't hide yourself in regret, Just love yourself and you're set I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way (Born this way) Ooo, there ain't no other way Baby, I was born this way Baby, I was born this way Ooo, there ain't other way Baby, I was born this way I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Don't be a drag, just be a queen Don't be a drag, just be a queen Don't be a drag, just be a queen Don't be! Give yourself prudence and love your friends Subway kid, rejoice the truth In the religion of the insecure I must be myself, respect my youth A different lover is not a sin Believe capital H-I-M (hey, hey, hey) I love my life, I love this record and Mi amore vole fe yah I'm beautiful in my way, 'Cause God makes no mistakes I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Don't hide yourself in regret, Just love yourself and you're set I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Ooo, there ain't no other way Baby, I was born this way Baby, I was born this way Ooo, there ain't other way Baby, I was born this way I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Don't be drag, just be a queen Whether you're broke or evergreen You're black, white, beige, chola descent You're lebanese, you're orient Whether life's disabilities Left you outcast, bullied or teased Rejoice and love yourself today 'Cause baby, you were born this way No matter gay, straight or bi lesbian, transgendered life I'm on the right track, baby I was born to survive No matter black, white or beige chola or orient made I'm on the right track, baby I was born to be brave I'm beautiful in my way 'Cause God makes no mistakes I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way Don't hide yourself in regret, Just love yourself and you're set I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way, yeah! Ooo, there ain't no other way Baby, I was born this way Baby, I was born this way Ooo, there ain't other way Baby, I was born this way I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way I was born this way, hey! I was born this wayy, hey! I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way, hey! I was born this way, hey! I was born this way, hey! I'm on the right track, baby I was born this way, hey! —According to CinemaBlend, “The Hangover, Part II” star Jamie Chung has managed to land another film role; this time, however, Chung will be doing all of the heavy lifting. She’s been cast as the lead in the indie drama “Eden,” directed by Megan Griffiths. The film will center around a girl who’s been kidnapped by human traffickers and forced into prostitution for two years. The film is based on real events and written by Griffiths and Richard B. Phillips. Scroot McNairy, who has worked with Griffiths before in “The Off Hours,” will also be in this film. Chung, who initially started in MTV’s “The Real World,” will have a lotCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – monique See full article at ShockYaCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Buy Me, Rent Me, Forget Me: From 'Sucker Punch' to the Extended Editions of the 'Lord of the Rings' on Blu-ray 10 hours ago | – Celebrity Gossip | See recent – Celebrity Gossip newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless This week: One girl's trippy escape fantasy, all the Hobbits you can handle in high definition, Nicolas Cage feels bewitched and more. Sucker Punch: Zack Snyder's so-called "Alice in Wonderland with machine guns" is a sugary, action-packed adventure about a young girl named Babydoll (Emily Browning) who is wrongly accused of killing her sister and institutionalized by her evil stepfather. Before she is to be lobotomized, Babydoll retreats into a bizarre fantasy in which the asylum is really a seedy brothel and she plans her escape with her fellow female prisoners, including Sweet Pea (Abbie Cornish), Rocket (Jena Malone), Vanessa Hudgens (Blondie) and Jamie Chung (Amber). As for the rest of the cast, Carla Gugino stands out as Madam Vera Gorski/Dr. Vera Gorski… Read More Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – See full article at – Celebrity GossipCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Buy Me, Rent Me, Forget Me: From 'Sucker Punch' to the Extended Editions of the 'Lord of the Rings' on Blu-ray 10 hours ago | – The Buzz Bin | See recent – The Buzz Bin newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless This week: One girl's trippy escape fantasy, all the Hobbits you can handle in high definition, Nicolas Cage feels bewitched and more. Sucker Punch: Zack Snyder's so-called "Alice in Wonderland with machine guns" is a sugary, action-packed adventure about a young girl named Babydoll (Emily Browning) who is wrongly accused of killing her sister and institutionalized by her evil stepfather. Before she is to be lobotomized, Babydoll retreats into a bizarre fantasy in which the asylum is really a seedy brothel and she plans her escape with her fellow female prisoners, including Sweet Pea (Abbie Cornish), Rocket (Jena Malone), Vanessa Hudgens (Blondie) and Jamie Chung (Amber). As for the rest of the cast, Carla Gugino stands out as Madam Vera Gorski/Dr. Vera Gorski… Read More Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – See full article at – The Buzz BinCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung and Scoot McNairy Heading to Eden 12 hours ago | Beyond Hollywood | See recent Beyond Hollywood newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Reality TV gal made good Jamie Chung and “Monsters’” Scoot McNairy will headline indie filmmaker Megan Griffiths’ latest film, the gritty drama “Eden”, about a subject matter that is anything but Eden-ish. In the film, co-written by Griffiths with Richard B. Phillips, Chung will play “a young Korean-American girl who is abducted and forced into prostitution by domestic human traffickers. Throughout the two years she is held, she ensures her own survival by carving out power and influence within the very organization that has imprisoned her.” No word on McNairy’s role, but he’s the male lead opposite Chung. Chung is one busy gal. Besides co-starring roles in “The Hangover II”, “Burning Palms”, and “Sucker Punch”, plus the upcoming “Knife Fight” with Rob Lowe and “The Man with the Iron Fists” with Russell Crowe and RZA, she’s also got something called “Premium Rush” on the way, inCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Nix See full article at Beyond HollywoodCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung Moving From Hangover Sequel To Human Trafficking Drama Eden 13 hours ago | | See recent Cinema Blend newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Jamie Chung had a bit part in Todd Phillips. Hangover sequel, playing Ed Helms. fiancé who convinces the guys to enjoy one last drink on the beach and, while at it, take young Teddy (Mason Lee) with you. She then disappeared from the film until the very end, but the actress still is parlaying her performance in the money-making summer hit into additional work. Chung has signed on to headline Megan Griffiths. gritty yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and drama Eden, as noted in The Hollywood Reporter. Though the title hints at paradise, the plot suggests anything but, as Chung would play a girl kidnapped by human traffickers who is forced into prostitution for two very long years. The story, which is based on actual events, will be shaped into a shootable screenplay by Richard B. Phillips and Griffiths, who previously directed the 2011 Sundance drama The Off Hours with actor Scoot McNairy. StickingCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at cinemablend.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung, Scoot McNairy Visit "Eden" 14 hours ago | Dark Horizons | See recent Dark Horizons newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Jamie Chung ("The Hangover Part II") has signed and Scoot McNairy ("Monsters") is in negotiations to join the gritty indie thriller "Eden" says The Hollywood Reporter. Megan Griffiths ("The Off Hours") directs the story of a young Korean-American girl who is abducted and forced into prostitution by domestic human traffickers. Throughout the two years she is held, she ensures her own survival by carving out power and influence within the very organization that has imprisoned her. Richard B. Phillips and Megan Griffiths penned the script based on a story by Phillips and Chong Kim. Shooting kicks off in August in Seattle.Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Garth Franklin See full article at Dark HorizonsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem RZA Goes 'Joe,' Leonaro DiCaprio & Beyonce Give Birth To A 'Star' 15 hours ago | MTV Movies Blog | See recent MTV Movies Blog newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless "G.I. Joe" fans, it's official: you're about to get rocked. A sequel to "G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra" is currently in the works with " Say Never" director Jon M. Chu behind the camera, and while Channing Tatum and Ray Park are already more or less confirmed for a return, there are some notable new names in the mix as well. For one, Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson has confirmed that he'll be in the flick. Additionally, THR reports that RZA and D.J. Cotrona are in negotiations to join "Cobra Strikes" as Blind Master (Snake-E' former trainer) and fan-favorite Flint, respectively. Elodie Yung was previously cast as the Joe ninja Jinx. There's plenty more casting news after the jump, including word of a potential Leonardo DiCaprio-Beyonce team-up (what??) and some new "Game of Thrones" rumors. Ben Affleck Chooses Himself As "Argo's" Leading Man It worked out well for him in "The Town,Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Terri Schwartz See full article at MTV Movies BlogCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung & Scoot McNairy To Star In Megan Griffith's Indie-Drama 'Eden' 16 hours ago | The Playlist | See recent The Playlist newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless After bit part roles in such films as "Grown Ups," "Sucker Punch" and the 'The Hangover' sequel, Jamie Chung is now set for quite the 180 degree turn top-lining "Eden," an ironically-titled indie-drama by Seattle filmmaker Megan Griffiths which also co-stars Scoot McNairy. Chung will play a young Korean-American girl who is abducted and forced into prostitution by domestic human traffickers. Throughout the two years she is held, she ensures her own survival by carving out power and influence within the very organization that has imprisoned her. No word on what kind of role McNairy will be taking but it…Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at The PlaylistCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung and Scoot McNairy Enter Eden 23 hours ago | MovieWeb | See recent MovieWeb newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless The Hangover Part II's Jamie Chung and Cogan's Trade's Scoot McNairy have boarded the gritty indie Eden, directed by Megan Griffiths. Eden, based on a true story, centers on a young Korean-American girl who is abducted and forced into prostitution by domestic human traffickers. Throughout the two years she is held, she ensures her own survival by carving out power and influence within the very organization that has imprisoned her. Richard B. Phillips and Megan Griffiths wrote the script based on a story by Phillips and Chong Kim. Production will take place in Seattle and eastern Washington in August.Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – MovieWeb See full article at MovieWebCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung and Scoot McNairy to Star in Eden, an Indie Drama About Human Trafficking 27 June 2011 8:29 PM, PDT | | See recent newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Most recently seen playing Ed Helms’ fiancée in The Hangover Part II, Jamie Chung is quickly becoming one of Hollywood’s most recognizable faces. Early roles in such clunkers as Dragonball: Evolution and Sorority Row led Chung to small parts in the widely viewed Adam Sandler/Kevin James flicks I Now Pronounce You Chuck and Larry and Grown Ups. Now, Chung has a chance to topline in Eden, an indie flick directed by Megan Griffiths (The Off Hours), in a true-to-life story about a Korean-American girl who is abducted by human traffickers and sold into prostitution. Eden tells not only the story of her abduction, but also how she spent two years of imprisonment manipulating and influencing her captors to gain power and stay alive. Scoot McNairy, who starred in Griffith’s The Off Hours, is in negotiations to co-star alongside Chung. The script, written by Griffiths and Richard B.Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Dave Trumbore See full article at Collider.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung to Star in ‘Eden’ 27 June 2011 6:33 PM, PDT | LatinoReview | See recent LatinoReview newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Actress Jamie Chung will star in “Eden,” an yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and film being directed by Megan Griffiths (“The Off Hours,” “First Aid for Choking”). The film is based on a true story. It’s about a Korean-American girl who was abducted and forced into prostitution. She manages to survive her two year ordeal by establishing power and influence within the organization that imprisoned her. Richard B. Phillips (“Kimchi Warrior,” “The Last Eve”) and Griffiths wrote the script. It is based on the story by Phillips and Chong Kim. Chung has appeared recently this year in “Sucker Punch” and “The Hangover 2.” According to The Hollywood Reporter, actor Scoot McNairy is also in negotiations to star in the film. He recently wrapped filming “Cogan’s Trade,” which starred Brad Pitt. McNairy has appeared in several films including “In Search of a Midnight Kiss,” “Herbie Fully Loaded,” “Bobby” and “Wonderland.”Source: The Hollywood ReporterCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at LatinoReviewCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem RZA May Join ‘G.I. Joe’ Sequel 27 June 2011 5:52 PM, PDT | LatinoReview | See recent LatinoReview newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Yo, Joe! The Hollywood Reporter’s Heat Vision blog reported that rapper-turned-actor RZA and actor D.J. Cotrona are in negotiations for roles in the new “G.I. Joe” sequel. RZA will play a martial arts expert named the Blind Master, who once trained Snake E and Jinx. Cotrona will play Flint, a G.I. Joe soldier with a beret and a shotgun. They will join the cast that already includes Channing Tatum, Ray Park and Byung-hun Lee. It was also reported earlier this month that actors Dwayne Johnson and Elodie Yung are in talks for roles in the film. RZA has recently appeared in films such as “Due Date,” “Repo Man,” and “Funny People.” He will be appearing and directing in upcoming Eli Roth-produced “The Man with the Iron Fists” with Jamie Chung, Russell Crowe and Lucy Liu. Cotrona is best known as Detective John Stone on the television series “Detroit 1-8-7.Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at LatinoReviewCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Jamie Chung and Scoot McNairy in talks for indie drama Eden 27 June 2011 5:47 PM, PDT | GordonandtheWhale | See recent GordonandtheWhale newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Jamie Chung (The Hangover Part II) and Scoot McNairy (Monsters) are in negotiations to join the gritty indie two-hander Eden, THR is reporting. Eden, based on a spec by Richard B. Phillips and Chong Kim, centers on a young Korean-American girl who is abducted and forced into prostitution by domestic human traffickers. Throughout the two years she is held, she ensures her own survival by carving out power and influence within the very organization that has imprisoned her. Read more on Jamie Chung and Scoot McNairy in talks for indie drama EdenCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Jamie Neish See full article at GordonandtheWhaleCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Sucker Punch 27 June 2011 3:24 PM, PDT | | See recent Comicmix newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless We have come to love Zack Snyder’s visual style, attention to detail, and ability to adapt comics to the silver screen. But, we don’t really have a sense of what he can do on his, without someone else’s work to rely on for inspiration. That is, until this March when he unveiled Sucker Punch, a personal project that had been gestating in his mind for years and he finally was given the opportunity to make it a reality. Some reality. The mind-bending storyline is a visually and aural feast but is somewhat soulless and cold, not just from the over-reliance on CGI for background and texture but for the total lack of attention to characterization. Like the computer backgrounds, everything is on the surface, giving the cast little to work with, turning them into two-dimensional players on his digital chessboard. Most of that explains why the film fizzled both critically and commercially.Cheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Robert Greenberger See full article at Comicmix.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Blu-ray Review: Sucker Punch 25 June 2011 7:58 AM, PDT | GeekTyrant | See recent GeekTyrant newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Sucker Punch is a sort of live-action fairy tale from the mind of Zach Snyder (300, Watchmen) that puts a young girl named Baby Doll (Emily Browning) who is blamed for her younger sisters death after they both watch their mom pass away, only to be left with their evil step father. She is taken off to a mental institution where she engages in a mental fight for her life as she delves deep into her subconscious she meets up with other interesting and might I add very good looking characters that she kind of replaces from her reality. Enter Sweet Pea (Abbie Cornish), Rocket (Jena Malone), Blondie (Vanessa Hudgens) and Amber (Jamie Chung) who take on these crazy missions with Baby Doll each time she is confronted in reality. Baby Doll is left with the ultimate decision on which path to take at the end, The action sequences in thisCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – brians See full article at GeekTyrantCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem ‘The Real World’ Returns to San Diego For Season 26 23 June 2011 3:36 PM, PDT | | See recent newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Watch out Gaslamp District, MTV’s The Real World is coming back to your area. MTV has announced that the reality show will mark it 26th Season by returning to the beautiful city of San Diego, home of Seaworld, Petco Park and, of course, Comic-Con International. I haven’t personally watched the show in about ten years, but I imagine the premise is still the same: culturally diverse young adults get submerged in a compressed situation where the conflicts are aplenty and alcohol flows like chocolate in Willy Wonka’s factory. The last time the show took on San Diego was in its 14th season, one which brought actress Jamie Chung to the limelight (Chung recently was seen in Zack Snyder’s Sucker Punch, though she also been in a number of films including Grown Ups). With 25 iterations under its belt, The Real World has been to just about everyCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Sean B. See full article at BuzzFocus.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem 'Sucker Punch' Exclusive: 'Love Is The Drug' Music Video 22 June 2011 7:20 AM, PDT | MTV Movies Blog | See recent MTV Movies Blog newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Love is a drug, and it's one we're getting addicted to in this exclusive clip from "Sucker Punch," which arrives on Blu-ray and DVD next Tuesday (June 28). MTV News has an exclusive first look at the dance sequence within Zack Snyder's latest. The sexy scene shows a whole lot of seductive dancing between Blue (Oscar Isaac) and Vera (Carla Gugino) to the tune of "Love Is The Drug." Cut into that cabaret-like sequence are shots of Rocket (Jena Malone), Sweet Pea (Abbie Cornish), Blondie (Vanessa Hudgens) and Amber (Jamie Chung) strutting their stuff on the stage while Baby Doll (Emily Browning) hangs in the background. There's not too much exposition to the scene, but the visuals and dancing are pretty fabulous so we're not complaining. It reminds me of all the deleted scenes from the "Watchmen" director's cut, where I understood why they were cut but they added soCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Terri Schwartz See full article at MTV Movies BlogCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Ron Howard Takes Spy vs. Spy 22 June 2011 | | See recent newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Ron Howard has become attached to an adaptation of the "Mad Magazine" comic strip Spy vs. Spy , Deadline reports. David Koepp and John Kamps are set to tackle the screenplay (Kamps writing with Koepp overseeing) which will bring to the big screen the endless struggle between rival black and white spies. Howard, still attached to direct The Dark Tower , was also, just terday , named as a potential candidate for the Formula 1 biopic Rush . He most recently directed The Dilemma for Universal. Koepp and Kamps have already teamed for Premium Rush (no relation to the potential Howard project) which Koepp will direct. That film, starring Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Michael Shannon and Jamie Chung, is set for released January 13, 2012. First appearing in "MadCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at Comingsoon.netCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Hangover Part II tattoo lawsuit settled 20 June 2011 11:00 AM, PDT | | See recent newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Warner Bros. settles lawsuit with tattoo artist S. Victor Whitmill over tattoo in The Hangover Part II used on Ed Helms face. Whitmill claimed the tattoo infringed a copyrighted tattoo that he created for Mike Tyson. The erms of the settlement were not disclosed. Apparently sources said that the deal was negotiated during a mediation which took place on Friday in St. Louis. Whitmill attended with his lawyers and of course the legal team of Warner Bros. That's gonna leave a mark… The Hangover Part II recently became the highest grossing R-rated comedy of all time and has grossed over 9.1 million worldwide. The film stars Bradley Cooper, Zach Galifianakis, Ed Helms, Justin Bartha, Ken Jeong, Paul Giamatti, Jamie Chung, Jeffrey Tambor, Mike Tyson and Nick CassavetesCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless See full article at Upcoming-Movies.