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Lead(II) acetate

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Lead(II) acetate

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Lead(II) acetate

Names
IUPAC name
Lead(II) acetate
Systematic IUPAC name
Lead(II) ethanoate
Other names
Plumbous acetate, Salt of Saturn, Sugar of Lead, Lead diacetate
Identifiers
CAS Number

301-04-2 6080-56-4 (trihydrate) 1335-32-6 (basic) 
3D model (JSmol)

Interactive image
ChEMBL

ChEMBL1909062 
ChemSpider

8956
ECHA InfoCard

100.005.551
EC Number

206-104-4
MeSH

lead+acetate
PubChem CID

16685321
RTECS number

OF8050000
UNII

KL498O6790 RX077P88RY (trihydrate) BW7DT27250 (basic) 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)

DTXSID6020773

InChI
InChI=1S/2C2H4O2.Pb/c2*1-2(3)4;/h2*1H3,(H,3,4);/q;;+2/p-2 Key: GUWSLQUAAYEZAF-UHFFFAOYSA-L 

SMILES
CC(=O)[O-].CC(=O)[O-].[Pb+2]
Properties
Chemical formula

Pb(C2H3O2)2
Molar mass

325.29 g/mol (anhydrous) 379.33g/mol (trihydrate)
Appearance

White powder or colourless, efflorescent crystals
Odor

Slightly acetic
Density

3.25 g/cm3 (20 °C, anhydrous) 2.55 g/cm3 (trihydrate) 1.69 g/cm3 (decahydrate)[1]Melting point

280 °C (536 °F; 553 K) (anhydrous) 75 °C (167 °F; 348 K) (trihydrate) decomposes[4] at ≥ 200 °C 22 °C (72 °F; 295 K) (decahydrate)[1]Boiling point

Decomposes
Solubility in water

Anhydrous: 19.8 g/100 mL (0 °C) 44.31 g/100 mL (20 °C) 69.5 g/100 mL (30 °C)[2] 218.3 g/100 mL (50 °C)[1]Solubility

Anhydrous and trihydrate are soluble in alcohol, glycerol[2]Solubility in methanol

Anhydrous:[2] 102.75 g/100 g (66.1 °C) Trihydrate:[3] 74.75 g/100 g (15 °C) 214.95 g/100 g (66.1 °C)
Solubility in glycerol

Anhydrous:[2] 20 g/100 g (15 °C) Trihydrate:[3] 143 g/100 g (20 °C)
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−89.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)

1.567 (trihydrate)[1]Structure
Crystal structure

Monoclinic (anhydrous, trihydrate) Rhombic (decahydrate)
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy offormation (ΔfH⦵298)

−960.9 kJ/mol (anhydrous)[2] −1848.6 kJ/mol (trihydrate)[3]Hazards
Main hazards

Neurotoxic, probable human carcinogen
GHS pictograms

[4]GHS Signal word

Danger
GHS hazard statements

H360, H373, H410[4]GHS precautionary statements

P201, P273, P308+313, P501[4]NFPA 704 (fire diamond)

2
1
1
Flash point

Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)

400 mg/kg (mice, oral)[1]LCLo (lowest published)

300 mg/kg (dog, oral)[5]Related compounds
Other cations

Lead(IV) acetate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 verify (what is  ?)
Infobox references

Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard’s powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a slightly sweet taste. Like many other lead compounds, it is toxic. Lead acetate is soluble in water and glycerin. With water it forms the trihydrate, Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O, a colourless or white efflorescent monoclinic crystalline substance.

The substance is used as a reagent to make other lead compounds and as a fixative for some dyes. In low concentrations, it is the principal active ingredient in progressive types of hair colouring dyes.[6] Lead(II) acetate is also used as a mordant in textile printing and dyeing, and as a drier in paints and varnishes. It was historically used as a sweetener in wines and in other foods and for cosmetics.

Production

Lead acetate can be made by boiling elemental lead in acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. This method will also work with lead carbonate or lead oxide.

