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Which of the following is a characteristic of making good decisions?
acting impulsively
not following a decision-making process
overlooking the impact on others
carefully analyzing the decision

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Which of the following is a characteristic of making good decisions?
acting impulsively
not following a decision-making process
overlooking the impact on others
carefully analyzing the decision

Question and answer

Which of the following is a characteristic of making good decisions?
acting impulsively
not following a decision-making process
overlooking the impact on others
carefully analyzing the decision

The following is a characteristic of making good decisions: carefully analyzing the decision.

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The Importance Of The Decision Making Process | Everyday

The Importance Of The Decision Making Process | Everyday – The only way we can really know whether we have made a good decision or a bad decision is by making those decisions, taking responsibility for the results, and taking steps to correct any poorWhich of the following is a characteristic of making good decisions? A. acting impulsively B. not following a decision-making process C. overlooking the impact on othersOffers Suggestions and not Decisions: Marketing research is not a substitute for decision ­making process. Ready-made decisions on marketing problems are not provided by the researcher. Marketing research does not solve any marketing problems directly. It only aids management in decision making and problem solving process. 2.

Which of the following is a characteristic of making good – Making good decisions is a method that must be learned. It is not something with which we are innately born, but merely a step by step process that is usually ascertained from life experience. Most adults know that experience can be a costly, ineffective teacher that teaches more bad habits than good; and because decisions can vary so obviouslyManagers frequently make decisions without complete information; indeed, one of the hallmarks of an effective leader is the ability to determine when to hold off on a decision and gather more information, and when to make a decision with the information at hand.Q: Why do so many companies struggle when it comes to making great hires? A: They overlook the obvious. In other words, the people doing the hiring fail to understand, look for, and qualify the

Which of the following is a characteristic of making good

Marketing Research: Characteristics, Role & Advantages – User: Which of the following is a characteristic of making good decisions? A. acting impulsively B. not following a decision-making process C. overlooking the impact on others D. carefully analyzing the decision Weegy: A a characteristic of making good decisions is "carefully analyzing the decision". User: If you have high arches, _____. AParticipation: Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance.Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making.Carefully analyzing the decision is a characteristic of making good decisions. Correct D. The decision making process includes selection from a set of alternative courses of action, the one that is thought to fulfill the objectives and is believed to be more more satisfactorily than others.

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존잘 소개팅남 척추기립근을 만져본 큐티섹시 소개팅녀의 반응? (연상남 특집) | [육감소개팅] – EP.16 – [From drama – Pasta]
'Okay here are the orders' 'Today's special, one spaghetti alle vongole' 'one four flavored pasta' [(Disgusted)] [(Sigh…)] What is your identity? My identity is [Sixth Sense Blind Date] [Today's heroine] [Looking through her Instagram] [(Wow, an instagram goddess) / (Gorgeous)] [(She's insanely beautiful) / (She's my type)] [Self introduction]
Hello, my name is [(Model) / (Cool)]
Hyuna Yoo and I am working as a model [Hyuna Yoo (21)]
and I am 21 years old [Q.
Which sense is the most important to you?]
Hm the smell [(Good feelings)]
I get good feelings if the person has great scent [(What are you doing?) / (Do I smell?) / (I smell good)] [(Not paused) / (Are you wearing a perfume?) / (Yup)] [Q. What is your ideal type?]
My ideal type. [(Puppy boy)]
I like adorable guys with inner double eyelid. [(+ One spoonful of playfulness)]
Someone who's very playful. [Puppy boyfriend]
Jong-suk Lee. [(I am as tall as him) / (Jong-suk Lee?) / (Shit)] [(I'm also as tall as him) / (He has a great body!) / (Shit..)] [Q. How are you as a girlfriend?]
I have a lot of aegyo. [(Adorable younger sister)] [(Like this)]
I like hugging. [(I love that) / (She's already so cute)] [(We would make a good couple)] [(Time to appeal herself)]
What kind of music do you want? Yoncé Yoncé? [(Do you know that song?) / (No, you?) / (What are you looking at?)] [You must have a straight face] [Boom] [(So cute) / (She's charming)] [(Breathing..) / (Popping)] If you want to be the romantic guy, write 'romantic' if you want to be a trap, write 'trap' [For the guys]
[If the guy likes the woman, he choose to be the romantic guy]
[If he'd rather take the money, he can choose the money] [The woman has to use her six senses (intuition+five senses)]
[to find the romantic guy] [Who's the romantic guy?]
