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interest group | Definition, Examples, Types, Politics, & Facts

source : britannica.com

interest group | Definition, Examples, Types, Politics, & Facts

Interest group, also called special interest group, advocacy group, or pressure group, any association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized, that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favour. All interest groups share a desire to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes. Their goal could be a policy that exclusively benefits group members or one segment of society (e.g., government subsidies for farmers) or a policy that advances a broader public purpose (e.g., improving air quality). They attempt to achieve their goals by lobbying—that is, by attempting to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain policy outcomes in their favour.

Interest groups are a natural outgrowth of the communities of interest that exist in all societies, from narrow groups such as the Japan Eraser Manufacturers Association to broad groups such as the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) and to even broader organizations such as the military. Politics and interests are inseparable. Interests are a prevalent, permanent, and essential aspect of all political systems—democratic, authoritarian, and totalitarian regimes alike. Furthermore, interest groups exist at all levels of government—national, state, provincial, and local—and increasingly they have occupied an important role in international affairs.

The common goals and sources of interest groups obscure, however, the fact that they vary widely in their form and lobbying strategies both within and across political systems. This article provides a broad overview that explains these differences and the role that interest groups play in society.

Definition

As defined above, an interest group is usually a formally organized association that seeks to influence public policy. This broad definition, increasingly used by scholars, contrasts with older, narrower ones that include only private associations that have a distinct, formal organization, such as Italy’s Confindustria (General Confederation of Industry), the United States’s National Education Association, and Guatemala’s Mutual Support Group (human rights organization). One problem with such a narrow definition is that many formally organized entities are not private. The most important lobbying forces in any society are the various entities of government: national, regional, and local government agencies and institutions such as the military. Another reason to opt for a broad definition is that in all societies there are many informal groups that are, in effect, interest groups but would not be covered by the narrower definition. For example, in all political systems there are influential groups of political and professional elites that may not be recognized as formal groups but are nonetheless crucial in informally influencing public policy.

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Some interest groups consist of individuals such as ranchers or fruit growers who may form farm commodity organizations. In other instances, an interest group consists not of individuals but of organizations or businesses, such as the Histadrut (General Federation of Labour) in Israel and Amazon Watch, which includes environmental and indigenous organizations in several South American countries. These types of organizations are called peak associations, as they are, in effect, the major groups in their area of interest in a country.

The term interest rather than interest group is often used to denote broad or less-formalized political constituencies, such as the agricultural interest and the environmental interest—segments of society that may include many formal interest groups. Similarly, interest is often used when considering government entities working to influence other governments (e.g., a local government seeking to secure funding from the national government). In authoritarian and developing societies, where formal interest groups are restricted or not as well developed, interest is often used to designate broader groupings such as government elites and tribal leaders.

Interest group - Lobbying strategies and tactics | Britannica

Interest group – Lobbying strategies and tactics | Britannica – Interest group – Interest group – Lobbying strategies and tactics: As discussed above, lobbying involves working to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain favourable policy outcomes. In order to accomplish their goals, interest groups develop a strategy or plan of action and execute it through specific tactics. The particular strategies developed and the specific tactics used, howeverInterest group – Interest group – Interest groups in international politics: Interest groups have long been active in international affairs, but the level of that activity has increased significantly since World War II and particularly since the late 1960s. A confluence of factors accounts for the explosion in international lobbying activities.Match each example of a specific interest group to the correct category of interest groups. economic and corporate groups Independent Petroleum Association of America citizen groups Match the type of benefit on the left with the example on the right.

Interest group – Interest groups in international politics – An example of an NGO is a special interest group, which is a nonprofit organization that publicizes a specific cause for either society or business. Examples of specific interest groups includeThe primary goal of most interests, no matter their lobbying approach, is to influence decision-makers and public policies. For example, National Right to Life, an anti-abortion interest group, lobbies to encourage government to enact laws that restrict abortion access, while NARAL Pro-Choice America lobbies to promote the right of women to have safe choices about abortion.Interest groups form when individuals seek to put their individual voices together into a collective organization that can fight for specific results. Many of them are created for specific issues so that there is a chance to influence public policies in specific ways. The goal of this work is to protect their way of life, promote new economic opportunities, and reduce the impact of adverse

Interest group - Interest groups in international politics

Chapter 11(inquizitive) Groups and interests Flashcards – Interest groups and organizations represent both economic and non-economic issues in the United States. Economic interest groups usually seek particularized benefits from government that favor a work-related single interest or a narrow set of economically related interests focused on some industry sector, occupational group, or employee union. [13]Chapter 10 Interest Groups test 🎓questionan interest group filing an amicus curiae brief answerlobbying the judicial branch questionhyperpluralists' main criticism of the interest group example of a business interest group. answer. Chamber of Commerce It required lobbyists to file a report regarding each of their clients, includingFor example, the oil and tobacco industries each have interest groups who promote their respective interests on Capitol Hill. How Interest Groups Work Interest groups send representatives to state capitals and to Washington, D.C. to put pressure on members of Congress and other policymakers .

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