Pb(s) + H2O2(aq) + 2 H+(aq) → Pb2+(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
Pb2+(aq) + 2 CH3COO−(aq) → Pb(CH3COO)2(aq)

Lead(II) acetate can also be made via a single displacement reaction between copper acetate and lead metal:

Cu(CH3COO)2 + Pb → Cu + Pb(CH3COO)2

Structure

The crystal structure of anhydrous lead(II) acetate has been described as a 2D coordination polymer. In comparison, lead(II) acetate trihydrate’s structure is a 1D coordination polymer.[7] In the trihydrate, the Pb2+ ion’s coordination sphere consists of nine oxygen atoms belonging to three water molecules, two bidentate acetate groups and two bridging acetate groups. The coordination geometry at Pb is a monocapped square antiprism.[8][9]. The trihydrate thermally decomposes to a hemihydrate, Pb(OAc)2·½H2O, and to basic acetates such as Pb4O(OAc)6 and Pb2O(OAc)2.[7]

Comparison of anhydrous and trihydrate crystal structures

Degree of hydration

Pb coordination

Strongly bonded aggregation

Weakly bonded aggregation
Anhydrous[7]Pb(OAc)2

2D sheet

sheets stacked withhydrophobic surfaces in contact
Trihydrate[8][9]Pb(OAc)2·3H2O

1D chain

chains linked by hydrogen bonds

Uses

Sweetener

Like other lead(II) salts, lead(II) acetate has a sweet taste, which led to its historical use as a sugar substitute in both wines and foods.[10][11]
The ancient Romans, who had few sweeteners besides honey, would boil must (grape juice) in lead pots to produce a reduced sugar syrup called defrutum, concentrated again into sapa. This syrup was used to sweeten wine and to sweeten and preserve fruit. It is possible that lead(II) acetate or other lead compounds leaching into the syrup might have caused lead poisoning in those who consumed it.[12] Lead acetate is no longer used in the production of sweeteners because of its recognized toxicity. Modern chemistry can easily detect it, which has almost completely stopped the illegal use that continued decades after legal use as a sweetener was banned.[13]

Historical incidents

The earliest confirmed poisoning by lead acetate was that of Pope Clement II who died in October 1047. A toxicological examination of his remains conducted in the mid-20th century confirmed centuries-old rumors that he had been poisoned with lead sugar.[14] It is not clear if he was assassinated.

In 1787 painter Albert Christoph Dies swallowed, by accident, approximately 3/4 oz (20 g) of lead acetate. His recovery from this poison was slow and incomplete. He lived with illnesses until his death in 1822.[15][16]

Although the use of lead(II) acetate as a sweetener was already illegal at that time, composer Ludwig van Beethoven may have died of lead poisoning caused by wines adulterated with lead acetate (see also Beethoven’s liver).[17][18]

In the 1850s, Mary Seacole applied lead(II) acetate, among other remedies, against an epidemic of cholera in Panama.[19][20]

In 1887, 38 hunting horses belonging to Captain William Hollwey Steeds were poisoned in their stables at Clonsilla House, Dublin, Ireland. At least ten of the hunters died. Captain Steeds, an ‘extensive commission agent’, had previously supplied the horses for the Bray and Greystones Coach. It transpired they had been fed a bran mash that had been sweetened with a toxic lead acetate.[21]

Cosmetics

Lead(II) acetate, as well as white lead, has been used in cosmetics throughout history.[22]

Until recently, it was still used in the USA in men’s hair colouring products[23] like Grecian Formula. It was not until just a few years ago when the manufacturer removed lead acetate from the hair coloring product, and as of July 2018 the ingredients in Grecian Formula are water, isopropyl alcohol, triethanolamine, bismuth citrate, sodium thiosulfate, fragrance, and panthenol. Lead acetate has been replaced by bismuth citrate as the progressive colorant. Its use in cosmetics has been banned in Canada by Health Canada in 2005 (effective at the end of 2006) based on tests showing possible carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity,[24] and it is also banned in the European Union[24] and has been on the California Proposition 65 warning list as a carcinogen since 1988.[25]

Medical uses

Lead(II) acetate solution was a commonly used folk remedy for sore nipples.[26] In modern medicine, for a time, it was used as an astringent, in the form of Goulard’s Extract, and it has also been used to treat poison ivy.[27]

Industrial uses

Lead(II) acetate paper is used to detect the poisonous gas hydrogen sulfide. The gas reacts with lead(II) acetate on the moistened test paper to form a grey precipitate of lead(II) sulfide.