[Guess along] [(Looks around) / (I already chose) / (What should I do?)] [(Should I be the trap?) / (Or romantic?) / (She was very charming..)] [ROUND 1. Intuition] [(Stern)]
[Q. Do you have good intuitions?]
I get a feeling! When I first see someone [(Ooh) / (Confidence) / (Dang)] [(I wonder) / (If her senses are correct) / (Having a battle with the camera)] [Q. What is your intuitions today?]
I think [(Jong-suk Lee)]
I think my ideal man is here [(Jong-suk Lee?) / (Already?) / (I think she has bad intuitions)] [Guessing the guys]
[Number 1]
I think.. [(Fox-like face)]
I think he would look very sharp His personality would be.. [(It's hard to pronounce)]
He would be serious? [(Nope) / (Yup)] [Serious] [Number 2]
Number 2 would be [(I found my ideal guy]
my ideal guy [(Him?) / (Yes I am going to win~) / (Huh)]
Puppy-like face [Her ideal puppy-like guy] [Number 3]
Number 3 [(At least 180cm)]
would be very tall [(I'm screwed…)] [(Talkative)]
and hold the conversation? [(Is that true?) / (No)] [Tall, talkative guy] [Number 4]
Number 4 would be [Common guy wearing a long padded jacket]
A common guy wearing a long padded jacket? [(Straight face)]
I think he would be a bad boy [Bad boy] [Number 5]
Number 5 would be [(Just normal)]
An old business man? [(Dies laughing) / (Me?) / (It's exactly you)] [Producer is curious]
How old is 'old'? [(26 = old)]
About 26? [(Angry)]
26 is old? [And go where? LOL]
I almost left [Calm down]
[Calm down 31 year old producer] [Last person]
I think the last person would be an actor? [(Expecting a handsome guy)]
He would be handsome [(Oh~ Yeah no) / (Am I an actor?)] [Handsome actor type] [Q. Who is the best person based on your intuition?] [(Quick answer)]
Number 2 [(Yes~)] [(You are jealous, right?)] [(He's the best?)] [Q. Who is the worst?]
Number 1 [(Just don't like him)]
I just don't like number 1 (Oh no) / (Oh no what do I do?)] [(I'm screwed) / (He's going to get eliminated) / (He's screwed)] [Just bad] [ROUND 2. Hearing] [Q. Do you have a type of voice that you dislike?]
I don't like low voices [(Strict type]
I don't like it if it's too low [(What are you doing?) / (Do re mi fa sol~)] [She's not reading a script]
[Q. Is there something you want to hear?]
I hope they appeal their best qualities. [Revealing the voice]
[Number 1]
Number 1 [Yay]
Yes hello I am number 1 [(A ready man)]
do you like impressions? [That guy from Parasite]
Sun-Gyun Lee voice impression [(Already got the vibe)]
I knew it, Sun-Gyun Lee [From drama – Pasta]
Okay here are the orders 'Today's special, one spaghetti alle vongole' 'One four flavored pasta' [(Ooh sounds similar)]
'Hurry up, what are you doing?' [(So fun)] [(If he does that before my turn) / (What am I going to do..?)] [(That was nice)]
I think we will be very compatible [(Suddenly reflecting)]
I shouldn't have said that [(Thank you Sun-Gyun Lee) / (That was quite impressive)]
That was nice. [Number 2]
Number 2 Hello [(Kinda into him?)]
I am number 2 My hobby is taking pictures [(He's going to get edited out) / (So boring)]
at a pretty cafe or a place [AKA Mr. Boring] [(Nothing to say)]
I think he would be very quiet [(Number 3]
Number 3 [(Fine voice)]
Hello I am number 3 [(Can feel the) / (boring vibes)]
Uh… my good qualities are I wasn't prepared for this question [(Editor's point of view) / What are we going to do with this atmosphere…] He didn't prepare what his good qualities so [(Nothing to say)]
I have nothing to say [(Sigh…)]
Mr. Boring 2 [Number 4]
Number 4 [(Is this one going to be interesting?]
Hello I am number 4 [(He's boring)]
I also like taking pictures at a cafe [(Why are today's contestants so boring?)]
I work out hard [(That's pretty plain)]
that's how I live I won't give you a long speech [(What is this?)]
Why won't you give me a long speech? I don't think I need to explain myself [(It's me)]
I have confidence [(What is this guy?]