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem Zach Galifianakis Spills Brief The Hangover 3 Details 11 June 2011 8:36 AM, PDT | | See recent ReelzChannel newsCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless The huge box office success of The Hangover Part II (9 million worldwide and counting) made a sequel seem inevitable, a move Warner Bros. made official when the studio hired screenwriter Craig Mazin to write the third installment. The Hangover Part II cast members Jamie Chung and Justin Bartha have both publicly stated that Amsterdam would be the perfect location for The Hangover Part III, but, while likely, that has yet to be confirmed. Next Showing: Link | Posted 6/11/2011 by Ryan Zach Galifianakis | The Hangover 2 | The HangoverCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless – Ryan Gowland See full article at Reelzchannel.comCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Permalink | Report a problem 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 1-20 of 584 items from 2011 « Prev | NextCheryl Johnson Stars in it, Executive Producer Chris Shining, Sam Botta Hosts Live Fearless Basic Information Occupation:Student of Life & Accountant by Day Age31 5' 1" No Asian/Pacific Islander Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and April 08, 2011 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The three things which I am most thankful for: God My Family Good Friends Three of my best life-skills are: Finding creative solutions to everyday problems Volunteering my time to causes I care about Making art and culture an ongoing part of my life The things I can't live without are: my tastebuds fruit cilantro + banchan passport friends My interests I typically spend my leisure time: exploring new places, reading, napping, snacking The last book I read and enjoyed: Outliers…inspiration to do anything you set your mind to According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Happy Ambitious Thoughtful Hard Working, Inc. takes no responsibility for the content or accuracy of the above news articles, Tweets, or blog posts. This content is published for the entertainment of our users only. The news articles, Tweets, and blog posts do not represent IMDb's opinions nor can we guarantee that the reporting therein is completely factual. Please visit the source responsible for the item in question to report any concerns you may have regarding content or accuracy. See our NewsDesk partners It's a little hard to name "the most influential person" in my life, (it might sound like a cliché but) because every single person who I've met is a gift in my life. I especially like to listen their stories those who are successful in various fields both men and women, and learn something from them. The three things which I am most thankful for: My healthy body with my positive mind, that enables me to enjoy my life! Bond with my family and my friends, that taught me the value of trust, affection and appreciation Opportunity to experience things this world to offer and meet people who motivate me to become better myself Three of my best life-skills are: Creating a peaceful, beautiful home environment Continuing to expand my knowledge and awareness Finding pleasure and contentment in simple things The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: Depth of my personality: I have a very sweet, soft feminine side but on the other hand I have a very curious, zesty tomboyish side. I can even be kind of bold sometimes. I'm witty, playful and fun to be around…It's all-in -one package in this petite body with a big-heart:-) The things I can't live without are: Feeling happy! My family (incl. my dog "Shorty") and my friends My healthy body with positive mind Ability to travel, and my digital camera or iPhone Good conversations, Sweets, Jacuzzi (more than 5!) The first thing people notice about me: Happy energy:-), the way I smile and laugh, friendliness…easy to talk with. Also, they said I look way better in person than in pictures. Some additional information I want you to know: Although I feel like I'm "27-years-old -at-heart-forever" and look a little younger than my age, I've learned lots of life lessons so far. I finally feel "I'm on the right path." I'm proud of living here by my own choice. I can say "Life is good!" with a big smile:-) I'm ready to explore the adventure of a meaningful relationship and I do believe this will happen fairly soon. I'm so excited about what is to come! Hope we can find each other soon…Cheers to our lives! My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Walking my dog, taking him to dog parks/beach; Practicing yoga (makes me feel so good, not only physically but helps me tap into my inner beauty & strength, giving me peace of mind); Taking short weekend trips, driving, hiking & going to the beach, taking golf lessons; Hanging out with friends: cook & entertain, dine out, drink socially & enjoy good conversation with them; Tennis, rollerblades, going to see movies & concerts; when I'm in a romantic relationship: relaxing, enjoy soothing music & good movies together while cuddling at home; enjoying weekend brunches also cooking sometimes together… The last book I read and enjoyed: It's not the last book but "the Secret" (by Rhonda Byrne): It's about the way how to live happily, proved that something I knew instinctively was right. I would like to find someone on the similar "frequency". According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Happy Genuine Affectionate CaringLiving my life to the fullest! I'm not so yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and but still feel like "Everyday is a gift." I'm so grateful for my life: I'm very healthy, have a great job, own a place to live in my style, have wonderful friends spend fun time/travel with & be able to rescue my lovable dog; Shorty from a shelter. Things make me happy: Traveling, taking beautiful pictures, enjoying good food. Always open to experience something new. Also appreciate simple things in my daily life; beauty of nature, soothing music, fun conversations, someone's smiles especially who I care for. I'd like to share and enjoy a healthy well-balanced life with the right partner. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: Mutual appreciation: He truly appreciates me as a partner & always excited about our future together. He makes me feel like giving him hugs & saying "Thank you for being in my life." Similar sense of values: Knowing that there are so many precious things in our lives which can only be found under partnerships. And capability to achieve them. I'm also active/playful/curious so I like someone who can enjoy my company from being silly &… Mutual appreciation: He truly appreciates me as a partner & always excited about our future together. He makes me feel like giving him hugs & saying "Thank you for being in my life." Similar sense of values: Knowing that there are so many precious things in our lives which can only be found under partnerships. And capability to achieve them. I'm also active/playful/curious so I like someone who can enjoy my company from being silly & LOL together with fun conversations to enjoy doing various activities together but still being romantic, make me feel very feminine & sexy. Always being positive, upbeat and happy person. Does it sound like you? I enjoy volunteering, going to the movies, taking classes, learning, improving, mint tea, traveling domestically & internationally, coffee, music, art shows, German Shepherds, fresh fruit juice, leading a healthy life style, and always being able to lend a helping hand to others. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: I am looking to meet a thoughtful, caring, honest, funny, intellectually stimulating man. Someone who is easy going and doesn't take life too seriously. Someone who is well mannered, grounded and grateful. Someone who I can learn from and hopefully grow with. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on May 15, 2011, 03:50AM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Real Estate Age33 5' 6" Maybe No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week May 15, 2011 This is a Flex Match With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The three things which I am most thankful for: I am very thankful for my health and the health of friends and family. I am very thankful for the amount of love my parents have always given me. It has taught me how to give love to others, as well as accept it when it is given to me. I am very thankful for all of the opportunities that I have had. I am generally a lucky girl and have been able to manifest my life's direction on a positive path. Three of my best life-skills are: Using humor to make friends laugh Maintaining an organized life Maintaining a network of close friends The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: My kindness and how caring I am. The things I can't live without are: My family and friends Laughter Positivity Hope Love The first thing people notice about me: My confidence. The way in which I carry myself and maybe my laugh ). Some additional information I want you to know: Not at the moment. If I meet the right person it will just click and fall into place like a puzzle piece. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Traveling, relaxing, trying new things, hiking, dancing, movies, shows and spending quality time with my friends and family. According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Good Listener Caring Loyal Passionate Next Step:am a fun to be partner to go on adventure trips and I am looking forward to explores countries like India, Brazil, Italy and African countries. Apart from travel, I like to hangout with my friends and to go and explore new hiking trails. Well to say it crisply, I just engage my time in exploring and enjoying every nuances of this amazing life. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: One thing I'd expect and appreciate from my partner would be honesty. I value it the most. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Respond to her Mail You first viewed this information on May 25, 2011, 11:36PM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Engineering Age31 5' 5" No Chinese May 25, 2011 This is a Flex Match With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: I'd say I am deeply motivated and groomed by my grandfather and so he'd be the most influential person next to my parents. He taught me how to love and how to forgive. The three things which I am most thankful for: My friends My family Internet Three of my best life-skills are: Maintaining an organized life Volunteering my time to causes I care about Achieving personal goals The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: My ability of surviving. The things I can't live without are: My cell phone Intermet Car My friend My family The first thing people notice about me: Well my friends always compliment me saying I have a good smile. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Semantic Web, Linked Data, W3c, it’s all so interesting. Watching Movies, Learning New stuff According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Affectionate Caring Passionate IntelligentLiving a meaningful life filled with family and friends, love, hiking, traveling, dancing, music, and laughter! The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: Balance. I want the rare breed that can balance a sense of adventure with the sanctuary of home. A perfectly balanced man will be honest, loving, kind, empathetic, smart, funny, fit and of course adorable! About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on August 24, 2010, 09:22AM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Celebrity Assistant…but the nice kind ) Age37 5' 4" No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week August 24, 2010 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: My younger sister who has had adversity in her life – she has taught me about strength and optimism. And my cousin Bob, who passed away too soon at 34. He really knew how to live life…really live! The three things which I am most thankful for: my family and friends my good health – physically and emotionally my sense of passion and adventure Three of my best life-skills are: Creating romance in a relationship Being a good friend and companion Finding pleasure and contentment in simple things The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: As you spend time with the right people, the important things get noticed. The things I can't live without are: Water. I like having a cooler thingy at home. Being outside. Fresh air, nature, city nights. Laughter. I'm a goof, a true dork inside. Family and Friends. I mean…c'mon! Love. You could. But why? The first thing people notice about me: My energy: positive, passionate, and loving to all. I'm a cool chic! Some additional information I want you to know: I do look forward to finding my partner in life. Duh, that's why I'm on here! But I haven't settled thus far so I'm not going to settle now. You either, right? So…I look forward to meeting You! I'd rather have 30 minutes of wonderful than a lifetime of nothing special. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: I love to go hiking alone or with friends, go camping, play tennis, entertain at home, go to sporting events and concerts, travel, and and the occasional tandem skydive! The last book I read and enjoyed: Backpackers guide to Australia, New Zealand on a budget. Just got back from a 3 month solo adventure to Australia and New Zealand! Ahhhhmazing! According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Funny Genuine Perceptive Caring Next Step:I'm most passionate about traveling. I really enjoy discovering new countries and cultures. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: I am looking for someone who is warm, compassionate, and open to new experiences. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on June 10, 2010, 06:09PM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Teacher Age41 5' 9" Maybe No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week June 08, 2010 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: The most influential people in my life are my students. Everyday, I am learn from them. My students make me want to be a better person. I want to be a positive role model for them so that they may be fearless in acquiring their dreams. The three things which I am most thankful for: I'm most thankful for my family, they are everything to me. Friends have always been like an extended family to me. Teaching brings to my life a tremendous amount of purpose. Three of my best life-skills are: Using humor to make friends laugh Being a good friend and companion Socializing The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: My sense of humour The things I can't live without are: my family my friends my passport music my iphone The first thing people notice about me: The first think people notice about me is my friendly personality. Some additional information I want you to know: We'll save that for the first date ) My interests I typically spend my leisure time: I really enjoy spending time with my friends and family. I enjoy a good yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and movie, as well as a mainstream blockbuster. I get lost in bookstores, I can't get enough. I really enjoy watching live music. I also love to take short vacations for the weekend anywhere close by. My favorite thing to do is travel in the summer when I am off for 2 months!! The last book I read and enjoyed: Currently I have about 10 books that I am trying to complete! According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Funny Good Listener Passionate Outgoing Next Step:g for someone that is grounded and confident in who they are. Oh, and someone that makes me laugh…I know that is two things, but sometimes you have to break the rules. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on May 05, 2011, 09:53PM PDT. Basic Information With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The three things which I am most thankful for: My family and close friends Being an American! Cheesy, but true… Being raised in a small town Three of my best life-skills are: Resolving conflict Achieving personal goals Finding new adventures and unique experiences The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: Hmmm….I don't feel misunderstood in any way so I don't really have an answer to this question. I tend to wear my heart on my sleeve. The things I can't live without are: Freedom Travel My dog Laughter Love The first thing people notice about me: Hopefully my personality. I think that I disarm people pretty quickly- meaning I think most people find me easy to talk to and open. I am also a fan of honesty so that can always make for interesting conversation. Some additional information I want you to know: If you prefer the guided communication thing that is ok but I would prefer email instead of questions. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: In my free time I like spending time with my friends, watching a movie, having a party at my house or hanging (or hiking) with my dog. I also love to do weekend trips skiing, camping etc. The last book I read and enjoyed: "Chelsea, Chelsea, Bang Bang"….I told you I like to laugh. I used to read pretty often but I am in this phase that if I do pick up a book I want it to be light and funny… According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Funny Perceptive Easy-Going Passionate Next Step:The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: Torn between kindness, sensitivity and humor. I also love a man who teaches me new things about myself, himself, the world. I have to be able to learn with and from someone. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Premium Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on April 26, 2011, 01:24AM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Executive Assistant Extraordinaire! (I work for an attorney and essentially pla … Age32 5' 2" Maybe No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week April 26, 2011 This is a Flex Match With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: My sister. I have two older sisters, I am the youngest. My middle sister has been very influential. We definitely argue but I adore her more than she will ever know. The three things which I am most thankful for: My health New years and beginnings My family Three of my best life-skills are: Using humor to make friends laugh Achieving personal goals Maintaining a network of close friends The things I can't live without are: Americano w/ 2 pumps white mocha my favorite spin class @ Up Dog Brunching "All The Lonely People" A star filled sky The first thing people notice about me: My incredible charm and wit (of course)! Some additional information I want you to know: I am incredibly loving and warm. Just wait and see. I can snuggle with the best of them. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Hiking, traveling, trying new restaurants and cafe's, seeking out new spots for a cocktail, brunching with my girlfriends, spinning, pilateing, boxing, all forms of exercise, I also love to read the paper with the perfect cup of coffee. The last book I read and enjoyed: I don't read very often, this is something I aspire to do more. I get distracted very easily…resolutions, right? According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Physically Fit Optimistic Caring Passionate Next Step:Music moves me (as i am a dancer) LOVE live music and anything creative…. Handmade one of a kind anything…. Art work, jewelry, T-shirt…. I often buy something that is OVER produced in a random store and cut it or add to it to make it one of a kind. I am passionate about being happy and making others happy. Laughing is what i do best. Other than dancing which i will be doing in the nursing home (NO JOKE) i will be teaching those little old men to salsa and let a little loose for once!!! haha. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: Best friend…. the end! About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on March 21, 2011, 07:28PM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Dancer (ballet tap jazz) Fitness Instructor Age37 5' 4" No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week March 21, 2011 This is a Flex Match With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: My nana 100% ~ this woman has been through soooooooooo much in her 86 years…. and throughout all of them kept her LARGE irish family laughing every single day. Very Betty White-ish (golden girls) if you know what i'm saying 😉 She is my idol and when people say i am just like her and/or my mom…… best compliment EVER!!!! The three things which I am most thankful for: Not being married with children during my moms sickness (cancer) so that i could pack up, move home, and be with her for her last year. Because of that….. having NO REGRETS. Traveling the world as a dancer / singer and getting paid to do what i absolutely love to do. (so important to love what you do) However now i am addicted to travel…. could be worse! I am truly thankful that i settled. I have dated some amazing, talented, creative, loving, charming BOYS…. waiting to meet that amazing, talented, creative, loving and charming MAN. (wink wink) Three of my best life-skills are: Maintaining an organized life Making improvements and repairs around the house Achieving personal goals The things I can't live without are: laughter (like pee your pants funny) Tropicana (PURE PREMIUM NO PULP) dance class (the one that gives you goose bumps) friends (the ones i would die for) my nephew (cutest munchkin face ever) The first thing people notice about me: Glass half full… always laughing. Some additional information I want you to know: This internet dating is all very strange…. but i'm going with it 😉 My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Yoga, hiking, dance class. Cooking some good grub at home and opening a great bottle of wine in sweats. Laughing my YOU KNOW WHAT off….. no matter the situation. According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Funny Creative Optimistic Hard Working Next Step:I am passionate about finding true happiness in life. I'm looking forward to finding friendship first with the possibility for a potential relationship. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: honesty About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on February 07, 2011, 08:01PM PST. Basic Information Occupation:teacher Age38 5' 3" No February 07, 2011 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: It would have to be my parents. They taught me about honesty,love,courage, hope and many other important values. The three things which I am most thankful for: Family Friends Occupation Three of my best life-skills are: Remaining calm yet resilient during a crisis Continuing to expand my knowledge and awareness Being a good friend and companion The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: My adventurous side. I sometimes do things at the spur of the moment. The things I can't live without are: family friends happiness love intimacy The first thing people notice about me: my gentle side Some additional information I want you to know: No. We can wait until we meet,and I will answer any other questions about myself. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: I enjoy going to the gym, watching sporting events and reading good books. I also enjoy spending time with my family and friends. I enjoy bbq's, camping and weekend trips. The last book I read and enjoyed: I've just finished reading The Help and am looking forward to seeing the movie. According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Genuine Good Listener Easy-Going Loyal Next Step:he one thing I am most passionate about: Life and living life!!! That's a broad enough statement to cover my passion for being outdoors in nature, preferably taking in the beautiful scenery on a hike someplace familiar or exploring someplace new that I have not been before. I also love to cook and enjoy good food and wine preferably with close friends or family. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: I want to connect with a man who shares an interest in evolving further as partners. A man who is as good with his hands as he is with his wit. An outgoing yet introspective individual; whose body and mind are equally active … A creative soul who has good communication skills. Less abstractly: You're not a couch potato, are easy to be around, have opinions and a good personality. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Premium Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on June 10, 2010, 06:20PM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Epidemiologist, Professor Age38 5' 4" Maybe No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week June 10, 2010 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: I am inspired by Wangari Maathai who founded the Green Belt movement in Kenya. She has made incredible contributions to the environment. The three things which I am most thankful for: my friends and my family my education and being raised to value education appreciating life and having the flexibility, ability and desire to live a full life Three of my best life-skills are: Using humor to make friends laugh Achieving personal goals Maintaining a network of close friends The things I can't live without are: the sun vegetables,good bread,red wine,thai papaya salad my passport good friends and good conversation NPR and the NY Times The first thing people notice about me: A friend of mine who knows me well tells me that from the outside, I appear as someone who is athletic and cares for my health and that my political views are apparent. Some additional information I want you to know: I'm a passionate, serious, empathetic, adventurous, dare I say yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and and opinionated woman who is motivated to do good in this lifetime… and next. I appreciate men and masculinity and feel fortunate to have a great model in my renaissance-man father. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: There is truth for me in the saying, "live hard, play hard". I love my work and spend quite a bit of time working. I maintain a balance by being outdoors, doing yoga, gardening, hosting dinner parties with friends, being active in my community, trail walks with my dog, traveling… Can't forget to mention red wine, good food, world music, dancing… The last book I read and enjoyed: I wish I had more time to read for leisure… Just finished "The Brief Wonderous Life of Oscar Wao"; reading "The Tipping Point", and "Eating Animals" . Numerous others sit awaiting me in my "to-read" pile. According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Physically Fit Articulate Passionate intelligent people at imdb, and Next Step:earning new things and get new experiences in the life. Developing language skills. About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on May 07, 2011, 09:07PM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Sr. Copywriter Age35 5' 4" No Chinese May 06, 2011 This is a Flex Match With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The three things which I am most thankful for: Close family and friends in my life Having a career that I love and paid well A satisfying life Three of my best life-skills are: Achieving personal goals Managing my finances Cooking for my family and friends My interests I typically spend my leisure time: Swimming. Cooking According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Caring Sweet intelligent people at imdb, and Generous Next Step:e one thing I am most passionate about: Family, good friends, enjoying life together and good laughs are healthy Rx for the soul. The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: I would say integrity and the ability to solve problem are very important, but since i am here, then a loving person would be ideal, isn't it. About Me 