An aqueous solution of lead(II) acetate is the byproduct of a 1:1 ratio of hydrogen peroxide and white vinegar (acetic acid) used in the cleaning and maintenance of stainless steel firearm suppressors (silencers) and compensators. The solution is agitated by the bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide, and the main reaction is the dissolution of lead deposits within the suppressor by the acetic acid, which forms lead acetate. Because of its high toxicity, this chemical solution must be appropriately disposed by a chemical processing facility or hazardous materials centre. Alternatively, the solution may be reacted with sulfuric acid to precipitate nearly insoluble lead(II) sulfate. The solid may then be removed by mechanical filtration and is safer to dispose of than aqueous lead acetate.

It was also used in making of slow matches during the Middle Ages. It was made by mixing natural form of lead(II) oxide called litharge and vinegar.

Sugar of lead was a recommended agent added to linseed oil during heating to produce “boiled” linseed oil, the lead and heat acting to cause the oil to cure faster than raw linseed oil.[28]

See also

Saturn’s Tree

References

^ a b c d e .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 0-07-049439-8.

^ a b c d e http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=1990

^ a b c http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=1762

^ a b c d Sigma-Aldrich Co., Lead(II) acetate trihydrate. Retrieved on 2014-06-08.

^ “Lead compounds (as Pb)”. Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

^ https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Products/ucm143075.htm

^ a b c Martínez-Casado, Francisco J.; Ramos-Riesco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cheda, José A.; Cucinotta, Fabio; Matesanz, Emilio; Miletto, Ivana; Gianotti, Enrica; Marchese, Leonardo; Matěj, Zdeněk (2016). “Unraveling the Decomposition Process of Lead(II) Acetate: Anhydrous Polymorphs, Hydrates, and Byproducts and Room Temperature Phosphorescence”. Inorg. Chem. 55 (17): 8576–8585. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01116.

^ a b Rajaram, R. K.; Mohana Rao, J. K. (1982). “Crystal structure of lead acetate trihydrate”. Z. Kristallogr. 160 (1–4): 225–233. doi:10.1524/zkri.1982.160.14.225.

^ a b Bryant, Robert G.; Chacko, V. P.; Etter, Margaret C. (1984). “Carbon-13 CP/MAS NMR and crystallographic investigations of the structure and solid-state transformations of lead(II) acetate trihydrate”. Inorg. Chem. 23 (22): 3580–3584. doi:10.1021/ic00190a029. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

^ “The Disturbingly Long History of Lead Toxicity in Winemaking.” Anna Archibald, 30 July 2020. Retrieved: 22 December, 2020.

^ [1] Wu Mingren, 4 December 2019. Retrieved: 22 December 2020.

^ Lead Poisoning and Rome

^ Stoeppler, M. (1992), Hazardous Metals in the Environment, Techniques and Instrumentation in Analytical Chemistry, 12, Elsevier, p. 60, ISBN 9780080875606, From the results achieved so far it is obvious that the purity law for lead in wines in the last two centuries was frequently ignored.

^ Specht W and Fischer K (1959). Vergiftungsnachweis an den Resten einer 900 Jahre alten Leiche. Arch. Kriminol., 124: 61-84. [Translation:Intoxication evidence in the remains of a 900-year-old corpse]

^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Dies, Christoph Albert”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 211.

^ Dies, Albert Christoph (1810). Biographische Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn nach mündlichen Erzählungen desselben entworfen und herausgegeben [Biographical Accounts of Joseph Haydn, written and edited from his own spoken narratives]. Vienna: Camesinaische Buchhandlung. English translation in: Dies, Albert Christoph (1963). “Biographical Accounts of Joseph Haydn”. In Gotwals, Vernon (ed.). Haydn: Two Contemporary Portraits. (translation by Vernon Gotwals). Milwaukee: Univ. of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-02791-0.