Oh really? You have confidence? [(Yeah bye) / (Confidence to lose?)] He's very cold [(She actually got hurt)]
I was kind of hurt [(He's definitely going to get dropped) / (That's crazy) / (Okay we got rid of one)]
it sounded like he doesn't like me so [(Screwed) / (So cold) / (Too bad)]
I was hurt [Number 5]
Number 5 [(Kind of lost confidence)]
Yes hello I am number 5 I am going to do a voice impression [(Show from our childhood)]
Do you know Pingu? Pingu? When Pingu gets mad at his dad I will try. [(Pingu)]
[For those of you who don't know] Cue! [(Wow that sounds exactly the same)] [(Suddenly calms down]
Yeah, and then this is [Pingu's dad]
what the dad says after. [Found his niche] He sounds very playful [(Nice voice)]
And his voice was exactly my type [(Uninterested) / (Oh yes!) / (Uninterested22)] [Number 6]
Number 6 [(Is this Jjak??)]
Hello I am man number 6 [(He is funny)] [(That is so funny)] [(Should I dance?)]
Since you danced, should I dance, too? [(I'll take Yoncé) / (And go double)]
Since you danced to Yoncé, should I dance to Yoncé too? [(Surprised)]
Really? Like a freestyle? [His joints are moving separately] [It looks like a very fancy floor cleaning] [Number 6's surprising dance skills] [(Wow) / (This is crazy) / (This is amazing)] [(He's quite good!) / (That's so cool) / (Proud)] [(She couldn't see it)]
Oh I want to see it, too [(You are curious right?)]
Right? [(Very curious)]
Yes. [(Don't eliminate me)]
Then you can't eliminate me [(Ooh) / (That was a) / (Cool line)] [(You are the best) (Thanks thanks)]
[They forgot it was a competition for a second] [Q. Best hearing?]
But the person I get a strong vibe from is number 1 [(She got a feeling)]
I can feel it [(Yay)] [(Reality check)] [Choose the first dropout]
Which one do you want to eliminate? [Round 2] [The dropout is] [Who is it~~??] [(Cold number 4)]
Number 4! [(I got eliminated..) / (I thought I was number 4) / (Blank…)] [(Both of you should go) / (I thought it would be you too) / (I thought I lost)] [Revealing the dropout] Hello [(Looks at least 2M tall)]
[(Producers are shocked)]
Wow he's really tall [(He's really tall..)] Hello [ Sang-yeop Bong (23) ]
[Man with unreasonable confidence]
I am 23 years old college student [ Sang-yeop Bong (23) ]
[Man with unreasonable confidence]
I was a basketball player 2 years ago [ Sang-yeop Bong (23) ]
[Man with unreasonable confidence]
I was a basketball player 2 years ago and currently I'm just a college student. Why did you let me go? [(do you really no know?)]
Because you were too cold and stiff [(oh~)]
Really? That's too bad. Do you regret it? [(you're too tall)]
I don' like someone who's too tall [(you're cute) / (yes!!!!!)] What is your identity? [what's #4's] [identity?] [he was the trap guy] [(got ya)]
Oh~ [got you, trap guy!]
What a relief. [results of round 2] [trap guy] [ROUND 3. taste] [Q. what's your favorite food?]
[(rose) / (pasta)]
I liks rose pasta. [(my mouth is watering) / (I'm hungry)] [no. 1]
[food no. 1 is here] My favorite food is [Everyone's favorite]
pizza. [(nom)] [(chew)] [(it's good)]
It's good. [(it's looks good)] [(I'm hungry) / (so what)] [(how is it?)]
How do you like it? It's good. [(I like pizza)]
I like pizza. Now that I see her eat pizza [(what are you talking about)]
I feel full as well. [this is permanently here now] [I'm hungry] I think he's nice and we'll get along well [(is he a trap guy?)]
I'll be devastated if he's a trap. [(not telling you) / (are you a trap?)] [(what do you think?) / (I think he's a trap)] [no. 2]
[food no. 2 is here] My favorite food is [complete sweetness]
[choco cake]
Chocolate cake. [(nom-)] [(!!!it's so good!!!)] [(it's good, right?)]