Mailbox Premium Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on April 27, 2011, 02:19AM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:marketing Age42 5' 7" Maybe No Asian/Pacific Islander April 27, 2011 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: Well, there are many people who have influenced and shaped my life, from my teachers, friends, bosses, coworkers to dance and violin instructors. Each person has his/her pearl, and i learn from everyone and everywhere. The three things which I am most thankful for: happy healthy affluent Three of my best life-skills are: Creating a peaceful, beautiful home environment Achieving personal goals Being a good friend and companion The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: TBD. The first thing people notice about me: That i am cheerful and happy, i.e. that i make people laugh! Some additional information I want you to know: Yah, don't be scared, it's okay to laugh with me and even at me. Have fun. -.) My interests I typically spend my leisure time: I love ballet as a fitness and an art form. So, after i get my endorphin fix then i come home practice my violin or dilly dally while listening to music. Besides that, i enjoy movies, sight seeing, cruising and making new friends! The last book I read and enjoyed: The Street Lawyer. Good writings i suppose. According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Optimistic Rational Loyal Generous Next Step:Living a meaningful life filled with family and friends, love, hiking, traveling, dancing, music, and laughter! The most important thing I am looking for in a person is: Balance. I want the rare breed that can balance a sense of adventure with the sanctuary of home. A perfectly balanced man will be honest, loving, kind, empathetic, smart, funny, fit and of course adorable! About Me Icebreakers 
Mailbox Personality Profile Next Step: Send her an Mail You first viewed this information on August 24, 2010, 09:22AM PDT. Basic Information Occupation:Celebrity Assistant…but the nice kind ) Age37 5' 4" No Spiritual, but not yes she is independent, intelligent and the fine people at imdb know Cheryl Johnson, and About once a week August 24, 2010 With Cheryl Johnson and Actor Writer Director Sam Botta, Chris Shining Executive Producer The most influential person in my life has been: My younger sister who has had adversity in her life – she has taught me about strength and optimism. And my cousin Bob, who passed away too soon at 34. He really knew how to live life…really live! The three things which I am most thankful for: my family and friends my good health – physically and emotionally my sense of passion and adventure Three of my best life-skills are: Creating romance in a relationship Being a good friend and companion Finding pleasure and contentment in simple things The one thing I wish MORE people would notice about me: As you spend time with the right people, the important things get noticed. The things I can't live without are: Water. I like having a cooler thingy at home. Being outside. Fresh air, nature, city nights. Laughter. I'm a goof, a true dork inside. Family and Friends. I mean…c'mon! Love. You could. But why? The first thing people notice about me: My energy: positive, passionate, and loving to all. I'm a cool chic! Some additional information I want you to know: I do look forward to finding my partner in life. Duh, that's why I'm on here! But I haven't settled thus far so I'm not going to settle now. You either, right? So…I look forward to meeting You! I'd rather have 30 minutes of wonderful than a lifetime of nothing special. My interests I typically spend my leisure time: I love to go hiking alone or with friends, go camping, play tennis, entertain at home, go to sporting events and concerts, travel, and and the occasional tandem skydive! The last book I read and enjoyed: Backpackers guide to Australia, New Zealand on a budget. Just got back from a 3 month solo adventure to Australia and New Zealand! Ahhhhmazing! According to my friends: My friends describe me as: Funny Genuine Perceptive Caring Next Step: Company Brian DePersia Nicole David Tim Curtis Sean Elliot Sharon Jackson Mick Sullivan Joel Lubin Jennifer Rawlings Brent Morley Chris Andrews Philip Button e Artist Agency Agent Bryan Lourd Esther Chang Chris Donnelly Danny Gabai Randi Michel Brian Clisham Adam Issac Boomer Malkin Stephanie RitzPatrick Whitesell Brandt Joel Megan Moss Jilian Fowkes Liz Mahoney Matt Labov Meredith O'Sullivan Gina Hoffman Publicist Ruth BernsteinAlan Nierob Slate PR Ina Treciokas Publicist Rogers&Cowan Paul Bloch Roger&Cowan Samantha MastPublicist Baker Winokur Ryder Public Relations Daniel WeinerPublicist Matt Labov Publicist Slate PR Robin Baum Bryan Lourd Tracy Brennan Tracy Brennan Jeremy Plager Kevin Huvane David Bugliari Jason Heyman Michael Cooper Josh Lieberman Darren Statt Michael Katcher Jimmy Darmody Rick Kurtzman Kami Putnam-Heist Chris Andrews Peter Hess William rival Kate claims likelihood royal-type power Sadly Khloe joke sister's extravaganza Read Kardashian determined wedding much Prince seriously celebrity actually Middleton America Kim Britian Great insider magazine's reviews detractors save explained heart song stop enviably upbringing answered questioned pop artist over-the-shoulder wearing whenever referencing Billboard's Numbers year June lot inspired one just God started know feet known challenges run someone night dummy please body mag boulder top gets entire musical bra record Perry grade world Friday ask Calif Hot success obvious put assets T.G.I.F anymore California appreciative Angels fluffy songs Katy holder least singer called graces gurls entire going Dogg los got times list cover look probably Hershey's 26 year old stone bad issue Rolling beyond Last kisses physique seen interview praying taping lie snoop breast despite history curvaceous added upper take use set hit first Beauty Confirm Mansion Spot Moved April Anna Top Harris chance Jumped Week Allowing News Granted Crystal Ring Earlier Gossip Berglund upset Read Also Relative Keep Playboy Diamond Universe single dog Term Tweeted Adjacent Sources Celebrity Hugh Hefner Star Walk Ceremony Strips nominated tells deeds Jennifer actually publicist Finally studio girls suggested date Aniston clubs answer Hospital sponsors usually come work least think Boulevarrd Friends installment money shocker behalf sponsor plaques ranging future charities Scarlett celebrity Hollywood maintenance entity worldwide awarded honored posing bargain people commerce maribel without walk Universal strips Foundations submitted Disney Lopez Magazine Tv Boys Johansson may beneficiaries fame Jude's Rings schedule GENESIS: THE NEW BEGINNING “Nappy Boy’s Rockstar” Tay Dizm Announces the release of his Up, Up and Away Music Video St. Nick Entertainment Presents Mix CD RAHEEM DEVAUGHN, TO TAKE ON INTERNET AIRWAVES STARTING JUNE 19, 2011 Hip Hop Divas & Their Stilettos Revolt Against Sex Trafficking Young Riot – It’s On Us The Primeridian “In the Mood” (full no tag version) feat. and prod. 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C O M 4 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking Rank Brand Category Class 36 Esteé Lauder Beauty & Skincare BFF 37 Clinique Beauty & Skincare BFF 38 Shiseido Beauty & Skincare BFF 39 Moët & Chandon Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 40 St. Regis Hotels Whatever 41 Grey Goose Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 42 Mandarin Oriental Hotels Whatever 43 Bentley Auto Whatever 44 Givenchy Fashion Whatever 45 Jaguar Auto Whatever 45 Fendi Fashion Whatever 47 Aston Martin Auto Whatever 48 Harry Winston Watches & Jewelry Whatever 49 Lamborghini Auto Whatever 50 Valentino Fashion Whatever 50 DeBeers Watches & Jewelry Whatever 52 TAG Heuer Watches & Jewelry Whatever 53 Kate Spade Fashion Whatever 54 Versace Fashion Whatever 55 Coach Fashion Whatever 56 Bottega Veneta Fashion Whatever 57 Hugo Boss Fashion Whatever 58 Intercontinental Hotels Tired 59 Balenciaga Fashion Tired 60 Park Hyatt Hotels Tired 61 NARS Beauty & Skincare Tired 61 Tory Burch Fashion Tired 63 David Yurman Watches & Jewelry Tired 64 Ketel One Spirits & Champagnes Tired 65 Johnnie Walker Spirits & Champagnes Tired 66 Patrón Spirits & Champagnes Tired 67 Veuve Clicquot Spirits & Champagnes Tired 68 Omega Watches & Jewelry Tired 69 Infniti Auto Tired 70 Clarins Beauty & Skincare Tired Rank Brand Category Class 1Chanel Fashion Epic 2Ritz-Carlton Hotels Epic 3Four Seasons Hotels Epic 4Marc Jacobs Fashion Epic 5Cartier Watches & Jewelry Epic 6BMW Auto Epic 7Mercedes-Benz Auto Epic 8W Hotels Hotels Epic 9Prada Fashion Epic 10Audi Auto Epic 11Hermes Fashion Epic 12Tiany Watches & Jewelry Epic 13Gucci Fashion BFF 14MAC Beauty & Skincare BFF 15Salvatore FerragamoFashion BFF 16Burberry Fashion BFF 17Porsche Auto BFF 18Christian Dior Fashion BFF 19Lexus Auto BFF 20Louis Vuitton Fashion BFF 20Rolex Watches & Jewelry BFF 22Kiehl's Beauty & Skincare BFF 23Waldor Astoria Hotels BFF 23Dom Pérignon Spirits & Champagnes BFF 25Ralph Lauren Fashion BFF 26YSL Fashion BFF 26Michael Kors Fashion BFF 28Giorgio Armani Fashion BFF 29L'Occitane Beauty & Skincare BFF 30Lancôme Beauty & Skincare BFF 31Ferrari Auto BFF 32Bobbi Brown Beauty & Skincare BFF 32Bulgari Watches & Jewelry BFF 34Dolce & Gabbana Fashion BFF 35Land Rover Auto BFF Rank Brand Category Class 71 Stila Beauty & Skincare Tired 71 Acura Auto Tired 73 Movado Watches & Jewelry Tired 74 Beneft Beauty & Skincare Tired 75 Hennessy Spirits & Champagnes Tired 76 Van Clee & Arpels Watches & Jewelry Tired 77 Belvedere Spirits & Champagnes Tired 78 Bombay Sapphire Spirits & Champagnes Tired 79 Cadillac Auto Tired 80 Tanqueray Spirits & Champagnes Tired 81 Bulova Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 82 Bally Fashion O the Grid 82 Peninsula Hotels O the Grid 84 Chopard Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 85 Maker's Mark Spirits & Champagnes O the Grid 86 Lotus Auto O the Grid 87 Piaget Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 88 Trump Hotels O the Grid 89 Baccarat Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 90 Chivas Regal Spirits & Champagnes O the Grid 91 Fairmont Hotels O the Grid 92 H. Stern Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 93 Korbel Spirits & Champagnes O the Grid 94 Patek Philippe Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 95 Raymond Weil Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 96 Audemars Piguet Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 97 Luxury Collection Hotels O the Grid 98 Jaeger-Lecoultre Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 99 Franck Muller Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 100 Woodord Reserve Spirits & Champagnes O the Grid 101 Conrad Hotels O the Grid 102 IWC Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 103 Gra Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 104 Vacheron ConstantinWatches & Jewelry O the Grid 105 Hublot Watches & Jewelry O the Grid FEMALES RANKING: ALL BRANDS Want to know more about your brand’s ranking? CONTACT US © L2 2010L 2 T H I N K TA N K . C O M 5 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking Rank Brand Category Class 36 Chanel Fashion Whatever 37 Dolce & Gabbana Fashion Whatever 38 Versace Fashion Whatever 39 Bulgari Watches & Jewelry Whatever 40 Coach Fashion Whatever 41 Moët & Chandon Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 42 Christian Dior Fashion Whatever 43 Patrón Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 44 Ketel One Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 44 Bombay Sapphire Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 46 Intercontinental Hotels Whatever 47 Mandarin Oriental Hotels Whatever 48 Park Hyatt Hotels Whatever 49 Marc Jacobs Fashion Whatever 50 Chivas Regal Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 51 Cadillac Auto Whatever 52 Hennessy Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 53 DeBeers Watches & Jewelry Whatever 54 Esteé Lauder Beauty & Skincare Whatever 54 Tanqueray Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 56 Maker's Mark Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 57 St. Regis Hotels Whatever 58 Belvedere Spirits & Champagnes Whatever 59 Fendi Fashion Tired 60 Movado Watches & Jewelry Tired 61 Lancôme Beauty & Skincare Tired 62 Patek Philippe Watches & Jewelry Tired 63 Clinique Beauty & Skincare Tired 64 Kate Spade Fashion Tired 65 Kiehl's Beauty & Skincare Tired 66 YSL Fashion Tired 67 Bulova Watches & Jewelry Tired 68 Michael Kors Fashion Tired 69 Valentino Fashion Tired 70 MAC Beauty & Skincare Tired Rank Brand Category Class 1 BMW Auto Epic 2 Ferrari Auto Epic 3 Porsche Auto Epic 4 Lamborghini Auto Epic 5 Audi Auto Epic 6 Aston Martin Auto Epic 7 Four Seasons Hotels Epic 8 Mercedes-Benz Auto Epic 9 Ralph Lauren Fashion Epic 10 Ritz-Carlton Hotels BFF 11 Bentley Auto BFF 12 Hugo Boss Fashion BFF 13 W Hotels Hotels BFF 14 Rolex Watches & Jewelry BFF 15 Land Rover Auto BFF 16 Lexus Auto BFF 17 Giorgio Armani Fashion BFF 18 TAG Heuer Watches & Jewelry BFF 19 Johnnie Walker Spirits & Champagnes BFF 20 Grey Goose Spirits & Champagnes BFF 21 Cartier Watches & Jewelry BFF 22 Dom Pérignon Spirits & Champagnes BFF 23 Lotus Auto BFF 23 Burberry Fashion BFF 25 Gucci Fashion BFF 26 Tiany Watches & Jewelry BFF 27 Waldor Astoria Hotels BFF 28 Jaguar Auto Whatever 29 Hermes Fashion Whatever 30 Omega Watches & Jewelry Whatever 31 Louis Vuitton Fashion Whatever 32 Infniti Auto Whatever 33 Acura Auto Whatever 34 Prada Fashion Whatever 35 Ferragamo Fashion Whatever Rank Brand Category Class 71 Veuve Clicquot Spirits & Champagnes Tired 72 Givenchy Fashion Tired 73 L'Occitane Beauty & Skincare Tired 74 Trump Hotels Tired 75 Korbel Spirits & Champagnes Tired 76 Harry Winston Watches & Jewelry Tired 77 David Yurman Watches & Jewelry Tired 78 Piaget Watches & Jewelry Tired 78 Raymond Weil Watches & Jewelry Tired 80 Woodord Reserve Spirits & Champagnes Tired 81 Bally Fashion Tired 82 Peninsula Hotels Tired 83 Fairmont Hotels Tired 84 Chopard Watches & Jewelry Tired 85 IWC Watches & Jewelry Tired 86 Van Clee & Arpels Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 87 Shiseido Beauty & Skincare O the Grid 88 H. Stern Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 89 Bottega Veneta Fashion O the Grid 90 Clarins Beauty & Skincare O the Grid 90 Baccarat Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 92 Audemars Piguet Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 93 Tory Burch Fashion O the Grid 94 Bobbi Brown Beauty & Skincare O the Grid 94 Luxury Collection Hotels O the Grid 96 Franck Muller Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 96 Hublot Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 98 Jaeger-Lecoultre Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 99 Conrad Hotels O the Grid 100 Vacheron ConstantinWatches & Jewelry O the Grid 101 Balenciaga Fashion O the Grid 102 Gra Watches & Jewelry O the Grid 103 Stila Beauty & Skincare O the Grid 104 NARS Beauty & Skincare O the Grid 105 Beneft Beauty & Skincare O the Grid MALES RANKING: ALL BRANDS Want to know more about your brand’s ranking? CONTACT US © L2 2010L 2 T H I N K TA N K . C O M 6 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking Gen Y Loves Brands 65% of women and 61% of men surveyed consider them- selves brand conscious. Only 1% the women and 3% of the men do not. Not surprising or a generation that has grown up in the age o branding and been the target o a barrage o marketing messages since birth. The Apple o My Eye Unprompted, Apple is considered the #1 brand among men and #9 for women. Apple is the #1 most likely next prestige brand purchase or both men and women. Drive Seven o the 10 highest rated brands or men were auto- mobiles—with BMW rated #1. Women rated Auto higher than Beauty & Skincare and second only to Fashion. BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and Audi appeal to men and women appear- ing on the top 10 lists or both genders. Despite their high rankings, Cadillac, Jaguar, and Land Rover also registered a signican number of dislikes from men. You’re Fired! Arguably, it’s better to be disliked than not known at all, and “hated” brands can take solace that strong brands evoke strong reactions. Iconic, logo-driven, brands such as Louis Vuitton and Burberry (for females), generated some of the most biurcated reactions and, despite appearing in the top 20, are also among the most disliked. Trump is the most disliked prestige brand in the survey. 40% of men and 34% of women report they “hate” the brand. The Trump aversion sug- gests that although supremely brand conscious, Gen Y is wary OBSERVATIONS Off the Grid Whatever Epic AUTOMOBILES BEAUTY & SKINCARE HOTELS SPIRITS & CHAMPAGNES WATCHES & JEWELRY FASHION Off the Grid Whatever Epic BEAUTY & SKINCARE SPIRITS & CHAMPAGNES FASHION HOTELS WATCHES & JEWELRY AUTOMOBILES AVERAGE SCORE PER CATEGORY: Females AVERAGE SCORE PER CATEGORY: Males Want to know more about your brand’s ranking? CONTACT US © L2 2010L 2 T H I N K TA N K . C O M 7 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking of ashy self-promotion. Poor perceived corporate citizenship and environmental disregard also elicited negative sentiment: DeBeers and SUV-dominant Land Rover and Cadillac were among the top-10 most hated. The Old Country In the Fashion category eight o the top 10 brands or women are headquartered in Europe, including legendary ashion houses Chanel, Prada, Hermes and Gucci. Placing second among women in the fashion ranking, Marc Jacobs is the only American brand in the top ve and the only rst-generation brand to score in the top 10. Out o Time: Watches & Jewelry Are Not On Gen Y’s Radar Watches & Jewelry are among the lowest rated categories for both men and women. There is a striking lack of brand awareness. Although legendary brands Cartier, Tiffany, and Rolex still rank high, there are seven prestige Watch & Jewelry brands that 50% of the respondents do not know. Will You Be My Friend? One in ve Gen Y respondents like a prestige brand on Face- book, and one in 10 follow a prestige brand on Twitter. Almost hal have signed up to receive email rom a prestige brand. The survey highlights that brands embracing social media are enjoying strong word-o-mouth within this cohort. E-commerce: The Train Is Leaving The store is still the dominant channel, but more than half of the women purchased luxury goods on discount sites, such OBSERVATIONS 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% LIKE ON FACEBOOK FOLLOW ON TWITTER SUBSCRIBE TO YOUTUBE RECEIVE EMAIL 19% 8% 1% 45% SOCIAL MEDIA & PRESTIGE BRANDS: % of Respondents Who Engage With Brand Social Media Platforms Want to know more about your brand’s ranking? CONTACT US © L2 2010L 2 T H I N K TA N K . C O M 8 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking as (54%), and retail sites, including (53%), yet less than one-third purchased directly from a brand site. Female adoption o these web portals signals a shit in luxury retail and is an indication of things to come. Without ro- bust direct-to-consumer e-commerce strategies, luxury brands risk leaving their brands, and the rich sales and marketing data, in the hands o third party retailers. Print Holding and Blogs Rising Print is not dead, and it continues to be a primary source or inormation on prestige brands. It is the #1 source or women and #2 or men. Word of mouth recommendations from family & friends are also crucial, ranking #1 or men and #2 or women. Although respondents do not seem to be directly engaging with brands via social media, almost one in ve Gen Y’s consider blogs one o their top three sources or inormation on prestige brands. The Pillars o Luxury Still Stand Traditional luxury signiers, quality, authenticity and image, were the most important attributes o a prestige brand or both men and women. Meanwhile, heritage and exclusivity, often linchpins of luxury marketing campaigns, take a back seat. Standing on these pillars, iconic brands like Chanel, Cartier, and Tiffany still resonate (particularly with women). OBSERVATIONS FLASH SITE SALE RETAILER SITE BRAND SITE OTHER ONLINE MOBILE 0% 20% 40% 100% 80% 60% IN-STORE 86% 54% 53% 27% 11% 1% AUTHENTICITY IMAGE CREATIVITY EXCLUSIVITY HERITAGE INNOVATION SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PERSONALIZATION COMMUNITY 0% 20% 40% 100% 80% 60% QUALITY 82% 46% 44% 41% 37% 20% 12% 8% 6% 4% WHERE DO YOU PURCHASE PRESTIGE BRANDS? % of Female Respondents WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO YOU IN A PRESTIGE BRAND? % of All Respondents Want to know more about your brand’s ranking? CONTACT US © L2 2010L 2 T H I N K TA N K . C O M 9 Gen Y Prestige Brand Ranking OBSERVATIONS TOP BRANDS UNPROMPTED: Females Gen Y Prestige Marketing Download this Document for Free Print Mobile Collections Report Document Info and Rating satishsrao Like " Be the first of your friends to like this." 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00:02:12,950 –> 00:02:16,810
their patients could read, from patients who
asked me if I could write a book that their doctors would read. [laughter] So, in this lecture, 'Why We Get Fat' is actually
based on the lecture. So, once you've seen this, you don't actually have to read the
book. Let me see if this works a little. That's better. This is just background. You know there's
an obesity epidemic in the works. I'm not gonna go over it because, as usual, I'm probably
gonna run a little long on this talk. The obesity epidemic goes along with the diabetes
epidemic. Diabetes diagnoses have tripled in the past 30 years in the United States. And let's see if this. [pause] Diabetes, obesity
are associated with a host of chronic diseases that are known as metabolic diseases, which
include fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, cancer, asthma, sleep
apnea, osteoarthritis, neural degeneration. Actually, Alzheimer's disease is a disease
that's now associated with what's called insulin resistance in obesity. And one of the subtexts of the talk I'm gonna
give today is that the conventional wisdom is that as we get fatter, that increases the
risk of all these diseases and the fundamental problem is us getting fatter. And I'm gonna suggest that the same foods,
the same thing that makes us fat, also causes these diseases. So, it's a fundamentally different
causality. So the question we want is why do we get fat?