^ “Pharmazeutische Zeitung zu Beethovens wahrscheinlicher Bleivergiftung”. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-09-12.

^ “Beethoven litt unter Bleivergiftung”. Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2020-02-24.

^ Mary Seacole: Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands, Chapter IV, (1990 Oxford University Press reprint) ISBN 0-19-506672-3; (2005 Penguin 20th Century Classics reprint, ed. Sarah Salih) ISBN 0-14-043902-1

^ Jane Robinson: Mary Seacole: The Charismatic Black Nurse who became a heroine of the Crimea, p.53. Constable 2004 (p/b. ISBN 1-84119-677-0)

^ Weekly Irish Times, Saturday 15 October 1887; Enniskillen Chronicle and Erne Packet, 24 October 1887, p. 3

^ Gunn, Fenja. (1973). The Artificial Face: A History of Cosmetics. — as cited in Leisure Activities of an 18th Century Lady

^ Lead Based Hair Products: Too Hazardous for Household Use – Results, Howard W. Mielke, PhD, Myiesha D. Taylor, Chris R. Gonzales, M. Kelley Smith, Pamela V. Daniels, and Ayanna V.Buckner. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Association (NS37, Jan/Feb 1997:85-89).

^ a b Can West News Service: Grecian Formula in a grey zone after ban Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine

^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-31. Retrieved 2014-11-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

^ The Project Gutenberg eBook of The American Frugal Housewife, by Lydia M. Child

^ Laboratory manual in biology. Sharpe. 1911, American Book Company. p. 351

^ Andés, Louis Edgar, and Arthur Morris. Oil colours and printers’ inks a practical handbook treating of linseed oil, boiled oil, paints, artists’ colours, lampblack and printers’ inks, black and coloured. London: Scott, Greenwood ;, 1903. 41. Print.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lead(II) acetate.Case Studies in Environmental Medicine – Lead Toxicity
Essay on “Lead Poisoning and Rome”
HowStuffWorks “What Kind of Hair Color Do Men Use?” discussion of progressive dyes containing lead acetate
National Pollutant Inventory – Lead and Lead Compounds Fact sheet (Does Not Bring Up Lead)
ToxFAQs: Lead
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fact sheet “Lead Acetate in Hair Dye Products”
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)21CFR73.2396 “PART 73 — LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION, Subpart C–Cosmetics, Sec. 73.2396 Lead acetate”vteLead compoundsPb(II)
PbBr2
Pb(C5H5)2
Pb(C2H3O2)2
PbCl2
PbCO3
PbCrO4
PbF2
PbHAsO4
PbI2
Pb(NO3)2
Pb(N3)2
PbO
Pb(OH)2
Pb3(PO4)2
PbS
Pb(SCN)2
PbSe
PbSO4
PbTe
PbTiO3
plumbite
PbC2 (hypothetical)Pb(II,IV)
Pb3O4Pb(IV)
Pb(C2H3O2)4
PbCl4
PbF4
PbH4
PbO2
PbS2
plumbate
Pb(OH)4 (hypothetical)