How is it? It's so good. I really like going to cafes [busy eating] [can't hear you] [(back on track)]
I think he's skinny. [(let's see)]
He said he doesn't eat much. [(why are you touching me) / oh / (what are you doing)] [no. 3]
[food no. 3 is here]
My favorite food is [an unexpected pair]
[(soju) / (pork cutlet)]
Pork cutlet with soju. [(ew no)]
Why these two? [(i want to know) / (too)]
I personally like pork cutlets. [(so nervous)]
I get nervous a lot too [(this is for you) / (oh my)]
I prepared this so you could be less nervous as well. [(how sweet)] [(wow…) / (that was smooth)] [(liking it)]
I really like drinking. [(cheers)]
[how you drink during covid 19(?)] [drinking it all in one go~!] [(takes a bite of the pork cutlet)] [(an unexpected great pair)]
These two go well together. How much do you drink? About 3 and a half bottles. [(oh) / (he's a good drinker)]
Oh, you're good. [(that's impressive) / (I drink that much too)] [(unique person)]
He has a unique taste. I've never tired soju with pork cutlet before but it's good. [(whatever) / (watch and learn)] [no. 5]
[food no. 5 is here] My favorite food is [a regular]
Sushi. I love it. [(knows what she wants)]
[(salmon sushi) / (soy shrimp sushi)] [(I'm) / (so) / (hungry)] [(takes a bite of salmon)] [(how is it?)]
How do you like it? [(Of course)]
It's so good. Since you like Japanese food [(Japanese food = anime)]
I think you'd watch anime as well? [(an otaku) / (that's him)] [nico nico ni~] [no. 6]
[food no. 6 is here]My favorite food is [spicy]
[chicken feet]
Chicken feet. [(what do you think?)]
Do you like them? [(yes)]
I do. [(is it spicy?)]
Is this spicy? Yeah. [(not good at eating spicy food)]
I'm not good at eating spicy food. [(uh oh) / (he's the one going) / (trying not to laugh)] [(bye) / (sigh)] [(is it spicy?)] [(a twist)]
It's so good. [(what a relief)] Do you like rice balls? [omg / (going for it)]
Would you like to go for a glass of soju with rice balls? I'll add the chicken feet as toppings [a great match]
on you rice balls. [(sounds good)]
Sure. [Q. what did you like best?]
I loved the cake. It was so sweet and soft [(the best cake ever)]
It's the best cake I had in my life. [so good]
It was that good? [(not sponsored)]
It was from empty. [(smart makes good cakes)] [choosing who leaves]
Who'll leave round 3? [who will be] [the person] [going home?] [(guy no. 5)]
Sushi guy. [(sigh…) / (bye)]
I think he's going to be a trap. [( think again)]
When we were taking a break I saw scrolling through your Instagram feed [ (wow) / (I'm innocent) ]
I saw your name… [(name: Hyuna Yoo)]
What's my name? Hanna? [(nope)]
Nope. [(bye)]
I'll go with 5. [(Time to show his face)] Hi. [ Hyung-yeol Yoon (27) ]
[ Talked a lot earlier ]
I'm 27 and I live in Seoul. How do I look in person? You look like Ji Soo, the actor! [(Ji Soo) / (Silence)]
Oh really… [(Has no idea because she didn't see the news)]
Why..? It's might get controversial. Who are you? I'm…. what do you think? [(not confident)]
A trap. I'm the romantic guy. Oh shit. [(He was the romantic guy) / (oh no)] [results of round 3]
[trap guy] [Romantic guy] [ROUND 4. scent] [Q. what scent do you like?]
Rather than something artificial like perfume [(laundry) / (fabric softener)]
I like the smell of fresh laundry and fabric softener. [(sniff) / (do I smell?)] [(sniffs)]
[he looks lonely] [no. 1]
[guy no. 1's turn] [(sniff)]
He totally [(smell of laundry)]
smells the way I like. He smells like warm covers. [(satisfied)] [(lucky you…)] [no. 2]
[guy no. 2's turn] [heart is pounding] [(dissapointed)]
He doesn't smell like fresh laundry. [(again)]
Oh? But I can smell it on this side. [(typical smell)]
A scent you can get in Olive Young. [smells like Olive Young] [no. 3]
[guy no. 3's turn] [(stiff)] [(normal)]
He has a mature smell. I think he's quiet person. [smells like a quiet person] [no. 6]
[guy no. 6's turn] [(nope)]
He just smells like flesh. [(smells like nothing)]
Did you wear perfume? I did. Really? [(a familiar scent)]
It's a scent I have at home. [in their own world]
Is it the round cap? Yeah, you open it like this. Yeah yeah. [perfume friends] [Q. what scent did you like best?]