Obvious question. And the officials answers are, "Obesity occurs when a person consumes
more calories from food than he or she burns." "Overweight is the result of a caloric imbalance
and is mediated by genetics and health." That's what the old Surgeon General and the NIH tells
us. So how many people in this room actually believe
this and think it's meaningful? That's not bad. You know, I gave this talk at Tufts a couple
weeks ago to the nutrition department. And the Tufts people have been behind every dietary
guidelines for the past 20 years. And I asked how many people believe this and nobody–literally,
nobody–raised their hand. And then I said, "Are you kidding? 'Cause if you don't, I can
leave." And then everybody raised their hand. And then after the talk, they said, "Well,
we don't really believe it." So here's a conventional wisdom: "Energy in
is greater than energy out." And that's why we get fat. We take in more energy than we
consume. We overeat and the excess calories go to our fat tissue. You hear about this
in a lot of different ways. In the medical literature, they'll refer to
"over nutrition". "Positive energy balance" is another way to phrase it. And often, virtually
every article you read on obesity, they'll say, "Obesity is a disorder of energy balance." And when they say that, what they mean is
we take in more calories than we consume and that's why we get fat. So here's the general image of what's going
on here. And what you wanna do when we talk about this, one of the key things you wanna
do in any science is explain the observations. So we have this observation of an obesity
epidemic and we want to explain it by our hypothesis, which is that we take in more
calories than we expend. And the way it's been done over the years
is that the idea is "increased prosperity." This is what Marion Nestle, a New York University
nutritionist, wrote in 'Science', "As we get richer, more food becomes available. We have
less reason to become physically active." That food's on every street corner. You don't
have to work to get it. And so we get fatter and fatter. Kelly Brownell,
a Yale University psychologist, used, coined the term "toxic environment," which is an
environment that promotes overeating and sedentary behavior. And so physical activity, and as
Kelly put it, he said, "Cheese curls and French fries,[audience chuckles] fast food joints
are as much a part of our environment as trees and clouds. Mothers keep their kids home from
school. We sit in front of computer screens all day long and video games and television." So a lot of reasons to eat too much, not enough
reason to burn it off. And the question we wanna know — here's the hypothesis: increased
prosperity leads to overeating–energy in is greater than energy out– and that leads
to obesity and the obesity epidemic. And what we wanna know is, is this true? 'Cause this
is a science and in science, this is a hypothesis. So you just ask a question. Is this true?
Does it explain the observations? When I'm lecturing to nutrition departments
and obesity research departments, I often wanna piss them off in the beginning. It's
part of my nature. And I'll say, "Let's pretend this is a science for a second [audience chuckles]
and see if this can actually explain the observations." There are a lot of observations out there,
but they're less than obvious. They're not — right now, we know we've got McDonalds
on every street corner. We know a lot of people watch television. And we know a lot of people
are getting heavier. So we put them all together, these associations,
and we say. "That's the cause". But we could find populations that didn't have all these,
this toxic environment as we define it, and we could look to see if the obesity existed
there. And one of the underlying contexts here, one
of my underlying hypothesis, and also of any science, the underlying principles is Occam's
Razor. So we should find the simplest possible hypothesis. So we're gonna work from the hypothesis of
whatever makes any population fat is what makes our population fat, until we have to
change it. So, here we have a photo. This young woman,
or middle-aged woman, was known as 'Fat Louisa'. This photo was taken in 1902. And Fat Louisa
was a Pima Indian. And the Pima live on the Gila River reservation. Now, it's the Gila
River reservation, south of Phoenix, Arizona. What's little-known about the Pima is today,
they are the poster children for obesity and diabetes in the United States cause they have,
conceivably, the highest risk of any population. In the 17th, 18th, 19th Century, they were
the most affluent Native American tribe. They were hunters and gatherers. They hunted in
the nearby mountains. They fished in the Gila River. They raised sheep–not sheep–cattle,
pigs. They had warehouses full of food available in the 1840s. When the first US Army Battalion moved to
the Pima territory on the San Jose Trail, they reported that the Pima had this incredible
amount of food available. And they were all lean and sprightly. And by 1849, gold was
discovered in California. And over the next 20 years, 20 to 60 thousand
49ers went west to the Pima territory and the US government asked the Pima to feed them,
which they did, and protect them from the hostile tribes farther West. And then by the
1870s, 1880s, Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans started moving into the Pima territory
and they overhunted the nearby mountains. They diverted the Gila River water to irrigate
their own fields, and the Pima went into what they called the Years of Famine, which lasted
for 20 or 30 years. And by 1902, when Frank Rosso, a Harvard anthropologist
came to live with the Pima and wrote the Seminole text on the Pima Indians, they were living
on a reservation. They were struggling as farmers to survive, and it was [pause] it
was Rosso who took the photo of Fat Louisa on the right. And he said many old people
in the tribe, unlike the classical image of the strong, buff Native American, many old
people in the tribe were actually obese and overweight. And this was an observation that was seconded
a few years later by Alex Hrdlicka, who was the physician-anthropologist who went on to
become the curator of the Smithsonian, Department of Physical Anthropology. So, the point about
the Pima was that they went from being affluent in the 1840s — that drawing was actually
made in 1851 — to poor in 1902. And they went through 30 years of famine in the middle.
And 30 years of famine, you could think of as 30 years of being on a diet. And they should
have been leaner, right? 'Cause our hypothesis says if poverty leading to prosperity causes
obesity, not prosperity leading to poverty. And yet, in the early 19th Century, we have
a high level of obesity observed by two separate anthropologists living with the tribe. If
this was the only example, we could probably toss it and assume something else was going
on. But there are a lot of examples of obesity in what we would call "non-toxic environments." And one of the things that sort of pissed
me off doing my research for 'Good Calories, Bad Calories', which took five years, is you
only had to go to look for them to find them. And yet, the obesity research community hadn't
bothered 'cause they had settled on their hypothesis. It's all about overeating. It's
all about taking in too many calories. It's all about fast food joints. And so they never
looked. If you go look, you'll find a lot of different populations. The Sioux on the
South Dakota Crow Creek Reservation, in 1928 — this was a study done by two University
of Chicago economists. And this, this population was so poor that
you could use it. You could put it in the dictionary next to the definition of "dirt
poor." They lived four to eight people per room. Something like 15 families with 32 children
on the reservation were living only on bread and coffee. There were no bathrooms. There's
no plumbing. They had to get water from the river. And yet, 40 percent of the women, 25
percent of the men, and 10 percent of the children were distinctly fat. And 20 percent
of the women, 25 percent of the men, and 25 percent of the children were distinctly thin.
And there were definite signs of malnutrition. The economists documented all kinds of deficiency
diseases among these Native Americans. And this combination of obesity and malnutrition,
or under nutrition, existing in the same population is an observation I'm gonna come back to shortly
— many times, in fact. OK, African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina in 1959. Thirty
percent of the women are obese and 18 percent of the men. Family incomes are nine to 53
dollars a week. That's less than 400 dollars a week in 2011 dollars. Zulus in Durban, South Africa in 1960. Forty
percent of the women are obese. Women in their 40s averaged 175 pounds. Today in the United
States, the average weight for adult women is around 165 pounds. Trinidad, early 60s,
Trinidad's having a malnutrition, a famine crisis. The US government sends a team of
nutritionists down to help out and they come back reporting that a third of women over
25 are obese. They report obesity as a "potentially serious medical problem in women." The per
capita data. The next year, an MIT nutritionist goes down
to Trinidad to figure out what's going on. She studies the diet of the obese women, compares
it to the diets of the lean women in Trinidad and concludes that the per capita daily diet
was less than 2000 calories a day, 21 percent fat. Fewer calories than were recommended
at the time by the Food and Agricultural Organization for a healthy diet. Bantu "pensioners" in South Africa in the
mid-60s. These are the poorest of a disenfranchised population. 30 percent of the women are severely
overweight and the mean weight of women over 60 is 165 pounds. Raratonga in the South Pacific.
Forty percent of the women are obese, 25 percent are greatly obese, grossly obese. That's in
1971. And then, factory workers in Chile in 1974.
Thirty percent are obese. Nearly 50 percent of the women over 54 are obese. Ten percent
suffer undernourishment. OK, so here's that combination again of obesity and malnutrition
in the same population and most are engaged in heavy labor. So, these are factory workers. They probably
don't belong to a gym. They probably don't have gyms in their factory in Chile in the
70s. They're not working out regularly. They're not training for marathons. They're probably
not doing triathlons. But they're engaged in heavy labor, heavy,
manual, physical labor. So we can assume on a day-to-day basis they are more physically
active than we are. And yet, 30 percent are obese and nearly 50 percent–half of them–over
54. And here's the last study I'll show you. This
is Mexican Americans in Starr County, Texas in 1981. Fifty percent of the women in their
50s are obese, 40 percent of the men in their 40s. And the living conditions, most inhabitants
are employed in agricultural labor and who work in the oil fields. So again, very physically
active population, but high levels of obesity. And there was one restaurant in Starr County,
Texas in 1981. Starr County is on the border of Mexico, about 200 miles due South of San
Antonio. And that was a Mexican restaurant. So again, this definition, there's no increased
prosperity for many of these populations. There's no prosperity at all. There's no toxic
environment as we would define it today. But something's making them fat and we wanna know
what. Why were these populations fat? So if we can figure out why these populations were
fat, we can probably figure out why our populations are getting fat. So here's how this question was phrased in
1973. Ralph Richards was a university – he was a British-trained diabetes specialist
who went to Jamaica in the early 1960s, founded a diabetes clinic at the University of the
West Indies, and in the early 70s reported that a third of the women over 25 were obese
and that obesity reached what he called "monstrous proportions" in this age group. And he said,
"It's difficult to explain the high frequency of obesity seen in a relatively impecunious
society such as exists in the West Indies, when compared to the standard of living enjoyed
in the more developed countries." He's asking the same question I'm asking and
we all should be asking. If poor people are so fat, our theory says it’s the rich ones
who should be fat. "Malnutrition and sub nutrition are common disorders in the first two years
of life in these areas and account for almost 25 percent of all admissions to pediatric
wards in Jamaica." So, by "sub nutrition", he means not enough food. "Sub nutrition continues
in early childhood to the early teens." So the children are stunted and show signs
of emaciation and then "obesity begins to manifest itself in the female population and
reaches enormous proportions from 30 onwards." So here's that question asked again. Exactly
the same observation, exactly the same question 30 years later, this time by Benjamin Caballero
of Johns Hopkins. And now, within this paradigm of calories
in, calories out, of overeating. When, when Richards asked in 1973, he had an open mind.
He didn't know what the answer was. But now Benjamin Caballero thinks he knows the answer,
which is the answer we all think we know. And he says, a few years ago, this was in
the New England Journal of Medicine in 2005, an article called 'Obesity and Malnutrition:
A Nutrition Paradox'. He says, "A few years ago, I was visiting
a primary care clinic in the slums of S√£o Paulo, Brazil. The waiting room was full of
mothers with thin, stunted young children, exhibiting the typical signs of chronic under
nutrition. Their appearance, sadly, would surprise few who visit poor urban areas in
the developing world. What might come as a surprise is that many of the mothers holding
those under-nourished infants were themselves overweight." And then he says, "The coexistence of underweight
and overweight poses a challenge to public health programs, since the aims of programs
to reduce under nutrition" –which is get people to eat more, make more food available‚Äî"are
obviously in conflict with those for obesity prevention" –which is make less food available.
So we have a problem. And I put this "poses a challenge to public
health programs" in italics because the coexistence of underweight and overweight poses a challenge
to your paradigm, your belief system. If you believe that the mothers got fat because they
took in more calories than they expended, they took in superfluous calories that they
didn't need, and the children aren't getting enough food, then you believe that the mothers
are willing to starve their children to death so that they can sneak outside and eat a Snickers
bar, in effect. And I don't know how many, this is a young
audience, how many mothers are there in this audience? OK. How many of you would do that? [laughter] Let your children starve so you can get fat,
as opposed to, perhaps, the other way around, right? So you've got two paradigms colliding.
We've got our paradigm maternal behavior that says population, species don't survive unless
the mothers make sacrifices for their children. And we have the paradigm of obesity that says
these mothers are just happily guzzling excess calories while they're watching their kids
starve to death. And this is an anomalous observation. I used
to, started my career writing about high-energy physics, and high-energy physics, they just
built the Large Hadron Collidor at CERN that costs I forget how many billions of dollars,
all designed to just create an observation that their theory can't explain so they can
proceed onward. Here, we've had this observation going back
probably to 1928 at least, and nobody cares. And my point is you have to throw out one
of the two paradigms. And I'm gonna throw out the obesity paradigm 'cause my mother–
may she rest in peace– would have killed me if I threw out the maternal behavior paradigm. Let's look at some other inconvenient observations,
Okay? "Eating less doesn't work." Our hypothesis
is that if we eat more, if we take in more calories than we expend, we will gain weight.
So the idea is if we take in less calories than you expend, you'll lose weight. All you
have to do is create what's called "negative energy balance." So you go on a semi-restricted
calorie diet and there are a lot of meta-analysis over the years, systematic reviews, showing
how poorly these work. The Cochrane Collaboration a few years ago
when they looked at this. The Cochrane Collaboration is a collaboration created just to do unbiased
reviews of the data. Their assumption being every other review of the data is biased.
So we have to create the methodology that doesn't allow bias to enter into it. And with
this, they put it back in–I think it was 2002, I can't see my notes, unfortunately,
because we're not in notes mode, here–the weight loss achieved, that was 2002. It's
so small as to be clinically insignificant. And what you see in the literature is fascinating
'cause people, they try to deal with this when they write about obesity; the fact that
eating less doesn’t work. But they believe that a calorie-restricted diet is crucial. So you'll see these chapters in obesity textbooks,
like the 'Task Force of Obesity', Task Force textbook, where the researchers will write
that restricting calories is the fundamental approach, the — I forget the word they use
because I don't have my notes– to curing obesity, yet it rarely, if ever, works. Exercising more also doesn't work. One of
the problems here, I could also show you meta-analyses that talk about how clinically insignificant
this effect is. But there's, the best evidence I found so far for this is the American Heart
Association and the American College of Sports Medicine in 2007, put out their physical activity
guidelines. And the physical activity guidelines–these are people, two organizations, that want us
to engage in healthy lifestyles, that believe that physical activity should make a difference. And you would expect them to spin the data
in favor of physical activity for exercise, for weight loss–and the way they put it is
this. They said, "It is reasonable to assume that persons with relatively high daily energy
expenditures would be less likely to gain weight over time, compared to those who have
low energy expenditures." That's logically equivalent to saying, "It's
reasonable to assume that if you're a couch potato and you increase your energy expenditure,
you will be less likely to gain weight than if you remain a couch potato." And then they say, "So far, data to support
this hypothesis are not particularly compelling." And the point of this is this hypothesis is
in the neighborhood of 100 to 150 years old. There, you could find obesity texts in the
1860s in which somebody like William Banting talks about his doctor telling him to go for
a row every morning to burn off calories. He also talks about how it didn't help. You
could find in, by the 1890s, when the laws of thermodynamics [clears throat] had been
shown to hold with animate objects as well as inanimate objects, with living beings as
well as inanimate objects, researchers said, "Hey, maybe if we just get people to expend
more energy, they'll gain weight. I mean they'll lose weight and over the course of a hundred
years, 150 years, this is the best we could say about it. "The data to support this hypothesis
are not particularly compelling." And that's a bad sign. When I was writing
about high-energy physics, it was an unwritten rule of high-energy physics by Pief Panofsky,
who's a founder of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center here. And Pief said, "If you throw
money at an effect and it doesn't get bigger, it means it's not really there." Okay? And the corollary here is if you've been studying
an effect, for a century and the best you could say about it is "the data to support
this hypothesis are not particularly compelling", there's a very good chance that your hypothesis
is wrong; that increasing energy expenditure and physical activity will have no effect
on how much you weigh, or how much weight you've gained. And one way to think about this and to this
I owe a British blogger. Imagine that I'm having, I'm hosting a dinner party tonight
and I've got the ten last finalists from Top Chef cooking. And they're making this amazing
feast and I send you all invitations and I say, "I've got this feast. It's gonna be a
ton of the best tasting food you've ever eaten in your life. Come hungry." What would you
do to make sure you came hungry? And here I'll take questions. Anyone wanna answer?