vteAcetyl halides and salts of the acetate ion
AcOH

He
LiOAc

Be(OAc)2BeAcOH

B(OAc)3

AcOAcROAc

NH4OAc

AcOOH

FAc

Ne
NaOAc

Mg(OAc)2

Al(OAc)3ALSOLAl(OAc)2OHAl2SO4(OAc)4

Si

P

S

ClAc

Ar
KOAc

Ca(OAc)2

Sc(OAc)3

Ti(OAc)4

VO(OAc)3

Cr(OAc)2Cr(OAc)3

Mn(OAc)2Mn(OAc)3

Fe(OAc)2Fe(OAc)3

Co(OAc)2

Ni(OAc)2

Cu(OAc)2

Zn(OAc)2

Ga(OAc)3

Ge

As(OAc)3

Se

BrAc

Kr
RbOAc

Sr(OAc)2

Y(OAc)3

Zr(OAc)4

Nb

Mo(OAc)2

Tc

Ru2(OAc)4ClRu(OAc)3

Rh2(OAc)4

Pd(OAc)2

AgOAc

Cd(OAc)2

In

Sn(OAc)2Sn(OAc)4

Sb(OAc)3

Te

IAc

Xe
CsOAc

Ba(OAc)2

*

Lu(OAc)3

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt(OAc)2

Au

Hg2(OAc)2,Hg(OAc)2

TlOAcTl(OAc)3

Pb(OAc)2Pb(OAc)4

Bi(OAc)3

Po

At

Rn
Fr

Ra

**

Lr

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

Cn

Nh

Fl

Mc

Lv

Ts

Og

 

*

La(OAc)3

Ce(OAc)x

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm(OAc)3

Eu(OAc)3

Gd(OAc)3

Tb

Dy(OAc)3

Ho(OAc)3

Er

Tm

Yb(OAc)3
**

Ac

Th

Pa

UO2(OAc)2

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lead(II)_acetate&oldid=1016914269”

The X-ray crystal structure of lead acetophthalate, Pb

The X-ray crystal structure of lead acetophthalate, Pb – EXPERIMENTAL LAP, empirical formula Pb(CH3COO)2~ 4[PbC6H4(COO)2], was produced as an instant white precipitate on mixing aqueous solutions of lead(II) acetate and boiled, hydrolysed phthalic anhydride (phthalic acid solution) at tem- peratures greater than 60. 5Pb(CH3 COO)2(aq) + 4C6 H4 (COOH)2(aqy4 Pb(CH3COO)2 . 4[PbC6H4 (COO)2](5) + 8CH3COOHPb(CH 3 COO) 2 + H 2 S = PbS + 2 CH 3 COOH Reaction type: double replacement. Reaction stoichiometry: Limiting reagent: Compound: Coefficient: Molar Mass: Moles: Weight: Pb(CH 3 COO) 2: 1: {2+} + I2; Substitute immutable groups in chemical compounds to avoid ambiguity. For instance equation C6H5C2H5 + O2 = C6H5OH + CO2 + H2O will not beA double replacement reaction will occur if a formation of a precipitate , gas or water takes place. Select two compounds above and this calculator will predict whether or not the reaction will occur in water.This is simply based on the solubility chart of inorganic compounds.

Balance Chemical Equation – Online Balancer – HI+Pb(CH3COO)2 net ionic equation? Answer Save. 2 Answers. Relevance. Anonymous. 9 years ago. Favorite Answer. first you have to solve for it. You've been given the reactant but you need to find the product and precipitate if there are any but by looking at acetate I don't think that it will. It will form PbI2 and acetic acid.››Pb(C2H3O2)2 molecular weight. Molar mass of Pb(C2H3O2)2 = 325.28804 g/mol This compound is also known as Lead(II) Acetate.. Convert grams Pb(C2H3O2)2 to moles or moles Pb(C2H3O2)2 to grams. Molecular weight calculation:Balance the reaction of Mg + Pb(CH3COO)2 = Pb + Mg(CH3COO)2 using this chemical equation balancer!

Balance Chemical Equation - Online Balancer

Double Replacement Reaction Calculator (Predictor) | Calistry – Lead(II) acetate, Pb(CH3COO)2, is a white crystalline material with a sweet taste and is also classified by one of the following trivial names: lead sugar, lead sugar, Saturn salt and Goulard powder, respectively. Lead acetate is water and glycerin soluble, and is toxic (like most lead compounds).Question: Is The Aqueous Solution Of Each Of These Salts Acidic Basic Or Neutral. A) Pb(CH3COO)2 B) Cr(NO2)3 C)CaIKI +Pb(CH3COO)2==>KCH3COO +PbI2 1 See answer worldtks is waiting for your help. Add your answer and earn points. SMR2422 SMR2422 2KI + Pb(CH3COO) 2 —-> 2K(CH3COO) +PbI2 New questions in Chemistry. वॉट इस दा मेअनींग ऑफ़ फ़क

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