No. 1!!!!!!! Guy no. 1. [(the perfect scent)]
He smelled like fabric softener and I liked it. I think it might be body mist as well. [(satisfied)]
I really liked it. [who's going home?]
Who's going home? [ROUND 4] Who will it be? [(Bye, guy no. 6)]
No. 6. [(I'm the romantist)]
I'm the romantist, if you send me like this [(you'll regret it)] [(no. 3)]
You know the soju pork cutlet guy? [(who are you?)]
Between him and this guy I think one of them is a trap guy. [(I'm not)]
Why do you think I'm a trap? [(I can just feel it)] [(trust me)] Okay then. [(Gullible)]
I'll go with soju and pork cutlet guy. [(what) / (this is scary)] [Tee-hee] [Time to show his face] [Time to show his face] Hello [ Jaehyun Jang (27) ]
[Port cutlet soju guy]
I am 27 years old and I live in Daejeon. I own a cafe [(Why me, suddenly?]
Why did you eliminate me? [(Talks without taking a breathe)]
You weren't very initiative so I thought you weren't interested in me so I thought you were the trap [(Kind of upset)]
Mm… Do I look like what you expected? [(Nope)]
No it's different. I thought you would have small features but (Your eyes, nose. lips) are very prominent [(Satisfied)]
You are handsome [Makes up dramatically] [(Good) / (I'm glad they made up)]
[Audience mode] What is your identity? I am the trap [(I compliment myself)]
Oh thank you [Result of Round 4]
[Trap / Pure] [Trap] [ROUND 5. Touch] [Q. How many pure men do you think are left?]
Two? [(How many) / (romantic guys)] [(are there?)] [Q. What is your favorite physical affection?]
Kissing [(Shy) / (Shy22)] Then how do you feel when you kiss what touch… I mean [PD stuttering] [Calm down] [No. 1]
[Time for no. 1] [Moves her hands] [(Shy)] [(This is so cringy)] [He is not getting a physical exam] He has broad shoulders and his arms are very firm [(Shy)]
so I think he is masculine. [(Shyness overload)]
He has a great body Do you workout? [(He swims)]
I swim [(That explains it)]
Oh that's why your shoulders are broad [(I found my love)]
My ideal type [(Producer is curious)]
Why so sudden? What do you call this part? [(This)]
In the back, that goes in Erector spinae muscles? [(I like erector spinae muscles)]
I like men who has that muscle [(Erector spinae muscles)]
It's so sexy when people have that muscle [Raise your hand if you just touched your back] [No. 2]
[Guy no. 2's turn] [(Pat pat)]
Oh my [(Thorough)]
[This is not a physical exam22] Hm~ [(I have erector spinae muscles, too)]
I have that muscle, too [(Checking the spine of the guy no. 2, too)]
Oh?! He has that oo [(Were you jealous? LOL)]
[Why are you laughing at him LOL] He is very quiet [(Sometimes funny)]
but he is sometimes funny [Intermittently funny] [No. 3]
[Guy no. 3's turn] [Hugs~] [(Pit-a-pat)] You should touch my back too [It's like a spinal cord exam] [(You did that too LOL) / What is he doing LOL)] [(Average body)]
He has an average body My ideal body type! [(Somewhat satisfied-)]
[Average body] [Choose the dropout] [2 will be eliminated this round]
One person will proceed to the final round The third place goes to [Who will lose in third place] [in ROUND 5?] [Who is going to be eliminated~~?] [(Bye No. 2)]
No. 2 [No. 2 is eliminated at ROUND 5!] The second place goes to [(No. 6)]
The last person He has my ideal body type but [(Already chose her winner in her heart)]
I liked No.1 from the start [(Proud)] [Time to show his face] Hello [ Hongjae Lee (26)]
[Today's reaction prince]
26 year old college student I am Hongjae Lee Do I look similar to what you thought? [(His face is on the verge of disappearance)]
You have a smaller head than I thought [Model proportions)]
You have a great proportion… What is your identity? My identity is….. [What is no. 2's] [identity?] [He was a trap] [(Oh yay)]
[I got you! Trap!] [Revealing no. 6's identity] Hello [ Hyungrae Kim (29) ]
[Unexpected dance machine]
I am a nurse that is working at a university hospital in Seoul [(Spoilers)]
I think you'll be shocked when this is over I think I know why It's because no. 1 is a trap, right? [No no no no no)]
No [(Shut up..)] [(Anxious)]
Then why? What is your identity? I am…. [Your identity is?] a romantic guy. [(Shocked)]
[Second romantic man gets eliminated] [Result of ROUND 5]
[Trap / Romantic / Trap] [Trap / Romantic] [ROUND 6] [Q. Guess no. 1's identity]
I think he's a trap judging from his reaction [(Anxious)]
I am so anxious [(Guess)]
[What is no. 1's identity?] [The girl will look at the boy]
[Final decision] [If the man is pure]
[Match success] [If the man is a trap]
[He will take the girl's money] One Two Three!! Hello [Changyeong Choi (27)]
[They guy with sexy erector spinae muscles]
I am working for a company and I swim as a hobby I am trying to do many activities lately Thank you for picking me [(Fell in love)]
You are very pretty in person [(Happy)]
You look better in person [(Interrogating)]