What would you do during the day? >>Male Audience Member #1: Skip snacks. >>Gary Taubes: Skip snacks, eat less. >>Female Audience Member #1: I would take
a long walk. >>Gary Taubes: And take a long walk. Exercise
more. You'd work out. So the exact same things that we prescribe
overweight people to lose weight are the two things that you're going to do if you wanna
guarantee that you get hungry and eat more. And we're gonna explain that in a while. But you can see already that there's something
wrong here. Here's another problem with our energy balance idea. Practicing energy balance
is impossible. This is a new phrase you hear. The past two or three years, the idea there
are now industry programs developed in collaboration with the government to help you practice energy
balance, to make sure you match calories in to calories out so you don't gain weight. And the industry loves the idea. The food
industry loves the idea of obesity being all about calories, because you can't demonize
anything. It's all about just it's your fault if you're overweight. You just have to eat
less and exercise more and if you wanna build a gym in your neighborhood, or a track or
a park, go to Coke or Pepsi and ask them for money. They'll give it to you 'cause they
would like you to exercise more so that way, they can't be blamed for your obesity epidemic. So, let's see what it takes actually to practice
energy balance. A typical American's food intake is about 2700 calories a day. Okay?
That's men and women. So that's a million calories a year. Ten million calories in a
decade, Okay? It's about ten to twelve tons of food per decade. Now, all you'd have to do is ask the question.
Let's say, right now, I'm a 25 year old and I'm lean and I wanna ask the question, "How
well do I have to maintain energy balance? How well do I have to practice energy balance
so that I don't gain 20 pounds in a decade, 40 pounds in 20 years, so by the time I'm
in my mid-40s I'm obese?" What is that entail, because that's what the government is trying
to get us to do. And the answer is you have to maintain your
energy balance to 20 calories per day. If over 20 — this is actually a trick answer,
because if 20 calories per day goes into your fat tissue that you don't burn, you will gain
40 pounds in 20 years. Here's the calculation. It's pretty simple. Very simple. Even I could do this and I don't work at Google.
Twenty calories times 365 days a year times ten years, divided by 35 hundred, which is
the number of calories, roughly, in a pound of fat. And you end up with 21 pounds in a
decade. Okay? So if you go over that, if you can match your energy in to your energy out,
to 20 calories a day and not exceed that on average, you'll only gain 40 pounds. If you
only want to gain 20 pounds, it's ten calories. If you don't want to gain any weight, of course,
the idea is you have to do it perfectly. Twenty calories a day is .8 percent accuracy.
Nobody can do that. Nobody, even I will bet my life's income–it's not that big–that
the world champion calorie counter in the world, Guinness — if there is such an entry
in Guinness, cannot gauge within 20 calories how much food they were eating per day and
then you have no idea how much you're expending. You're just guessing, even when you go in
to do research sessions. They just do calculations. So the point here is I got this calculation
from a 1937 Nutrition and Metabolism textbook, written by a fellow named Eugene Dubois, who's
a leading expert on metabolism in the United States, pre-World War II. [pause] And Dubois
uses calculations. He said what's interesting about it is since nobody can do that, how
do we maintain our weight? The question isn't why are some of us fat? The question should
be why aren't all of us fat? Okay? Because if you overshoot by even 20 calories
a day on average, you're gonna end up getting obese. And you could say, "Okay. Maybe one
way to do it is I just watch my weight. I look in the mirror. I see I'm getting fatter.
My belt's getting snug, or my pants, or my skirt doesn't fit. So therefore, I'm gonna
eat less for a while until I get my weight back." So you oscillate around perfect energy balance,
but then you have to ask the question, how do animals do it? Because they don't. They're
not looking in the mirror. They don't have clothes they're putting on. So how do they
maintain their weight and virtually all animals do? They don't get chronically obese. So the
idea that Dubois says it's obviously something else is going on here, other than consciously
matching calories in to calories out, which none of us can do. So let's look at some other inconvenient observations. Genetics is one of them. I gotta apologize
now. If you go to an obesity textbook today, you will not see photos of naked human beings.
But if you go to an obesity textbook pre- World War II, you would. Because those researchers,
those clinicians, thought you could learn a lot about watching how people fatten, as
well as just whether they do or not. And one of the things I'm doing now is just
channeling these pre-World War II researchers. And in fact, all I'm saying in my books is
I'm taking the theory that German and Austrian researchers developed pre-World War II, back
when the Germans and Austrians did the best medical research in the world and there was
virtually no meaningful medical research being done in the United States. And I'm taking that theory and I'm updating
it. Okay? Because they didn't survive the war. That community didn't survive the war.
So, for starters, here's genetics. And there's a pair — and this comes from a 1940 textbook.
Here's a pair of lean identical twins. Here's a pair of obese identical twins. Our overeating
hypothesis might explain why these women are fatter than these women. These took in too
many calories and these practiced perfect energy balance. But what about this combination? Why do they
have the same body type? And why do they have the same body type? It's been known since
the 1930s that obesity has a strong genetic component. Identical twins – it's not that
their faces look alike. Their body types are the same, too. So what's going on here? What do these genes determine? Do they determine
exactly how much these women, how many forkfuls of food these women overate over 20, 30, 40
years? And exactly how long they sat on a couch versus going for a walk? Or, did they determine something else about
how much and where they accumulated fat 'cause they have the identical body? Here's a different variation of an animal
husbandry and it's even easier to see here what I'm talking about. Farmers, livestock
breeders, have been breeding more or less fatty cows, pigs, sheep, for centuries, probably.
And here's a particularly fat breed of beef cattle. This is an Aberdeen Angus. Here's
the meat. I should say it's stocky, but you can see all the subcutaneous fat, the intramuscular
fat, here. And here's a lean species, a lean breed of cattle, the Jersey Cow. And you can
see the ribs showing, you can see the swollen udder. It's definitely a dairy cow. And you can ask yourself simply, there are
different breeds. Obviously, different genes are determining how much they get fat. What
exactly is going on here? What are these genes determining? Do they determine how much these
animals eat and exercise? Do they determine how many calories per graze, or per bite of
grass, this cow takes? The Aberdeen Angus grazes for 12 hours. The Jersey only grazes
for ten a day. Does the Jersey want to go to work out? So, on the Far Side cartoon when
it gets dark at night, the Jersey goes for a jog. The Aberdeen Angus goes in and watches
television. And it's obviously absurd, Okay? Whatever determines how much these animals
get fat, we can be confident that how much they eat and exercise has nothing to do with
it. More likely, and again, this is a beef cow. So what you want is it's an effectively,
brutally speaking and I apologize for the vegetarians here, to the vegetarians here.
It's a machine that takes in fuel here and deposits it here and you want it all to go
here. So you could assume that it just partitions
the calories it eats into fat and protein. And the Jersey Cow, you want to create milk.
So you take in the fuel and it's all gonna go to the udders to produce milk. And you
don't want it wasting energy, in effect, bulking up. So maybe what these genes determine is
not how many calories we take in, but how we partition the fuel we take in. That's a technical term. Sexual variations.
Men and women fatten differently, Okay? Men fatten above the waist. Women fatten below
the waist. Both these people would have had to overeat, take in more calories than they
expend to get fat. This has doubled his risk of heart disease. This has not doubled her
risk. If the weight's below the waist, it doesn't double your risk. What do the calories
have to do with it? Okay? And what do the calories have to do
with where they get fat, because obviously, that's a huge component of it. And another
way to look at it is puberty. Men and women, when they go through puberty, boys, they begin
puberty with roughly the same amount of body fat. When boys go through puberty, they lose
fat and gain muscle. When girls go through puberty, they gain fat and breasts and hips
and buttocks. And by the time they're out of puberty, the
girls have about 50 percent more fat on their bodies than the men. Both boys and girls got
bigger. So they both overate. They both took in more calories than they expend, but the
boys lost fat and gained muscle. The girls gained fat in specific places. So you just ask the question, what do the
calories have to do with it? What did the fact of their overeating have to do with whether
or not they gained muscle or fat? And this is obviously controlled by sex and growth
hormones and that's an issue we'll get to. Now, lipidystrophies. This is again, from
the same 1940 textbook, which took it from a 1933 German text book. This is a lipidystrophy
called a progressive lipidystrophy. In the 1950s, there were about 200 of these on record.
Most of them were in women. It's called progressive 'cause these cases, they begin losing all
subcutaneous fat in the face, in their forehead, and it moves downward with time. One British physician reported that his patient
lost fat at about one inch a year. That's why it's progressive. And then it usually
stops above the hips. And then they often get this lower body, localized obesity below
the waist. So the way these Europeans asked it, they said, "Are we gonna blame the top
half on under eating and bottom half on overeating?" [laughter] Right? And this is again, obviously absurd.
It's like a Gedanken Experiment. But if this woman had ten pounds more fat on her upper
body, maybe even five pounds, just to smooth out her curves, her BMI was about 32 already
just cause of her lower body obesity. And she went into the doctor then. The doctor
wouldn't recognize the lipidystrophy. And he would just say, "Look, eat less and exercise
more." And the point that the Europeans are making
is if you can't explain the localized conditions by under eating and overeating, why would
you even think to explain the generalized obesity by overeating? Or, in those cases,
often these textbooks, pre-World War II were titled 'Obesity and Leanness' because they
were looking at cases that today we would call anorexia and assuming that that also
wasn't an under eating problem. It was some problem of how the fat tissue was regulated. So why do we believe this? And let's look
at a little physics here, Okay? And this is the reason. [pause] We believe it 'cause of the first law of thermodynamics.
Every time somebody like me makes this point for the past 50, 60 years, you get accused
of not believing that thermodynamics holds for human beings. I had one of the high points of my life. I
was on the Larry King Show after 'Good Calories, Bad Calories' came out. And they had Jillian
Michaels, the trainer from 'The Biggest Loser', come on. And she gave me a lecture on the
laws of thermodynamics on national television. And I have a physics degree from Harvard. [laughter] I mean, I was a, I was a lousy student, but
it was definitely, I literally, I'm sitting next to. I just, I didn't respond. If you
watch the show, it's on, you can Google it. I didn't know what to say. I mean, how do
I respond to this? So lemme give you a little, thermodynamics
is pretty simple. The first law of thermodynamics — it's the law of energy conservation. It
says a change in energy in a system–this is the simplest possible way to put it– is
equal to the energy in minus energy out. All it's saying is you can't create energy from
thin air. So, if a system gets bigger, delta E goes
up. And it's gotta take in more energy than it expends. And if a system gets smaller,
it's got to expend more energy than it takes in. For our sake, we'll make delta E the fat
mass E in is energy consumed, E out energy expended. So change in fat mass equals energy
consumed minus energy expended. And the problem, the fundamental problem,
and it's almost unbelievable to me, is that there's no arrow of causality here. And by
that I mean it doesn't say in any way if energy, energy consumed greater than energy expended
causes change of fat mass. It just says this is the way the universe is. If a system gets bigger, it takes in more
energy than it expends. And if a system gets smaller, it takes in less. It says nothing
about what causes it. And to understand that, a metaphor I could use. Like, let's assume
I was asking the question why is this room crowded right now? Okay? And it's as similar when we're talking about
fat mass. We wanna know, why is there so much energy accumulated in the fat mass? And I
wanna ask the question, why is there so much energy accumulated in this room in the form
of people? So you ask me, "Gary, why is it crowded?" And I say, "Well, because more people
entered than left." [pause] Right? Have I told you anything meaningful
at all about why this? [laughter] I mean, of course more people entered than
left. But why is it crowded? And then I say, "Well, look. If more people enter than leave,
it's gotta get crowded, right?" And I still haven't told you anything meaningful. This is what magicians would call–I forget
the word–vacuous? It's the equivalent as saying, why did you get fat? Because you took
in more energy than you expended. Well, of course I took in more energy than I expended.
I got fat. But why did I get fat? And then you just turn around and say, "Well, if you
take in more energy than you expend," there's no arrow of causality. There's nothing meaningful
here. This is a mistake that was made occasionally
prior to the Second World War. It became ubiquitous after the Second World War. Whenever we tell
someone, "You got fat 'cause you overate," you are misinterpreting the laws of thermodynamics
on an eighth grade mathematics level. And the more I talk about it, the more it's
almost unbelievable that this ever happened. And yet, it did. And so there's another way
you could play with this thermodynamics. And for this I owe University of Washington grad
student named Sonya Trejo, who said, "What happens if you start transposing elements?" So how about this. Instead of, we had delta
E over here and E out over here. How about if we say energy out is equal to energy in
minus delta E? And so now, the energy expended is equal to energy consumed minus change in
fat mass, Okay? So if fat mass gets bigger — for we don't
know why, we're working on that — and the person doesn't eat anymore, then energy expenditure
has to go down. Okay? So you look at it this way and an increase in fat mass causes sedentary
behavior. If fat mass gets smaller, energy expended has to go up. So if somebody's losing weight, they have
to get more physically active. Or how about this one? We just do a little more transposing
and we end up with energy in equals delta E plus energy out. So the energy we eat is
equal to change in fat mass plus energy expended. Let's assume change in fat mass is fixed by
biology. And if you read the New York Times today there was an article about that. And
energy expenditure goes up 'cause I just told you to work out. What's gonna happen to energy
consumed? It has to go up. You're gonna get hungry. You will work up an appetite. This used to be something that everyone believed
in the 1960s and beyond. There used to be this term, "working up an appetite." So it
used to be, if you worked out, you worked up an appetite. Now if you work out, you're
supposed to lose weight and energy consumed is supposed to stay fixed. But there's no
guarantee this'll happen. So here's the alternative hypothesis. This
is the way that the pre-World War II Europeans thought about it. They said, started from
first principles, obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation. So today, you read obesity is a positive energy
balance, or obesity is an energy balance problem and those are assumptions. They just started
at the beginning. Having too much fat is a disorder of having too much fat. So it's not
energy balance. It's not overeating. It's not sedentary behavior. And if you ask it
this way, the next question you're likely to ask, which we'll get to, is what regulates
fat accumulation? Because what we know is there's too much fat. Like, if I was standing in here with Yao Ming,
whose seven feet six inches tall, and we wanted to know why he grew to be seven foot six,
we wouldn't care that he was in positive energy balance. We would want to know what regulates
growth, right. So we wanna know what regulates growth. So, by this hypothesis, overeating
and inactivity are compensatory effects. They're not causes. And the way it was put to me by several different
individuals doing animal research, so we don't get fat because we overeat. We overeat because
our fat tissue is accumulating excess fat. Overeating is a given. If you're getting fatter,
you have to take in more calories than you consume. But we're saying the positive energy
balance is in effect. Here's a way to see it. This comes from the,
again, straight out of the pre World War II text. Although the child is mine, I use these
photos 'cause he's so cute. He was. Here he was one year old, 20 pounds. Okay? 2006. Here
he is 2009, 45 pounds. He's gained 25 pounds in three years, right? He's been in positive
energy balance. He has overeaten. [laughter] He's taken in more calories than expended.
But he did not take in, he did not grow because he overate. He overate because he was growing.
He grew cause he was secreting growth hormone. And the growth hormone sparked his tissues
to grow muscle, organs, fat, bone. And he had to take in more calories than he expended
to fuel that growth. And if he wasn't growing fast enough, we might have even given him
more growth hormone to speed his growth, at which point that would have created even more
positive energy balance. Here's a gruesome analogy: cancer. Here's
a tumor. You can barely see it. Then it's growing at Day 10. It's growing at Day 20.
It's bigger and bigger. This tumor is in positive energy balance; nobody cares. We care if we
want to starve it to death, but that's a given. Like, just if we don't want this room to get
crowded, we'll shut the doors before anyone comes in. But what we care about is what genes,
what hormones are disruptive that drive the growth because the positive energy balance
is in effect. And in every other example in nature, positive
energy balance is always an effect of growth, not the other way around. So, this was a German-Austrian hypothesis
prior to World War II. It was known as the lipophilia hypothesis. I'll explain that in
a second. The primary proponents where Gustav von Bergmann, who was a German specialist
in internal medicine. Today the highest award in the German Association of Internal Medicine
is the Gustav von Bergmann Award. And then Julius Bauer, who was a geneticist
and endocrinologist at the University of Vienna, Bauer was very famous in Austria. If you have
any molecular biology or genetics friends in Austria, email them and say, "Have you
ever heard of Julius Bauer?" And they'll probably say, "Oh, yeah. Absolutely." And the theory was more or less fully accepted
in Europe by 1940. This comes from the 1940 textbook. And the problem was 1940 was a bad
year for Europe. So, the German and Austrian medical research communities evaporate. Unlike
in physics, where we, we embraced all the European physicists who got chased out of
Europe because we had atomic bombs to build and hydrogen bombs and a Cold War to fight.
In medicine and public health, we didn't. So Julius Bauer ended up working in Hollywood,
California for the Hospital of Medical Evangelists and publishing articles that just said, "Julius
Bauer, Hollywood, California," and nobody took his work seriously, although his son
became Dean of the USC Medical School. So here's lipophilia in a nutshell. The idea
is lipophilia means 'love of fat'. Okay. The way these people saw it, is that some tissues
are more or less predisposed to accumulate fat, in the same way that, you can think of
it, we grow hair in some places and not in others. And we get fat in some place and not in others.
So we don't tend to get fat on our foreheads or the back of our hands, but we put in fat
on our guts, under our chins. And so they said maybe fat is just like hair. And so,
some people are hairier than others, just like some people are fatter than others. When men start losing their hair, we don't
accuse them of under eating because they're losing weight. We know that there's a lot
of different issues involved. So Bauer put it like this. He said, "Like
a malignant tumor or like the fetus, the uterus or the breasts of a pregnant woman, the abnormal
lipophilic tissue seizes on foodstuffs, even in the case of under nutrition. It maintains
its stock, and may increase it independent of the requirements of the organism. A sort
of anarchy exists; the adipose tissue lives for itself and does not fit into the precisely
regulated management of the whole organism." And this phrase, "even in the case of under
nutrition," begins to tell us why these women could get obese in a population where their
children are starving because it didn't matter how little food there was. If there was something
driving their accumulation of fat, they were gonna get fat anyway. So when you look at animal models of obesity,
which you can, what you'll find–what I found–was they all fall into two categories. Either,
well, let me just explain. If you have an animal model of obesity, how do you want to
test what's driving it, like a genetic model, a surgical model. You could lesion the ventromedial
hypothalamus for rat and it'll get obese and eat voraciously. So you'll see voracious eating
and obesity. And you wanna know which causes which. Did this regulation of fat tissue cause what's
called hyperphasia? Or did the hyperphasia cause the accumulation of fat? So what you
do, is you just do the experiment and then you put the animals on a diet and see whether
they get fat anyway. Okay? And what you'll find for every animal model
of obesity is they will get obese anyway, even if you put them on a diet. You can, in
some cases, starve them. There's a genetic strain of mice that M.R.C.
Greenwood studied in the early 1980s, when she put these animals on a diet from the moment
they were weaned and they became more obese. They became fatter than their lean control
than their genetic controls, even though they were on a diet their whole life. They actually
weighed less. Their organs were smaller. Their muscle tissue was smaller and they had more
fat. And in effect, their drive to accumulate fat was, in order to do that they cannibalized
their organs and their brain. And Jean Meyer, a Tufts nutritionist who played
a large role in this, usually to the detriment of society. The way he put it, he studied
a genetic strain of mice. He said, "These mice will make fat out of their food under
the most unlikely circumstances, even when half-starved." Okay? So it's not that these
mice got fat because they ate too much. They got fat if you let them eat anything basically. And we're gonna propose, again, that the same
thing's happening in humans. So here's some obvious questions. Why vertical growth but
not horizontal? When we look at children, we know that overeating
is the effect. Growth is the cause. Why animals but not man? An animal's model of obesity,
when you break the gene, you intervene surgically. There are even dietary models. What you're
doing is disregulating the fat tissue. You're not making the animals eat too much. And then the question, if obesity is sort
of excess fat accumulation, what regulates fat accumulation? So here's a regulation of
fat. Adiposity 101. If you learn this, you'll know more than your doctors do. [pause] By
the way, what gets me is that again, it's 2011. I lecture in medical schools. I lecture
to obesity research centers. And I'm telling them, it's like I'm telling
them something new. I mean, they don't learn this in medical school but they forgot it.