Why did you participate in this? [(He was lonely)]
I wanted to find a girlfriend [(Is he being honest?)] [(I am honest)]
But you looked so pretty in the pictures [(Debating)]
and I actually got interested [(I am a pure guy)]
so I chose pure Oh if you are lying… [(I'll kill you)]
I'm going to kill you if you are lying [(Unreadable smile)] [(Look at my eyes)]
You are not lying, right? [(Mysterious)] Are you? [(He is suspicious)]
His facial expressions are [(Nervous)]
No no, you kept asking me so [(I'll give you a last chance)]
do you have something to say? You are going to regret it I will just say this [(What? What is that confidence?)]
Really? Oh what do I do.. [(Debating…)] [Time for the final decision] I will… Not pick you [No. 1 is eliminated] What is your identity? My identity is [What is] [the identity] [of the guy no. 1?] A trap Oh!! Nice!!! [(You have a great intuition)]
[Succeeded at finding the trap!]
I won (Too bad..)] [Q. Why did you choose trap?] I don't really like ____. [Q. Was the guy no. 1 like what you expected?] No, he was different. I thought he would be ____ but he wasn't. [If you are curious about the behind the scenes, click!] .

Decision Making For Positive Outcomes – .

Making Decisions Without a Brain – Moments ago, you made a decision to click
on this video.
Maybe YouTube has been gently poking you with
suggestions to watch this. Or maybe it’s part of your routine. Whatever the reason, we hope the decision
was an easy one to make. But even if the decision was easy, the steps
it took to execute that choice, the information you needed to gather, were not simple. From reading the title to physically clicking
the link to settling back into a comfortable position, your body had to coordinate a ton
of processes using chemical and electrical signals to quickly send instructions all over
the place. These signals are rooted in your nervous system,
a reflection of your multicellular complexity. Life in the microcosmos comes with its own
choices though. And while they may not have to coordinate
multiple limbs, single-celled eukaryotes, or protists, still have decisions to make. They've got places to be, things to do–and
they don't have a brain to help them. All they've got is the one cell to deal with
all of life's complications. Microbiologists have been fascinated by the
way protists respond to their environment for more than a century. And so naturally, that has led some scientists
to try and provoke a response, like James–our master of microscopes–using a piece of hair
to poke these stentors. In 1906, a zoologist named Herbert Spencer
Jennings published Behavior of the Lower Organisms, a 366 page book containing sections with titles
like "The Daily Life of Paramecium" and "Reactions of Infusoria to the Electrical Current". Nestled among descriptions of the many organisms
and behaviors he observed was a section documenting the way stentors responded when he injected
carmine into the water around them. Carmine is a red dye and apparently it’s
something that Stentors don’t like very much. Like our stentors, the subjects of Jennings'
experiment did not particularly revel in this irritant. In our case, you can see the stentors trying
to act like everything is normal. But with repeated poking, they start to contract,
evading the troublesome hair but also missing out on opportunities to gather passing food. They stay contracted for a short period, but
eventually they emerge and extend back to their original length. In Jennings' case, the stentors also attempted
to ride out this irritant. But when that failed, those organisms then
began to contort and twist to the side. And in that way, the stentors could attempt
to evade the carmine while still focusing on what's truly important: food. This avoidance reaction is a common one among
protists. In the same text, Jennings describes the tendency
of some organisms to avoid light, similar to this trachelophyllum here. Those changes in brightness that you see are
coming from the microscope as the diaphragm on the condenser opens up, allowing more light
to enter the slide. As the slide quickly gets brighter, you can
see the trachelophyllum trying to swim away. This organism isn't that well-studied, so
we don't know exactly why it's trying to avoid the light. Some microbes definitely seek out dark areas
to avoid predators, so that's a possible explanation. The light itself may also be harmful to the
organism. Whatever the reason, this trachelophyllum
isn't alone among protists. One of Stentor coeruleus' many compelling
traits is its photosensitivity. Inside its unicellular, trumpet-shaped body
are photosensitive pigment granules called stentorin that, in the presence of light,
drive electrical changes in the plasma membrane and reverse the movements of its cilia, transporting
the organism away. Of course, there are also protists that seek
out light, like the photosynthetic Euglena that rely on sunlight to make their food. Even then, there are subtleties in their response,
which Jennings observed and described. While the Euglena in his experiments sought
out light as expected, if the light was too strong or brought on too suddenly, the euglena
sought shadier refuge. Another protist that captured Jennings' attention
was the paramecium, that seemingly simple organism that has captivated many scientists
because of its hidden complexities. Here, you can see the paramecium on this slide
in their own series of avoidance reactions. And the main thing they seem to be trying
to avoid is each other. That might sound fairly familiar to some of
us these days. As they navigate the crowd, you can see the
paramecium actually turn around, which is coordinated by the movement of their cilia. By changing the direction that the cilia move
in, the organism is able to reverse their direction. They can also spin, turn, or just come to
a stop. If they do a number of these reactions in
quick succession, the paramecium can even swim backwards. These movements are a joy to watch, and it
is astounding to consider how a unicellular organism is able to change its behavior based
on its surroundings. But Jennings' findings extended beyond just
the notion that an organism will react to its surroundings. As he continued to prod his stentors with
carmine powder, he noticed that the organism began to explore other strategies to deal
with the irritant. When avoiding the carmine failed to stop the
provocation, the organism would temporarily reverse the movement of its cilia, driving
the water current away from the stentor so it could essentially "spit" water out of its
mouth. And when that didn't work, the stentor tried
to contract away from the stimulus. And when that didn't work, well, then the
stentor just up and left, detaching themselves from their substrate and swimming away in
search of a quieter, less carmine-filled home. There's a pretty key implication to Jennings'
observations here: the stentors he observed didn't just react to stimulus, they worked
through a hierarchy of possible responses. Think of it the way a cat deals with the common
irritant of a loving human who wants to cuddle: they start with simple evasion tactics, but
they might then escalate to swiping and hissing before just picking up and running to a corner
where they can't be bothered. In the case of Jennings' stentors, which fortunately
did not have sharp claws, there seemed to be a ranked preference to the measures they
were going to take. There was just one problem with Jennings'
results: no one could replicate them. And so for more than a century, his observations
were set aside until a scientist named Jeremy Gunawardena decided to dig deeper and found
that these follow-up studies used a different Stentor species than Jennings had used. When Gunawardena and his team gathered the
original species, Stentor roeselii, they found that their subjects exhibited those same behaviors. Interestingly though, different specimens
of the same species seemed to have their own ranked preferences. Some might only contract, while others would
perform a mix of bending and cilia-reversal. We think the stentors we've been poking here
are Stentor roeselii. And if they are, they seem to have preferred
the contraction approach themselves, until they gave in and swam away. For the past few minutes, we've been following
one of them as it tries to find a new home, brushing up against possible substrates with
its oral cilia. We think this is part of their inspection
process, and if they don't like what they feel, they swim backwards and away. This little guy has tried a few locations,
but here, it seems to have found something intriguing. Even as other stentors come in and interfere,
this one persists, returning to inspect its newfound spot again and again like it’s
about to make an expensive purchase. And when it's satisfied with its decision,
the stentor releases an adhesive substance and moves in, ready to eat until the next
decision needs to be made. And if that isn’t life, I don’t know what
is. It is remarkable to think that just choosing
the wrong species of Stentor can give such different results, that decision-making–even
for the simplest of organisms–is such a complicated endeavor for us to untangle. We're still only at the early stages of understanding
what these actions and reactions require from different organisms, and for some, it is likely
to be much simpler than for others. What's most remarkable, as always seems the
case with the microcosmos, is just how many ways there are to do anything at all. Thank you for coming on this journey with
us as we explore the unseen world that surrounds us. If you liked it, the people on screen now
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