But when it comes to the relevance of obesity, or why we get fat, the idea that your fat
tissue is regulated and has anything to say about this, it's considered radical and quackish.
Okay? And the point I'm making is any other growth
problem, like I said, from cancer to height to anything, all you're gonna care about is
what hormones, what enzymes, are driving growth. So let's care about it here, too. And what
you learn is fat is stored as triglycerides in your fat tissue. Here's a triglyceride.
Its three fatty acids bound together by a glycerol molecule. Fatty acids are burned
for fuel and the fat enters and exits the cell as these fatty acids. And the reason
that is, is because the triglycerides themselves are too big to fit in and out of the cell
to get through the cell membrane of the fat tissue. So, the fatty acids enter the fat tissue.
And then they're bound together inside the fat tissue into a triglyceride and as a triglyceride,
it's fixed in the fat tissue. It's that simple. It's too big to get it out. And if you wanna get it out, you have to break
it down into its component parts again. So the fatty acids can get out. So, it's a very
simple mechanism for storing fat. Here it is in a, in a diagram. Here's fatty acids
outside the cell. They pass through the fat cell membrane. Inside the cell, there's this
triglyceride fatty acid cycle. So the fatty acids are bound to an activated glycerol molecule
and you'll have a triglyceride. And as a triglyceride, they're fixed in the fat cell. And then they
break down. There's a hormone, several hormones; a primary
one called hormone sensitive lipase, which breaks down the triglycerides into the fatty
acids and then they can escape again. So, here's where we care about energy in minus
energy out. You will get fatter if more fat enters your fat tissue than leaves. And you
will get leaner if more fatty acids leave your fat tissue than enter it. And what we
wanna know is what determines this balance of fatty acids going in versus fatty acids
going out. It's that simple. So here it is, circa 2010. I could've used
the same diagram from the mid-1960s, 'cause this was figured out by the mid-1960s. Unfortunately
the Germans and Austrians weren't around by then. We required two technologies to do it;
a way to measure fatty acids in the bloodstream, a way to measure hormones accurately. By 1960,
it was done. And by 1961, it was clear that insulin, the
hormone insulin, is a principle regulator of fat metabolism. This is Rosalyn Yalow and
Solomon Berson who invented the radioimmunoassay for measuring hormones. Yalow won the Nobel
Prize for it. Berson had died by then. And you could see when it comes to white fat
tissue, here's fat storage. Here's fat mobilization. TAG is triglycerides. And so you just ask,
you know the little pluses show that it up regulates it. And the only hormone this particular author
is interested in in metabolic regulation is insulin. It up regulates here. It up regulates
there. It up regulates here, it up regulates here. It down, it suppresses fat mobilization
and then there's some role from other hormones in increasing fat mobilization. But it's basically
insulin that puts fat in the fat tissue and it's insulin that suppresses fat mobilization. Here, it's putting fat in. Here, it's putting
fat in. Here, it's suppressing it. And release of fatty acids, as Yalow and Berson said,
from fat cells requires only the negative stimulus of insulin deficiency. So, if you
wanna get insulin, if you wanna get fat out of your fat tissue, you have to lower your
insulin levels. That's the fundamental thing that the adiposity
101 tells you. So, and what's funny is we've known for like, 50 years that insulin is a
fat-producing hormone. This is Best and Best of the Banting and Best who discovered insulin.
The fact that insulin increases the formation of fat has been obvious ever since the first
emaciated daughter diabetic patient demonstrated a fine pad of fat tissue, made as a result
of treatment with the hormone. This is insulin and fat stored. This is a 2001 textbook, Endocrinology 101,
and here's a young woman who basically, she was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when she
was something like 17 years old. And for the next 47 years, she injected herself with her
insulin in two spots on her thighs. And she ended up with these huge fat masses. In this
picture in the textbook, the caption is "the overall action of insulin on the adipocyte,
the fat cell, was to stimulate fat storage and inhibit mobilization. That's the remarkable effects of locally injected
insulin on the accumulation of fat into fat cells are graphically illustrated here." That's
what happens when you raise insulin levels. So here's the bottom line. When insulin is
secreted or chronically elevated, fat accumulates in the fat tissue. When insulin levels drop,
fat escapes from the fat tissue and the fat depots shrink. And we secrete insulin primarily
in response to the carbohydrates in our diet. This is how George Cahill, he was a Harvard
diabetes specialist, who co-authored in 1965, a 500 page handbook of adipose tissue, metabolism;
co-edited. It was put out by the American Physiological Society. They wanted to take
this science of fat metabolism and make it available to the people who didn't read biochemistry
and physiology textbooks. And as Cahill put it to me, "Carbohydrate
is driving insulin is driving fat." That is basically the message in that textbook. And
the interesting thing is you can take out "is driving insulin" and get "carbohydrate
is driving fat." It's logically equivalent. So, and when I give this lecture at medical
schools, it's really funny 'cause I could watch the audience and I see, "Oh, wait a
minute. Geez, He used that word 'carbohydrate'. That means this is that Atkins crap." And
the doctors immediately shut down. They've been with me up until then, up until now.
And then they start thinking "Fad Diet Alert!" Not all carbohydrates are equally fattening.
If you care about the underlying science, the key words, you have the high glycemic
index carbs are fattening, the easily digestible carbs, the base of the food guide pyramid,
bread, cereal, rice, and pasta. We break those carbs down easily. They get glucose into the
bloodstream. You get insulin spikes from them. And then, sugar. Sugar is a unique case. Sucrose,
high fructose corn syrup. It's half glucose, half fructose, for all intents and purposes.
We metabolize the fructose in our livers. And it's quite likely that sugars, as I wrote
in the New York Times magazine article a few weeks ago, are the fundamental cause of this
condition insulin resistance, which then makes all carbohydrates bad. So the question is should this be surprising?
This idea that carbohydrates are inherently fattening. And the answer is, well, it wasn't
up until 1960. In the 1820s, when a Frenchman named Anthelme Brillat-Savarin wrote what
was then, has been for many years, the single most famous book ever written about food,
'The Physiology of Taste'. Brillat-Savarin basically said after 500 conversations with
stout, exceedingly stout people, it was fairly clear that the cause of obesity was a genetic
predisposition to fatten. Plus, starches, what he called farinaceous foods, and sugar
made everything worse. And for the next 140 years, the conventional wisdom in this country
and elsewhere was that carbohydrates make you fat. This was the first line of a British
Journal of Nutrition article in 1963, written by the two, one of two most prominent British
dieticians, "Every woman knows that carbohydrates are fattening, this is a piece of common knowledge,
which a few nutritionists would dispute." Dr. Spock's 'Baby and Child Care', which was
the Bible of child-raising in our country from the 1946, the first edition, to the end
of the century. This one sentence was in every, single edition. "The amount of plain, starchy
food, cereals, breads, potatoes taken is what determines, in the case of most people, how
much weight they gain or lose." If you went to a hospital in the 1940s and
1950s and were obese, this is the kind of diet they would put you on. I could've shown
the same diet from Harvard Medical School, from Stanford Medical School, from Cornell
Med School. This is actually from 'The Practice of Endocrinology',
a British textbook written by Raymond Greene, who was the brother of Graham Greene and the
most influential British endocrinologist of the mid-20th Century. Foods to be avoided:
bread and everything made with flour, cereals, potatoes, foods containing much sugar, all
sweets. And you can eat as much as you like of the following foods: meat, fish, birds,
all green vegetables, eggs, cheese, fruit except bananas and grapes. These foods are
fattening. You limit them. These foods you can eat as much as you like cause they literally
do not make you fat. It's not about calories. It's about the effect
of the food on the hormones that regulate fat accumulation, insulin. So here are the
conclusions. Biology, not physics. This is a biological problem. The laws of thermodynamics
have nothing to do with it, no more than the laws of relativity do. Obesity disorder, fat
accumulation, not energy balanced, not overeating and sedentary behavior. Fat accumulation is
regulated fundamentally by insulin and dietary carbohydrates. Carbohydrates driving insulin
is driving fat. And the only non-pharmaceutical remedy is
to restrict or remove the causative agent, carbohydrates. Now, here's the problem. If you lower the carbohydrate content of the
diet, but you keep calories high because it's not about calories and you wanna make sure
the person has enough calories to fuel, to run their body and if you're obese or you're
overweight, you need a lot of fuel 'cause you have a big body. If you lower the carb content and keep calories
high, you raise the fat content. So, you end up with a high-fat diet. Fat, actually, happens
to be the one nutrient that does not stimulate insulin secretion. Protein does. So, a healthy diet, if you're overweight and
obese, and I would argue in my books for everyone, is a high-fat carbohydrate restricted diet.
Okay. Usually I just added that — I don't go through that, but I've seen what you've
been, what the cafeteria is here feeding. It's this low-fat dogma. It's gotta be about
lowering the fat. And it’s not about the fat. It’s about the carbohydrates. So, you
can just ask this question, "Where did the science go?" And there's two places. First,
the calories in, calories out hypothesis just swept it away. So, you'll find textbooks today, like 'Principles
of Biochemistry', Lenningers'. It's sort of the seminal biochemistry textbook. This is
the latest edition from a couple years ago. What makes fat tissue fat? High blood glucose–that's
carbs–elicits the release of insulin, which speeds the uptake of glucose by tissues, favors
the storage of fuels as glycogen–it's a good thing– and triglycerols–fat, a very bad
thing–while inhibiting fatty acid mobilization. What makes people fat? To a first approximation,
obesity is the result of taking in more calories in the diet than are expended by the body's
energy-consuming activities. The point I'm making is that the same thing that makes your
fat cells fat is what makes you fat. Because if you're fat, for the most part,
it's 'cause all your fat cells are too fat. And this disconnect, I was interviewing this
British Oxford University fat metabolism specialist, who took 15 minutes on the phone explaining
to me all the ways that insulin makes fat cells fat. And then got around to people and
evoked this overeating, over nutrition mechanism. And the point I made was, why did you suddenly,
you switched mechanisms? You had one mechanism for the fat cells and then when you got to
people, you brought in this vague overeating thing. And he literally said to me, "I never
thought of that." He's like, in his mid- to late- 60s. Here's the other thing that happened. In the
1960s, we started to believe that dietary fat causes heart disease. So when dietary
fat causes heart disease, you remember I just told you that a carb-restricted diet is a
high-fat diet. And so the same year that the American Physiological
Society put out its high-fat diet, its handbook of adipose tissue metabolism saying carbohydrates
drive insulin, drive fat. That's the simplified eight-word version of a 500 page text. The New York Times was already panning carbo-light,
low-carb diets. "New diet decried by nutritionists. Its dangers are seen in low carbohydrate intake.
Some of the nation's top nutrition experts are concerned at the new popularity of the
low-carbohydrate reducing diet, which one of them calls 'nonsense'—'cause you don't
have to restrict calories 'cause it’s not about calories—"and another compares to
'mass murder.'" This is Jean Meyer, who was the most influential
nutritionist in the country; went on to become president of Tufts University. 'Mass murder'
'cause you're giving people high-fat diet. So the science says carbohydrates is driving
insulin is driving fat. Cut the carbs out. And the nutritionists are saying, "You can't
do that. You're gonna kill people." And that's how we've seen it ever since. And
you get to the point by the 1980s when you end up with the food guide pyramid because
we believe fats are fattening and we believe red meat causes colon cancer, or God knows
what. We're gonna tell an entire nation to eat bread, cereal, rice, pasta. And sweets,
weirdly enough, get a free pass 'cause they're nonfattening. So, Coke, Pepsi, SoBa ice tea, Snapple. There
was actually a theory in the 1980s, you could drink as much, you could eat as much any food
you want if it didn't have fat in it. 'Cause if it didn't have fat in it, you couldn't
put fat on. So, [pause] just to wrap up. I've already
gone too long cause I always do. I started off asking question, why were these
populations fat? Rolf Richards, in 1973, "Most third world countries have a high carbohydrate
intake as their economic dependence is predominantly agricultural, with a heavy dependence on non-dairy
produces. It is conceivable that the ready availability of starch in preference to animal
protein, contributing as it must the main caloric requirements of these populations,
leads to increased lipogenesis and the development of obesity." In this country, we took the conventional
wisdom that carbohydrates make you fat. And over the course of 20 years, from the
1960s to the 1980s, turned it into the conventional wisdom that you grew up with, that carbohydrates
are heart healthy diet foods and it’s the fat that makes you fat. And that's why there's
an obesity epidemic. I mean, surely the sugar and high fructose corn syrup didn't help. And that's why we all have trouble struggling
with our weight 'cause the approach we use to cure it–eat less, exercise more and eat
low fat diets–is exactly the wrong thing. Basic question is, I'll phrase it the way
it’s usually phrased. What about those Southeast Asians who live on low-fat, high carb diets
and don't get fat? And one of the fundamental issues here, and actually, this is partially
why I wrote the sugar story in the New York Times a couple weeks ago. Basically in the
beginning I showed you populations that ate high carb diets that were very poor and were
fat. And then there are populations, the Japanese,
the Koreans, the Chinese, elsewhere, the Kitavans who eat high carb diets and aren't fat. And
what's the difference, or is it not the carbohydrates? And again, what I'm saying it's the high glycemic,
high refined carbs and the sugars. And if you look at the populations that don't get
fat, they have, they eat effectively very little sugar. So, the Japanese, for instance,
in the 1960s were eating the amount of sugar that we were eating in the 1860s. The Kitavans
eat virtually no sugar. The way the research will talk about it is these nations don't
have sweet tooths. Sweet teeth? So my answer would be, and this is one of
the reasons why I believe it may be necessary, sugar may be necessary to trigger this. And
that's what the biochemistry, the science suggests today. And once sugar's in the diet
often. One of the interesting things, one of the
suggestions I made in the New York Times magazine article was that sugar could actually be the
fundamental cause of cancer. So remember, you want to explain observations
and one observation is that Japanese women in Japan have relatively very little breast
cancer. And then they come to the United States and within two generations, you have virtually
the same breast cancer rates as any other population. And what could explain this? There's
something happening here that causing it, or there's something that's preventing it
in Japan. It's a common observation throughout the world. And one of the things I would suggest
is they come here and more sugar gets into their diets. And the reason they don't have
it there is because there's such little sugar. They don't have insulin resistance and they
don't have all these triggers. But so, the, the, no hypothesis to me would be "it's a
sugar." You could evoke other hypotheses; the length
of time that the refined carb, in this case, rice, or white rice or the grain, had been
in the population. But the sugar is the thing that would seem the most obvious. [pause] >>Male Audience Member #2: Hi, I have a couple
of personal questions. You're free to not answer them. One is, do you follow this diet
that you recommend? >>Gary Taubes: Yeah. [laughter] >>Male Audience Member #2: And what is your
waist size in inches? [laughter] >>Gary Taubes: My waist size in inches? Well,
the question is, see this is always one of the mistakes people make in life. I mean,
I'm OK. Okay? Basically, I have the same body I had when I was in college. I was a defensive
tackle at Harvard. I was a bad one. Actually, I'm 20 pounds less than I was then.
But when you're trying to be a defensive lineman, you're trying to be as heavy as you can. It
is actually not important how big I am on my diet. What would be important is how much
bigger I would be if I added carbohydrates back into the diet. That would be the relevant.
Like, I am never, I could starve myself. Actually, my good example is my brother. My
brother is a professor of mathematics at Harvard. A very smart guy. He was always lean and I
was always thick. He was always, you could see when he was seven, you could see his muscles
and his veins and you could see my pot belly. And when we grew up, we both ate all the food
we could. As a matter of fact, we ate as fast as we could 'cause if I didn't eat fast, he'd
eat it first. He was more physically active. Well, he wasn't. He could run longer distances.
I could starve myself to death and never look like my brother. I will die of starvation before I am as lean
as my brother is 'cause we are physiologically, we partition fuel differently. But the question
is what would happen if I added carbs back to my diet? Would my waist size be bigger?
Right now, I'm six foot two, 220 pounds. My waist size is probably 35. When I was in college, I was six foot two,
220 pounds. Actually, and my waist size was 35. In between I was heavier. Never had the,
never likely to be obese. Although because I'm a big guy, my BMI could go over 30. So
for me, well, it might kill me. That's the question. The question is not whether I'm heavy or light.
The question is am I going to die sooner because I ate a lot of saturated fat? And one thing
I don't have time to do in this lecture, I do in another lecture. If you actually look
at the clinical trials, which compare high fat diets to low fat diets, the way these
have been done over the past decade is basically putting people, randomizing people to an Aitkin’s
diet, which is high fat, high saturated fat. Eat as much as you want. And a low fat, American
Heart Association, low calorie, restricted diet. So one diet, you cut fat. You cut saturated
fat. You cut calories. You're eating like, skinless chicken breast and lettuce. And the
other diet, you can eat as much as you want. So, you're eating eggs and bacon for breakfast
and meat and double cheeseburgers without the bun in a sort of iconic Atkins’s thing.
And nobody really sticks to these diets the way they should. But when the trials are done, what you find
is not only the people on the high fat diet, ad lib the eat as much as you want diet, weigh
less. Even though they're told they could eat as much as they want, their heart disease
risk profile factors improve. And this is what actually got me into this subject. When I was writing a story for the New York
Times magazine in 2002, I found five of these trials that had been done and not been published
yet. And again, if we say, "Let's pretend this is a science," we have a hypothesis,
we have two of them. One of them is that saturated fat causes heart disease and one of them is
that if you eat more you'll get fat. So now, I'm gonna put you on a diet that says you
can eat as much as you want and as much saturated fat as you want and I recommend you do it. Our hypothesis predicts that you will gain
weight and get heart disease. And instead, what happened in these trials is these people
lose weight and their heart disease risk factors improve. Across the board, everything improves.
So the question then becomes, maybe our hypothesis is wrong. >>Male Audience Member #3: You answered my
question to some extent. You answered the last one, but clarify for personal happiness. In the beginning of your talk you spent a
lot of time on genetics and you had the fat twins and the skinny twins, and the fat cow
and the skinny cow, and the fat mouse. And you sort of abandoned that toward the end
of the talk. So could I infer that everybody has their
genetic predisposition, which they start with and their sugar intake regulates them around
that? Or how would you describe it? >>Gary Taubes: The question is what role does
genetics play when it comes to — like there's an obesity epidemic? The experts will tell
you, obviously our genes haven't changed. What I'm arguing is again one of the fundamental
observations is that you don't see obesity in any animals in the wild. On the East Coast,
where I used to live, there's a deer epidemic. There's obviously enough food for all the
deer to overeat. But you don't get fatter deer. You get more deer. You don't get obese
deer. So the question is why do they get fat? Why
do they stay lean, in effect, regardless of how much they eat. And actually, it's interesting
for hibernators, for instance. They'll get fat yearly, regardless of how much they eat.
So their fat tissue's regulated. And what are the genes responding to with
us? And I would say they're responding to basically how we process the carbs in the
diet. So if we all grew up in a carb free environment,
if we were Inuits or Masai, or Native Plains Indians of the Great Plains, and we didn't
have the carbs in the diet, we would all basically have, we would all be lean. And then, when you live, grow up, in a high
carb environment, then the phenotype manifests itself of obesity. And what the genes are
responding to are the carbs in the diet. It's basically how you metabolize them, how much
insulin you secrete, how sensitive your fat tissue is to that insulin, and things like
that. And what's interesting again is I used to
live in New York, up until a year ago, and I'd get my coffee from a bagel shop downstairs.
This was right around the corner from NYU. And it was full of these heavy set young girls
from NYU who were eating their low fat bagels and their low fat soy cream cheese and their
low fat soy lattes. And they were doing exactly what the government
thinks they should do and what they've been told to do to live a healthy lifestyle. And
I assumed they believed they were just doomed to be overweight because they were doing what
they were told to do. And the argument I would make is that they're doing it in a high carb
environment. And if they didn't live in a high carb environment, that they didn't eat
the carbs, they would be lean. Their phenotype wouldn't manifest itself. And the message I'm trying — this is the
battle that I'm trying to fight, is to get these ideas across because there are a lot
of people out there, like obese children, who are being tortured with starvation diets
and being made to run five miles a day, or whatever. And that's not why they're fat.
And the problem is they're tortured like that and then they get their Gatorade when it’s
over. And they count the 300 calories of Gatorade and they go, "Oh, OK. This is good. I'm in
negative energy balance." And they're still driving fat accumulation. So we have to get the carbs out of their life
and I sound like a quack diet book doctor when I say that. That's what the research
shows. [pause] >>Male Audience Member #4: I have a very practical
question. So, my question is how do you actually do it? How do you avoid carbs? You go into
a store. You want to buy bacon. You look in the ingredients. There's sugar in there. You
come here in Google cafes. There is sugar everywhere. Like, every main dish, every stew,
they gotta put sugar in it. If you want to buy meat, they're gonna give you lean cuts
of meat. You can't get like nice fat cut of meat. So how do you get fat? >>Gary Taubes: Well, you can but it's difficult.
I mean, the idea is you can always eat less of it. So if you're not, if you get the kids
off the sodas and the fruit juices and you don't try to give them low fat foods, you
don't try to give them the low fat yoghurts. I actually have this ongoing argument with
my wife where I say, "Look, this Michael Pollan kind of thing. If a food makes a health claim,
look to see how much sugar is in it." There's almost invariably, with the exception
I think, of Cheerios, weirdly enough, it's gonna have a high sugar content. So the best
you can do is eat less. So again, my kids will go eat bacon that's cured, apple-cured
bacon, which I assume means it’s sweet and it tastes sweet and there's sugar in it. But
it's still better than Frosted Flakes, or Coco Puffs, or getting apple juice with their. So you can always improve. And everyone, it
sounds more difficult than, you made it sound difficult. But the reality is when you, when
people try it without looking as closely as you do, at least the ones who succeed email
me and tell me. I don't know if there's this huge background of people who fail on these
diets. I don't think they work for everybody because I think after a point, you can get. And this is what the British physician wrote
about 50 years ago, looking at his 1500 people he put on a low carb diet. And he said the
ones who had been fat for a long time, who were very obese, who had been obese the longest,
and women more so than men, because women have the sex hormones are much more, that
play a much greater role in their fattening. And these people ‚Äì it's sort of — they
may reach the point of no return. But again, the argument I'm making is that
if you look at the heart disease risk factors and other profiles, I recently had to post
on my blog, my own lipid profile, which I got measured cause people wanted to know if
I appeared to be killing myself. And I'm not by standard measures anyway. But if you look at that, it would still be
a healthier diet. So you do better, but you don't have to avoid sugar entirely. You might
be healthier if you do, but we could certainly all cut back on it. >>Male Audience Member #4: Okay. So maybe
I should give a little bit of clarification. So, yes, I mean, if you want to go healthier
than the average, you can certainly do it if you're gonna [ ] and you are gonna make
lots of progress. Me personally, I made lots of progress. But if you want to go to the
next step, and if you want to really completely cut the sugar out, and be really healthy,
how do you practically do it? >>Gary Taubes: First of all, you stop working
in an office. See, I work at home. So I can control and I live in Berkeley. I'm sure you
have it here. So we have these gourmet butchers from farms that raised their animals humanely
and don't put sugar in things. Again, I'm just a journalist. I can't solve
every problem. I'm trying to fight this particular battle. And then I hope that if I make some
progress and the other people out there fighting this battle make some progress, then maybe
the whole society will move into a point where it will get easier. I have a lot of fans at Microsoft, I hate
to say, and they've been trying to get the Microsoft Wellness Group to put low carb lines
in their café. So they have at least the effect of the Atkins like choices. And so
far, as far as I know, they've had no luck. But give them time. >>Male Audience Member #5: Hi. I was wondering,
you mentioned five studies that were unpublished, and how many of them are now published, or
do you think there's a publication bias, where these studies that talk to the dogma don't
ever get published? >>Gary Taubes: Actually, they virtually have
all been published that I know of. Probably several dozen studies published. I mean, the
results are always the same. People on these diets, they lose more weight.
Their triglycerides go down more. Their HDL goes up more. Everything gets better and it's
basically the metabolic syndrome in some resistance resolved. It goes away and should go away
if I'm right, cause it’s pretty obviously caused by the carbs in the diet. There are
publications biases. For instance, people who go in believing that
it’s all about calories, will interpret their data to make it all about calories,
even if they published that the Atkins’s group does better than the American Heart
Association group. There are people who own, there are now like,
low carb journals out there, 'Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism'. So some people will do, there's
a great study done on Type 2 diabetes at Duke University where most of the subjects were
able to get off their diabetes medications. This is supposedly an irreversible disease.
And the author, the first author only sent to the 'Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism',
where it would basically be read by the converted, because he didn't wanna deal with all the
flack he would get trying to publish in the mainline journal. So there are definitely biases, but if you
do these studies now, I think you almost have to. There's a clinical trials website where
you have to register them and part of the reason for that is to make sure that people
don't only publish positive results. So the pretty much all get published, but they do
get spun. And often, the spin takes over. The biggest study ever done came out of — it
was Pennsylvania, UPENN, Colorado, and University of Cincinnati. And they put 300 subjects on
an Atkins diet in effect and an American Heart Association diet. And they referred to it
as a low carb versus a low fat diet. This is a classic way to do it. But the low fat diet is calorie restricted.
So when you're told to go on the low fat diet, you're told to eat 14, 15 hundred calories
a day, basically semi-starve yourself. And when you go on the low carb diet, you're told
to eat as much as you want. Just don't eat carbohydrates. And one of the lessons I learned writing about
physics is it's absolutely crucial to define your terms carefully, so people know what
they've done and what you've done and can replicate it. And so, you're not in effect
trying to fool people. And if I was writing that study, it would
say "low fat, low calorie versus low carb, ad libitum. 'Ad libitum' means eat as much
as you want. And I would always use those terms because you never want them to forget
that one group is low calorie and one group is ad libitum. 'Cause that also suggests,
and in this case they got essentially the same weight loss. The Atkins group did better
on heart disease risk factors, but the weight loss was virtually the same. And you want people to remember that one group
is being semi-starved and one group isn't 'cause that evidence that it’s not about
the calories. And they just didn't do it. They mentioned it in their methodology that
the low fat group was calorie restricted and then they ignored it. And the title was 'Low
Fat Versus Low Carb', and the papers picked it up: Low Fat versus Low Carb. And they left
out the crucial ingredient, which is one diet restricts calories and the other diet doesn't,
which is the ingredient that tells you you're paradigm might be wrong. OK. >>Female Audience Member #2: I'm just wondering
if any of your research, you came across any connections between people who drop the carbohydrates,
but coincidentally, they're also dropping the trans fats, because most of the carbohydrates
we purchase commercially are covered with trans fats, which tend to be the worst fats
for you in terms of heart disease risk. >>Gary Taubes: It's funny 'cause I would always
argue it the other way. To me, the evidence that trans fats are bad comes from mostly
from observational studies where you compare people who eat a lot of trans fats to people
who eat very little. Like the nurses health studies, what they're doing is there, when
you think who eats a lot of trans fats and who doesn't, you're comparing in effect, people
who buy a lot of processed foods and fast foods, to people who cook most of their meals
for themselves. >>Female Audience Member #2: You can't separate
the carbohydrates. >>Gary Taubes: You can, but you're also, but
the point is, as you put it, the processed foods come with the carbs. The trans-fat data
just doesn't wow me. I mean, it is true if you give up the carbs,
you're gonna have to give up the trans fats. But remember all those populations I talked
about in the beginning, Like the Trinidadians, the Sioux — Native American Sioux. They would
not have been getting trans fats. So we don't know what their heart disease risk was. But
we know that they weren't getting margarine. They weren't getting — there wasn't food
industry forcing trans fats on them. So it's quite likely, the obvious, again, the null
hypothesis would be the carb content of the diet. >>Female Audience Member #2: And then my second
question is, that there are populations that tend not to eat meat, like India. There's
so many vegetarians and they get their proteins mainly from legumes. So what is your take
on the glycemic index of legumes and other non-meat sources of proteins for people who
aren't really eating meat? >>Gary Taubes: Well, I do think, again, the
argument I make in the book. The book is called 'Why We Get Fat'? Not 'How to Lose Weight'.
The reason why I call it 'Why We Get Fat' is I wanna make this argument that it’s
literally about the carbs, high glycemic index carbs. It doesn't — the — legumes are lower
glycemic index. Green vegetables are low glycemic index. And the sugars. And anyone can improve their diet if they
just remove the sugars and the white flour
ake me wanna say hey baby Ooh donÇ Ùt stop it I want you to http // livefearless for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht IÇ Ùm a?? Self paid, sel f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda made millionaire I used to play around the world Now IÇ Ùm around the world getting paid Girl problems, no problems DonÇ Ùt hate the game that wonÇ Ùt solve it I want to get with you mami Now let me see where the Lord?? Pitbull Feat. T-Pain Hey Baby (Drop It To The Floor) shttp // www.hotnewsong s.html Hey baby girl what you doing to http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht? I wanna see what you got in store (hey, hey baby) YouÇ Ùre giving it your all when youÇ Ùre dancing on me I want to see if you can give me some more (hey, hey baby) You can be my girl, I can be your man And we can pump this jam however you want (hey, hey baby) Pump it from the side, pump it upside down Or we can pump it from the back and the front (hey, hey baby) Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Ooh drop it to the floor Make me wanna say hey baby Yeah, you can shake some more Make me wanna say hey baby Ooh you got it cause you Make me wanna say hey baby Ooh donÇ Ùt stop it I want you to http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht Make money, make money This chicka right here gotta eat baby Scared money donÇ Ùt make money ThatÇ Ùs how it goes in the street baby But enough with the the nonsense Baby girl take a shot to clear your conscience Not a goon or a God, IÇ Ùm a monster Cause I hit all baddest woman in the world, gangsta Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Oooh baby, baby lalalalala Ooh drop it to the floor Make me wanna say hey baby Yeah, you can shake some more Make me wanna say hey baby Ooh you got it cause you Make me wanna say hey baby Ooh donÇ Ùt stop it I want you to http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht The Story Of Us- Taylor Swift I used to think one day we'd tell the story of us How we met and the sparks flew instantly People would say, "they're the lucky ones" I used to know my place was a spot next to you Now I'm searching the room for an empty seat 'Cause lately I don't even know what page you're on Oh, a simple complication Miscommunications lead to fall out So many things that I wish you knew So many walls up I can't break through Now I'm standing alone In a crowded room And we're not speaking And I'm dying to know Is it killing you Like it's killing me? I don't know what to say Since a twist of fate When it all broke down And the story of us Looks a lot like a tragedy now Next chapter How'd we end up this way? See me nervously pulling at my clothes And trying to look busy And you're doing your best to avoid me I'm starting to think one day I'll tell the story of us How I was losing my mind when I saw you here But you held your pride like you should have held me Oh, we're scared to see the ending Why are we pretending this is nothing? I'd tell you I miss you but I don't know how I've never heard silence quite this loud Now I'm standing alone In a crowded room And we're not speaking And I'm dying to know Is it killing you Like it's killing me? I don't know what to say Since a twist of fate When it all broke down And the story of us Looks a lot like a tragedy now This is looking like a contest Of who can act like they care less But I liked it better when you were on my side The battle's in your hands now But I would lay my armor down If you'd say you'd rather love than fight So many things that you wish I knew But the story of us might be ending soon Now I'm standing alone In a crowded room And we're not speaking And I'm dying to know Is it killing you Like it's killing me? I don't know what to say Since a twist of fate When it all broke down And the story of us Looks a lot like a tragedy now, now, now And we're not speaking And I'm dying to know Is it killing you Like it's killing me? I don't know what to say Since a twist of fate 'cause we're going down And the story of us Looks a lot like a tragedy now Grenade- Bruno Marz Easy come, easy go That's just how you live, oh Take, take, take it all, But you never give Should of known you was trouble from the first kiss, Why were they open? Gave you all I had And you tossed it in the trash You tossed it in the trash, you did To give me all your love is all I ever asked, Cause what you don't understand is IÇ Ùd catch a grenade for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) Throw my hand on a blade for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) IÇ Ùd jump in front of a train for ya (yeah, yeah , yeah) You know I'd do anything for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) Oh, oh I would go through all this pain, Take a bullet straight through my brain, Yes, I would die for ya baby; But you won't do the same No, no, no, no http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson , http // http:// for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson , http // for
whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson and blue beat me till I'm numb Tell the devil I said Ç ˙heyÇ ˘ when you get back to where you're from Mad woman, bad woman, That's just what you are, yeah, YouÇ Ùll smile in my face then rip the breaks out my car Gave you all I had And you tossed it in the trash You tossed it in the trash, yes you did To give me all your love is all I ever asked Cause what you don't understand is IÇ Ùd catch a grenade for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) Throw my hand on a blade for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) IÇ Ùd jump in front of a train for ya (yeah, yeah , yeah) You know I'd do anything for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) Oh, oh I would go through all this pain, Take a bullet straight through my brain, Yes, I would die for ya baby; But you won't do the same If my body was on fire, ooh YouÇ Ù d watch me burn down in flames You said you loved me you're a liar Cause you never, ever, ever did baby… But darling IÇ Ùll still catch a grenade for ya Throw my hand on a blade for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) IÇ Ùd jump in front of a train for ya (yeah, yeah , yeah) You know I'd do anything for ya (yeah, yeah, yeah) Oh, oh I would go through all this pain, Take a bullet straight through my brain, Yes, I would die for ya baby; But you won't do the same. No, you wonÇ Ùt do the same, You wouldnÇ Ùt do the same, Ooh, youÇ Ùll never do the same, No, no, no, no Dr. Dre – I Need A Doctor Ft. Eminem & Skylar Grey Im about to lose my mind you've been gone for so long I'm running out of time I need a doctor call me a doctor I need a doctor, doctor to bring me back to life [Eminem] I told the World one day I would pay it back say it on tape, and lay it, record it so that one day I could play it back but I don't even know if I believe it when I'm saying that ya'll starting to creep in, everyday its so grey and http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson hope, I just need a ray of that cause no one see's my vision when I play it for 'em they just say its wack they don't know what dope is and I don't know if I was awake or asleep when I wrote this, all I know is you came to me when I was at my lowest you picked me up, breeding life in me I owe my life to you before the life of me, I dont see why you dont see like I do but it just dawned on me you lost a son see this light in you, it's dark. let me turn on the lights and brighten me and enlighten you I dont think you realise what you mean to me not the slightest clue cause me and you were like a crew I was like your sidekick you gon either wanna fight me when I get off this f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining mic or you gon hug me but I'm not an option, theres nothing else I can do cause… [Chorus ] Im about to lose my mind you've been gone for so long I'm running out of time I need a doctor call me a doctor I need a doctor, doctor to bring me back to life [Eminem] It hurts when I see you struggle you come to me with ideas you say there just pieces so I'm puzzled cause the http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson i hear is crazy but your either getting lazy or you don't believe in you no more seems like your own opinions, not one you can form cant make a decision you keep questioning yourself second guessing and its almost like your begging for my help like I'm your leader your susposed to f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining be my mentor I can endure no more, I demand you remember who you are it was YOU, who believed in me when everyone was telling you dont sign me everyone at the f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining label, lets tell the truth you risked your career for me I know it as well as you nobody wanted to f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck with the white boy Dre, I'm crying in this booth you saved my life, now maybe its my turn to save yours but I can never repay you, what you did for me is way more but I aint giving up faith and you aint giving up on me get up Dre, I'm dying, I need you, come back for f- in don Ç Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck's sake [Chorus] Im about to lose my mind you've been gone for so long I'm running out of time I need a doctor call me a doctor I need a doctor, doctor to bring me back to life bring me back to life bring me back to life (I need a doctor, doctor to bring me back to life) [Dr Dre] It literally feels like a lifetime ago but I still remember the http // livefearless for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris
Shining, with Cheryl Johnson like it was just yesterday though you walked in, yellow jump suit whole room, cracked jokes once you got inside the booth, told you, like smoke went through friends, some of them I put on but they just left, they said they was riding to the death but where the f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck are they now now that I need them, I dont see none of them all I see is Slim f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck all you fairweather friends all I need is him f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining backstabbers when the chips were down you just laughed at us now you bout to feel the f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining wrath of aftermath, faggots you gon see us in our lab jackets and ask us where the fin donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck we been? you can kiss my indecisive ass crack maggots and the crackers ass little crack a jack beat making wack math, backwards producers, Im back bastards one more CD and then I'm pa http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Christopher Shining up my bags and as I'm leaving I'll guarantee they scream Dre don't leave us like that man cause… [Chorus] Im about to lose my mind you've been gone for so long I'm running out of time I need a doctor call me a doctor I need a doctor, doctor to bring me back to life Dynamite- Taio Cruz I throw my hands up in the air sometimes Saying AYO! Gotta let go! I wanna celebrate and live my life Saying AYO! Baby, let's go! I came to dance, dance, dance, dance I hit the floor 'Cause that's my, plans, plans, plans, plans I'm wearing all my favorite Brands, brands, brands, brands Give me space for both my hands, hands, hands, hands Ye, ye Cause it goes on and on and on And it goes on and on and on Yeah! I throw my hands up in the air sometimes Saying AYO! Gotta let go! I wanna celebrate and live my life Saying AYO! Baby, let's go! 'Cause we gon' rock this club We gon' go all http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! 'Cause I told you once Now I told you twice We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! I came to move, move, move, move Get out the way me and my crew, crew, crew, crew I'm in the club so I'm gonna do, do, do, do Just what the f , came here to do, do, do, do Ye, ye Cause it goes on and on and on And it goes on and on and on Yeah! I throw my hands up in the air sometimes Saying AYO! Gotta let go! I wanna celebrate and live my life Saying AYO! Baby, let's go! 'Cause we gon' rock this club http // www.e s_taio_cruz.html We gon' go all http // kMN kl for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! 'Cause I told you once Now I told you twice We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! I'm gonna take it all like, I'm gonna be the last one standing, I'm alone and all I I'm gonna be the last one landing 'Cause I, I, I Believe it And I, I, I I just want it all, I just want it all I'm gonna put my hands in the air Hands in the air Put your hands in the air I throw my hands up in the air sometimes Saying AYO! Gotta let go! I wanna celebrate and live my life Saying AYO! Baby, let's go! 'Cause we gon' rock this club We gon' go all http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! 'Cause I told you once Now I told you twice We gon' light it up Like it's dynamite! What the HellAvril Lavigne You say that I'm messing with your head (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) All 'cause I was making out with your friend (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) Love hurts, whether it's right or wrong (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) I can't stop 'cause I'm having too much fun (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) You're on your knees, beggin' please 'stay with me' But honestly, I just need to be a little crazy All my life I've been good but now, I'm thinking 'What the hell' All I want is to mess around, and I don't really care about If you love me, if you hate me, you can't save me, baby, baby All my life I've been good but now, whoa 'What the hell' What, What, What, What the hell So what if I go out on a million dates (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) You never call or listen to me anyway (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) I'd rather rage than sit around and wait all day (yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah) Don't get me wrong, I just need some time to play (yeah) You're on your knees, beggin' please 'stay with me' But honestly, I just need to be a little crazy All my life I've been good but now, I'm thinking 'What the hell' All I want is to mess around, and I
don't really care about If you love me, if you hate me, you can't save me, baby, baby All my life I've been good but now, whoa 'What the hell' La la la la la la la la, whoa, whoa La la la la la la la la, whoa, whoa You say that I'm messing with your head Boy, I like messing in your bed Yeah, I am messing with your head When I'm messing with you in bed All my life I've been good but now, I'm thinking what the hell (what the hell) All I want is to mess around and I don't really care about (I don't care about) All my life I've been good but now, I'm thinking what the hell All I want is to mess around and I don't really care about. (if you love me) If you love me (no), if you hate me (no) You can't save me, baby, baby (if you love me) All my life I've been good but now, whoa, what the hell La la, La la la la la la, La la, La la la la la la la Coming Home ft. Skylar Grey- Diddy-dirty money [Hook Skylar Grey] I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming home Let the rain wash away, all the pain of yesterday I know my kingdom awaits and they've forgiven my mistakes I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming [Intro Diddy] I'm back where I belong (yeah) I never felt so strong (I'm back baby) I feel like there's nothing I can't try And if you feel me put your hands highhh (put your hands high) If you ever lost a light before, this one's for you And you, the dreams are for you [Verse ] I hear "The Tears of a Clown" I hate that song I always feel like they're talking to me, when it comes on Another day, another dawn Another Keisha, nice to meet ya Get the math, I'm gone What am I supposed to do when the club lights come on? It's easy to be Puff but it's harder to be Sean What if my twins ask why I ain't marry their mom (why? http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson !) How do I respond? What if my son stares with a face like my own And says he wants to be like me when he's grown? http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ! But I ain't finished growing Another http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht, the inevitable prolongs Anothey day, another dawn Just tell Keisha and Teresa I'll be better in the morn' Another lie that I carry on I need to get back to the place where I belong [Hook Dirty Money] I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming home Let the rain wash away, all the pain of yesterday I know my kingdom awaits and they've forgiven my mistakes I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming [Verse ] "A house is Not a Home," I hate this song Is a house really a home when your loved ones is gone? And http // http:// for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson s got the nerve to blame you for it And you know you would have took the bullet if you saw it But you felt it and still feel it And money can't make up for it or conceal it But you deal with it and you keep ballin' Pour out some liquor, play ball and we keep ballin' Baby, we've been living a sin cause we've been really in love But when we've been living as friends So you've been a guest in your own home It's time to make your house your home Pick up your phone, come on [Hook Dirty Money] I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming home Let the rain wash away, all the pain of yesterday I know my kingdom awaits and they've forgiven my mistakes I'm coming home I'm coming home Tell the world I'm coming [Verse ] "Ain't No Stopping Us Now," I love that song Whenever it comes on, it makes me feel strong I thought I told y'all that we won't stop Til we back cruising through Harlem, Viso blocks It's what made me, saved me, drove me crazy Drove me away then embraced me Forgave me for all of my shortcomings Welcome to my homecoming Yeah, it's been a long time coming Lot of fights, lot of scars, lot of bottles Lot of cars, lot of ups, lot of downs Made it back, lost my dog (I miss you BIG) And here I stand, a better man (a better man) (don't stop) Thank you lord (thank you lord) Judas- Lady GaGa Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Gaga Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Gaga When he comes to me, I am ready I'll wash his feet with my hair if he needs Forgive him when his tongue lies through his brain Even after three times, he betrays me Oh-oh, oh-oh-oh, oh-oh, oh-oh-oh I'll bring him down, bring him down, down Oh-oh, oh-oh-oh, oh-oh, oh-oh-oh A king with no crown, king with no crown I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Gaga I couldn't love a man so purely Even prophets forgave his crooked way I've learned love is like a brick, you can Build a house or sink a dead body Oh-oh, ohoh-oh, oh-oh, oh-oh-oh I'll bring him down, bring him down, down Oh-oh, oh-oh-oh, oh-oh, ohoh-oh A king with no crown, king with no crown I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Oh, oh, oh, oh,
oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Ew In the most Biblical sense I am beyond repentance Fame hooker Prostitute wench Vomits her mind But in the cultural sense I just speak in future tense Judas kiss me if offenced Or wear an ear condom next time I wanna love you But something's pulling me away from you Jesus is my virtue Judas is the demon I cling to I cling to I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby I'm just a holy fool, oh baby he's so cruel But I'm still in love with Judas, baby Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh, oh I'm in love with Judas, Judas Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Judaah-ah Judas, Juda-ah-ah Judas, Gaga Raise Your GlassPink Right right, turn off the lights, We're gonna lose our minds to http // livefearless for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ht, What's the deal, yo? I love when it's all too much, am turn the radio up Where's the rock and roll? Party Crasher, Penny Snatcher, Call me up if you want gangsta Don't be fancy, just get dancey Why so serious? So raise your glass if you are wrong, In all the right ways, All my underdogs, We will never be never be anything but loud And nitty gritty dirty little freaks Won't you come on and come on and raise your glass, Just come on and come on and raise your glass Slam slam, oh hot http // kMN kl for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson What part of party don't you understand, Wish you'd just freak out (freak out already) Can't stop, coming in hot, I should be locked up right on the spot It's so on right now (so f in on right now) Party Crasher, Penny Snatcher, Call me up if you want gangsta Don't be fancy, just get dancey Why so serious? So raise your glass if you are wrong, In all the right ways, All my underdogs, We will never be never be anything but loud And nitty gritty dirty little freaks Won't you come on and come on and raise your glass, Just come on and come on and raise your glass Won't you come on and come on and raise your glass, Just come on and come on and raise your glass (oh http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson my glass is empty, that sucks) So if you're too school for cool, And you're treated like a fool, You can choose to let it go We can always, we can always, Party on our own (so raise your) So raise your glass if you are wrong, In all the right ways, All my underdogs, We will never be never be anything but loud And nitty gritty, dirty little freaks So raise your glass if you are wrong, In all the right ways, All my underdogs, We will never be never be anything but loud And nitty gritty, dirty little freaks Won't you come on and come on and raise your glass, Just come on and come on and raise your glass Won't you come on and come on and raise your glass,(for me) Just come on and come on and raise your glass (for me) ___________________________________ Big Time Rush Ç Ï Boyfriend s (ft. Snoop Dogg) Your boy-boy-b-b-b-b-b-boyfriend Your boy-boy-b-b-b-b-b-boyfriend Your boy-boy-b-b-b-b-bboy You need a boyfriend and I can be that Holla at me Hit me on my video chat And let me reach out to you and give you feedback ItÇ Ùs gonna be us till the end so please believe that Yeah the world is all ours and the skyÇ Ùs the limit And you can be my boo and everything that goes with it I can lift you off your feet like a flight attendant Imma send this car for ya, is you ridinÇ Ù in it? Have you ever had the feeling youÇ Ùre drawn to someone? [Yeahh] And there isnÇ Ùt anything they could of said or done And everyday I see you on your own And I canÇ Ùt believe that youÇ Ùre alone But I overheard your girls and this is what they said Looking for a looking for that your looking for a boyfriend I see that, give me time you know I Ç Ùm gonna be there donÇ Ùt be scared to come put your trust in me CanÇ Ùt you see all I really want to be is your boyfriend CanÇ Ùt fight that let me down you know IÇ Ùm coming right back I donÇ Ùt care at all what you done before all I really want is to be your Your boy boy bb-b-bb-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Let me take a little moment to find the right words [to find the right words] so when I kick it you it ainÇ Ùt something that youÇ Ùve heard [something that you've heard] I donÇ Ùt know what kind of guy that you prefer But I know I gotta put myself for worse See I think got the kind of love that you deserve and I heard that That youÇ Ùre looking for a boyfriend I see that, give me time you know IÇ Ùm gonna be there DonÇ Ùt be scared to come put your trust in me CanÇ Ùt you see all I really want to be is your boyfriend? CanÇ Ùt fight that let me down you know IÇ Ùm coming right back I donÇ Ùt care at all what you done before all I really want is to be your Your boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-bb-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy If you tell me where, IÇ Ùm waiting here Everyday like slum dog millionaire Bigger then the Twilight love affair IÇ Ùll be here girl I swear So we should down the ride Or do I gotta slide I know you need a boyfriend And I can be the guy I help you open up even if youÇ Ùre shy She might be the one I see it in her eyes I see it in her swag She be on the fly Gucci bag Chanel purse I need her in my life IÇ Ùm the one for her And sheÇ Ùs the one for I This could be paradise if we do it right Looking for looking for looking for a boyfriend I see that, give me time you know IÇ Ùm gonna be there DonÇ Ùt be scared to come put your trust in me CanÇ Ùt you see
all I really want to be is your boyfriend? CanÇ Ùt fight that let me down you know IÇ Ùm coming right back I donÇ Ùt care at all what you done before all I really want is to be your Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-b-boy friend Your boy boy b-b-b-b-bboy friend All I really want is to be your Look At Me Now- Chris Brown ft. lil Wayne [Chris Brown] Yellow model chick yellow bottle sipping yellow Lamborghini yellow top missing yeah yeah that sh-t look like a toupee I get what you get in years, in two days ladies love me IÇ Ùm on my cool J if you get what I get what would you say she wax it all off, Mr Miyagi and them suicide doors, Hari Kari [Hook] Look at me now, look at me now oh, IÇ Ùm getting paper look at me now oh, look at me now yeah, fresh than a mutha r lil n-gga bigger than gorilla cause IÇ Ùm killing every ngga that try to be on my sh-t better cuff your chick if you with her I can get her and she accidentally slip fall on my dick ooops, I said on my dick I aint really mean to say on my d-ck but since we talking about my dick all of you haters say hi to it IÇ Ùm Done [Busta Rhymes] Ayo Breezy let me show you how to keep the dice rolling when your doing that thing over there, homie lets go cause I feel like IÇ Ùm running and IÇ Ùm feeling like I gotta get away, get away, get away better know that I donÇ Ùt and I wonÇ Ùt ever stop cause you know I gotta win everyday day, goooo see they donÇ Ùt really wanna pop me just know that you never flop me and I know that I can be a little cocky, nooo you aint never gonna stop me everytime I come a n-gga gotta set it then I got it going then I get it, than I blow, than I shudder any little thing that he be doing cause it doesnt matter cause IÇ Ùm gonna dadadadada then IÇ Ùm gonna murder every thing and anything a badaboom a badabing I gotta do a lot of things, and make it clearer to a couple n-ggas that IÇ Ùm always winning and I gotta get it again and again and again and I be doing it to death and now I move a little foul a n-gga better call a ref, everybody know my style and everybody know I Ç Ùm the the baddest when I come to doing this and Im banging on my chest and I bang in the east and I bang in the west and I come to give you more and I never give you less you will hear it in the street or you can read it in the press do you really wanna know whats next, lets go see the way we on, we be all up in the race and you know we gotta go, donÇ Ùt try to keep up with the pace we struggling and hustling and sending in and getting in and always gotta take it to another place gotta taste it and I gotta grab it and I gotta cut all throught his traffic just to be at the top of the throne better know I gotta have it [Hook] Look at me now, look at me now oh, IÇ Ùm getting paper look at me now oh, look at me now yeah, fresh than a mutha r okay, okay, is that right im fresher then a mutha r [Lil Wayne] Man f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck these http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson ass n-ggas how yall doin? IÇ Ùm Lil Tunechi, IÇ Ùm a nuisance, I go stupid, I go dumb like the stooges I dont eat sushi, IÇ Ùm the http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson , no IÇ Ùm pollution, no substitution got a http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson that play in movies in my jacuzzi, p-ssy juicy I never gave a f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck about a hater got money on my radar dress like a skater, got a big house, came with a elevator you n-ggas aint eatin, f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck it, tell a waiter Marley said shoot em, and I said ok, if you wanted bull http // livefearless for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson then IÇ Ùm like olay, I dont care what you say, so donÇ Ùt even speak your girlfriend a freak like Cirque Du Soleil thatÇ Ùs word to my flag, and my flag red I Ç Ùm out of my head, http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson IÇ Ùm outta my mind from the bottom I climb you aint hotter at mine, nope, not on my time and IÇ Ùm not even trying whats poppin Slime? nothin five, and if they trippin f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck em five I aint got no time to shuck and jive, these n-ggas as sweet as pumpkin pie Ciroc and sprite on a private flight http // for whenever you want me, starring Sam Botta, Executive Producer Chris Shining, with Cheryl Johnson IÇ Ùm enticing, guiding light, and my pockets white and my diamonds white and my mommas nice and my daddyÇ Ùs dead you faggots scared cause IÇ Ùm too wild, been here for a while I was like f- in donÇ Ùt matter, because I need some a Ç Údat Bada Bing, Sam Bada Bing, Sam Botta Bing Botta Boom, Badda Bing Bada Boom, Bada Bing Bada Boom, Sam Botta Bada Badda Bodda ck trial I and to some extent, what we call whole wheat
flour in the United States. And actually, even one of observations that I wrote about
in 'Good Calories, Bad Calories'. As early as 1907 the British Medical Association
had a meeting in which they had a discussion about the diabetes problem in India 'cause
diabetes was rampant. They said that it's actually worse among the vegetarians sects.
Probably 'cause they were also eating the most sugar, which they suggested in 1907. But you can improve the diet by removing the
fat and the carbohydrates regardless, is the point. But if somebody’s very predisposed
to get fat, if someone's 300 pounds, I would argue that you have to get basically, they're
not gonna get enough calories that they. The easiest, the way to maximize calories
and minimize carbs is with animal products. And so, that's the problem. So if these people,
they could improve on a vegetarian diet. And I get emails all the day from people telling
me how much they lost, just giving up sugars. I don't think that's enough. In my experience,
I can just ask myself, like, "What would happen if I added whole wheat pasta back to my diet?
Maybe three times a week." And I could pretty much bet that I'd gain
ten pounds. But the point is anyone can lose weight just
by getting rid of, and improve their risk profiles, 'cause the argument I make is these
high glycemic index carbs and sugars are the cause of the chronic diseases that associate
with obesity and diabetes and insulin resistance. So, and then, if it's an all vegetarian or
vegan diet, you're still gonna be better. You may not be as lean as you could be if
you threw your ethical considerations to the wind and switched to meat, but you will be
healthier than if you keep these foods in your diet. >>Female Audience Member #3: I was wondering
about people who do a lot of athletics, especially like endurance stuff and talk about things
like carbo loading, and other studies that have recently suggested that women typically
will recover better when they eat carbs after a meal too. And how that fits into all this. >>Gary Taubes: The question is about how,
what about athletics and endurance exercise. Don't you need the carbohydrates? Aren't they
crucial? [pause] This is not my area of expertise and I was
not an endurance athlete. But in the late 1970s, early 1980s, there was some research
done at the University of Vermont by a fellow named Steve Finney, who's now an emeritus
professor of nutrition at UC Davis. And he put professional bike racers on ketogenic
diets. And it takes about three weeks to what's called "ketoadopt," where you adopt completely
to the complete lack of carbs in the diet, in effect. And the bottom line was they did
fine. They lost a little bit of their sprinting ability, but they lost a lot of – they lost
none of their endurance. The interesting thing, I get a lot of emails
from bike racers, long distance bike racers, and mountain bike racers, cause weight is
an issue there. Whereas marathoners, you might wanna be as light as possible. Or, actually, this is where I get confused.
The evidence suggests you can do just fine without any carbs and I actually recommend
— email me. I'll forward your email to Steve Finney. He'll write three thousand words back
in response cause that's what he does. But — and that's a different issue than whether
or not if you carb load like two days before the race, you'll do better. Although, I think
Steve would argue that it's not necessary. >>Male Audience Member #6: This is a question
about the data. So, in the 1970s, Americans ate an average of 2200 calories a day. And
as your slide says, now they eat 27 hundred calories per day. And in those days you had
less than ten percent obesity and now you have like 30 percent or something. Do you
think their genetics change over 30 years, or with the calories is there no correlation
there? >>Gary Taubes: I mean this is again, these
numbers, by the way, are very iffy. But certainly the question was, if you look
at the food consumption numbers, in the 1970s we were eating around 2200 calories. Then
it went up by 500 calories. So doesn't that prove that it’s about the calories? That's,
in effect, the, and the point is first of all, this is an observation. Remember I said, if somebody gets heavier,
they gotta eat more, or exercise less because they're gonna be in positive energy balance.
So even if, and it's pretty much assumed that food availability went up, our food portion
sizes got bigger, etc., etc. But did people get fatter because they consumed
more? Did they get hungrier because they were getting fatter? And those numbers don't, associations
like that tell you nothing about causality. They only tell you that two things happened
simultaneously. The price of tea in China probably also went
up since 1970, but we're not gonna blame obesity on that. Why would we blame it on the availability
of calories in the food supply? When you look at what those calories were, they were almost
exclusively carbohydrates and most of it was high fructose corn syrup. If you actually look at the number in fat,
it's something like three percent of the increase is from fat. Or actually fat — the USDA has
screwed up the numbers and that's another story. But fat consumption, basically, went
down a little bit. Protein consumption went up a little bit and carbohydrate consumption
went up a lot. And it reflected the public health advice. The shift to pasta, breads,
potatoes and then this increase in sugar consumption that I believe was driven high fructose corn
syrup, by the fact that we first didn't know that high fructose corn syrup was sugar. And
second, believed it wasn't a problem because the problem was all about fat. Thank you. [applause] .